1Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences,University of Alberta,Edmonton,Alberta,Canada.
Background: Pharmacists have become an integral member of the multidisciplinary team providing clinical patient care in various healthcare settings. Although evidence supporting their role in the care of patients with other disease states is well-established, minimal literature has been published evaluating pharmacist interventions in stroke patients. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence evaluating the impact of pharmacist interventions on stroke patient outcomes. Read More
a Neural Engineering and Therapeutic Team , Lyndhurst Centre, UHN-Toronto Rehabilitation , Toronto , ON , Canada.
Context: Individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) are susceptible to central and visceral obesity and it's metabolic consequences; consensus based guidelines for obesity management after SCI have not yet been stablished.
Objectives: To identify and compare effective means of obesity management among SCI individuals.
Methods: This systematic review included English and non-English articles, published prior to April 2017 found in the PubMed/Medline, Embase, CINAHL Psychinfo and Cochrane databases. Read More
President, World Association for Stress Related and Anxiety Disorders e.V. (WASAD), Klinik und Poliklinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Klinische Neurochemie, Universität Würzburg, Füchsleinstr. 15, 97080, Würzburg, Germany.
This article was originally published with the wrong title. The correct title is: Abstracts of the WASAD Congress 2017, in conjunction with the Collaborative Research Centers SFB-TRR 58, Fear, Anxiety, Anxiety Disorders 14-16 September, Würzburg, Germany. Read More
The Pediatric Specialty Clinic, Overland Park Regional Medical Center, Overland Park, KS 66215, USA.
Brugada syndrome (BrS) is an autosomal dominant inherited channelopathy. It is associated with a typical pattern of ST-segment elevation in the precordial leads V1-V3 and potentially lethal ventricular arrhythmias in otherwise healthy patients. It is frequently seen in young Asian males, in whom it has previously been described as sudden unexplained nocturnal death syndrome. Read More
One-way speaking valves have been successfully used to restore audible meaningful speech in adult patients after tracheostomy tube placement. One-way speaking valves have also been used in pediatric patients after tracheostomy tube placement with promising results. We conducted a scoping review to synthesize and summarize the current evidence on the use of one-way tracheostomy tube speaking valves in the pediatric population to identify knowledge gaps that could inform future research programs and facilitate evidence-based clinical decision making. Read More
Objectives: To review current knowledge concerning the application of colour science on tooth colour and whiteness description, measurement, distribution and its psychological impact.
Data Sources: "Scopus" databases were searched electronically with the principal keywords tooth, teeth, colour, white, whiteness. Language was restricted to English and original studies and reviews were included. Read More
Faculty of nutrition, Federal University of Alagoas (UFAL), Avenue Lourival Melo Mota, Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil. Electronic address:
Curcuminoids have received considerable attention as therapeutical adjuvants in the treatment of dysglycemia. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate whether the supplementation of turmeric extract, curcuminoids and/or isolated curcumin is more effective than placebo in decreasing fasting blood glucose (FBG) in adults. MEDLINE, CENTRAL, ScienceDirect and gray literature databases were searched. Read More
Grupo de Trabajo en Epidemiología, Sociedad Argentina de Hipertensión Arterial, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Introduction And Aim: Metabolic syndrome (MS) comprises a set of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Argentina has numerous epidemiological studies on MS, however, there has been no systematic analysis of the prevalence of MS in our population. To estimate the prevalence of MS in the Argentine Republic, a systematic review of observational studies published during the period 1988-2014 was carried out. Read More
Sorbonne Paris Cité Epidemiology and Statistics Research Centre (CRESS), Inserm U1153, Inra U1125, Cnam, Nutritional Epidemiology Research Team (EREN), Bobigny, France; French Network on Nutrition and Cancer Research (NACRe Network) , France. Electronic address:
Purpose: Individuals with family history of colorectal cancer are at higher risk of colorectal cancer than the general population. Until now, guidelines for familial colorectal cancer risk have only pointed at early diagnosis efforts via screening tests and surveillance, and payed scarce or no attention to lowering exposure to modifiable risk factors, notably nutritional factors.
Methods: We conducted a systematic review of epidemiological studies investigating the associations between nutritional factors, family history of colorectal cancer, and colorectal cancer risk. Read More
BMC Oral Health 2017 Sep 19;17(1):124. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
Department of Prosthodontics & Dental Materials, School of Dental Medicine, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.
Background: The continuous development in dental processing ensures new opportunities in the field of fixed prosthodontics in a complete virtual environment without any physical model situations. The aim was to compare fully digitalized workflows to conventional and/or mixed analog-digital workflows for the treatment with tooth-borne or implant-supported fixed reconstructions.
Methods: A PICO strategy was executed using an electronic (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar) plus manual search up to 2016-09-16 focusing on RCTs investigating complete digital workflows in fixed prosthodontics with regard to economics or esthetics or patient-centered outcomes with or without follow-up or survival/success rate analysis as well as complication assessment of at least 1 year under function. Read More
Augmented renal clearance (ARC) is a manifestation of enhanced renal function seen in critically ill patients. The use of regular unadjusted doses of renally eliminated drugs in patients with ARC might lead to therapy failure. The purpose of this scoping review was to provide and up-to-date summary of the available evidence pertaining to the phenomenon of ARC. Read More
Curr Med Res Opin 2009 Dec 27;25(2):527-534. Epub 2009 Jan 27.
a Université Paris 6, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Inserm U 894, Service de Pharmacologie, Paris, France; Present address: Columbia University Medical Center, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY, USA.
Background: Cardiovascular, pulmonary, and oncological hazards of tobacco smoking have been well studied. Smoking may also have multiple effects on endocrine and metabolic systems affecting pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands; testicular and ovarian function; as well as energy balance; lipid, and glucose metabolism; and insulin resistance. Less is known about hormonal and metabolic effects that patients may experience while quitting smoking. Read More
Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Journals fill several important roles within academic medicine, including building knowledge, validating quality of methods, and communicating research. This section provides an overview of these roles and highlights innovative approaches journals have taken to enhance dissemination of research. As journals move away from print formats and embrace web-based content, design-centered thinking will allow for engagement of a larger audience. Read More
Bone Joint Res 2017 Sep 18;6(9):542-549. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
Imperial College London, The MSk Lab, Imperial College London, Charing Cross Hospital, London W6 8RF, UK
Objectives: Microindentation has the potential to measure the stiffness of an individual patient's bone. Bone stiffness plays a crucial role in the press-fit stability of orthopaedic implants. Arming surgeons with accurate bone stiffness information may reduce surgical complications including periprosthetic fractures. Read More
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Purpose: To review the published literature on the safety and outcomes of Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) for the surgical treatment of corneal endothelial dysfunction.
Methods: Literature searches were last conducted in the PubMed and the Cochrane Library databases most recently in May 2017. The searches, which were limited to English-language abstracts, yielded 1085 articles. Read More
Background: Despite sub-Saharan Africa [SSA] constituting just 12% of the world's population, the region has the highest burden of HIV with 70% of HIV infection in general and 80% of new infections among young people occuring in the region. Diverse intervention programmes have been implemented among young people but with minimal translation to behavior change. A systematic review of Behavior Change Interventions [BCI] targeting adolescents in SSA was therefore conducted with the objective of delineating this intervention vis-a-vis efficacy gap. Read More
Division of Medical Oncology, University of Toronto and Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Canada; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; Department of Medical Oncology, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia; Research Unit, Albacete University Hospital, Albacete, Spain; Translational Oncology Laboratory, Regional Center for Biomedical Research, Castilla La Mancha University, Albacete, Spain.
Background: A number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have reported improvement in breast cancer outcomes from extending treatment with aromatase inhibitors (AIs) beyond the initial five years after diagnosis. However, the toxicity profile of extended AIs is uncertain.
Methods: We identified RCTs that compared extended AIs to placebo or no treatment using MEDLINE and a review of abstracts from key conferences between 2013 and 2016. Read More
Background: Patients with longstanding ulcerative colitis and colonic Crohn's disease have an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) compared with the general population. This review assessed the evidence that endoscopic surveillance may prolong life by allowing earlier detection of CRC or its pre-cursor lesion, dysplasia, in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of cancer surveillance programs for diagnosis of IBD-associated colorectal cancer and in reducing the mortality rate from colorectal cancer in patients with IBD. Read More
Background: Needle syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy for preventing hepatitis C transmission in people who inject drugsNeedle syringe programmes (NSP) and opioid substitution therapy (OST) are the primary interventions to reduce hepatitis C (HCV) transmission in people who inject drugs. There is good evidence for the effectiveness of NSP and OST in reducing injecting risk behaviour and increasing evidence for the effectiveness of OST and NSP in reducing HIV acquisition risk, but the evidence on the effectiveness of NSP and OST for preventing HCV acquisition is weak.
Objectives: To assess the effects of needle syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy, alone or in combination, for preventing acquisition of HCV in people who inject drugs. Read More
J Interprof Care 2017 Sep 18:1-10. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
a School of Nursing , University of British Columbia-Okanagan Campus , Kelowna , British Columbia , Canada.
To prepare new graduates with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes to engage in effective interprofessional collaboration (IPC) in practice, healthcare professional programmes need to ensure their curriculum provides opportunities for interprofessional education (IPE) and IPC. To strengthen IPE within an undergraduate curriculum and meet the professional requirements set out by regulatory bodies to prepare new graduate nurses to achieve IPC competencies, a curriculum initiative was developed to expand IPE across the four years of the Baccalaureate of Science in Nursing (BSN) programme. The purpose of this scoping review was to identify published teaching-learning activities in undergraduate nursing programmes to inform the development and integration of IPE curricula. Read More
Cephalalgia 2017 Jan 1:333102417731348. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
2 On behalf of the CHESS team; Warwick Clinical Trials Unit, Warwick Medical School, The 2707 University of Warwick , Gibbet Hill, Coventry, UK.
Aims To critically appraise, compare and synthesise the quality and acceptability of multi-item patient reported outcome measures for adults with chronic or episodic headache. Methods Systematic literature searches of major databases (1980-2016) to identify published evidence of PROM measurement and practical properties. Data on study quality (COSMIN), measurement and practical properties per measure were extracted and assessed against accepted standards to inform an evidence synthesis. Read More
Oncoimmunology 2017 28;6(8):e1338997. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
Center for Personalized Cancer Therapy and Division of Hematology and Oncology, UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center, San Diego, CA, USA.
Immunotherapy combinations are used to improve outcomes in metastatic cancer, but evidence-based knowledge of appropriate starting doses for novel combinations is lacking. Phase I-III adult combination clinical trials (≥ 1 drug was immunotherapy; anti-PD-1, PD-L1, or CTLA-4) were reviewed (PubMed Jan 1, 2010 to Sep 1, 2016; ASCO 2014-2016, ASH/ESMO 2014-2015 abstracts). The safe dose for each drug used in each combination was divided by the single-agent recommended dose to calculate dose percentage. Read More
School of Health and Sports Sciences, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sunshine Coast, QLD, Australia.
Background: Guidelines for patient blood management recommend restrictive transfusion practice for most adult patients. These guidelines are supported by evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs); however, one of the patient groups not explicitly examined in these studies is the geriatric population. We examined RCTs relevant to transfusion outcomes in older patients. Read More