122,543 results match your criteria Absence Seizures


SARS-CoV-2 Infection Leads to Neurological Dysfunction.

J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2020 May 23. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, 68198, USA.

A number of neurological disease complications have been seen following infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). While most person with COVID-19 respiratory disease demonstrate headache, nausea and vomiting, up to 40% present also experience dizziness, confusion, cerebrovascular disease, muscle pain, ataxia and seizures. Loss of taste and smell, defects in visual acuity and pain occur in parallel. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11481-020-09924-9DOI Listing

Mental disorders in patients with epilepsy.

Psychiatr Pol 2020 Feb 29;54(1):51-68. Epub 2020 Feb 29.

Uniwersytet Medyczny we Wrocławiu, Katedra i Klinika Neurologii.

Mental disorders occur in patients with epilepsy significantly more frequently than in the general population or in those with other chronic diseases. The specificity of epilepsy as a condition of the central nervous system with complex somatic, psychic and social consequences contributes to co-occurrence of these disorders. Moreover, common patomechanisms are suggested for epilepsy and mental disorders, associated with disturbances of bioelectrical activity and neurotransmission in certain areas of the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12740/PP/93886DOI Listing
February 2020

Predictors of drug-resistance in epilepsy with auditory features.

Epilepsy Res 2020 May 11;164:106353. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Neurology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 37 Guoxue Road, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate predictors of drug-resistance in epilepsy with auditory features (EAF).

Methods: Drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) was defined according to International League Against Epilepsy guidelines. For univariate analysis, the chi-squared, Fisher's exact, and Mann-Whitney test were used. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2020.106353DOI Listing

Changing characteristics of epilepsy interventional clinical trials over the last decade: Clinicaltrials.Gov registry.

Epilepsy Res 2020 May 11;164:106350. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Neurology, UT Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio 78229-7883, TX, USA; South Texas Comprehensive Epilepsy Center, UT Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Introduction: Epilepsy affects about 1% of the world's population (over 50 million). Of these, one-third have refractory or medication-resistant epilepsy. This group of people drives the development and testing of new interventions for epilepsy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2020.106350DOI Listing

The efficacy of perampanel as adjunctive therapy in drug-resistant focal epilepsy in a "real world" context: focus on temporal lobe epilepsy.

J Neurol Sci 2020 May 15;415:116903. Epub 2020 May 15.

Institute of Neurology, University "Magna Graecia", Catanzaro, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Perampanel (PER) is a novel antiepileptic drug approved as an add-on therapy for focal onset seizures with or without generalization and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Aim of this study was to evaluate PER efficacy and tolerability as add-on therapy in patients with drug-resistant focal onset seizures and especially temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE).

Methods: An observational, prospective, multicentre study on adult with drug-resistant focal epilepsy consecutively recruited from six Italian tertiary epilepsy centres. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2020.116903DOI Listing

Unraveling the mechanism and the risk behind seizure liability of lead compounds in a neuroscience project.

J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 2020 May 21:106874. Epub 2020 May 21.

UCB Biopharma SRL, chemin du Foriest, Braine-l'Alleud, Belgium.

Introduction: Several compounds from a neuroscience project induced convulsions in animals, at low exposure levels via a hypothetical off-target mechanism. A set of in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted in order to 1) identify the mechanism behind convulsions; 2) characterize the convulsions, 3) detect premonitory signs that could be monitored clinically, and 4) assess the development of tolerance after repeat dosing.

Methods: Patch clamp assays were conducted on 12 different ion channels (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vascn.2020.106874DOI Listing

Patient and Surrogate Postenrollment Perspectives on Research Using the Exception From Informed Consent: An Integrated Survey.

Ann Emerg Med 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA; Emory University Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA.

Study Objective: It is important for researchers interested in trials using the exception from informed consent to understand the views and experiences of enrolled individuals. Previous studies have shown that patient and surrogate attitudes are generally positive. These studies were small and did not include pediatric patients, and interviews were often conducted long after trial enrollment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2020.03.017DOI Listing

Continuous Electroencephalography Monitoring in Critically Ill Infants and Children.

Pediatr Neurol 2020 Apr 26. Epub 2020 Apr 26.

Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Continuous video electroencephalography (CEEG) monitoring of critically ill infants and children has expanded rapidly in recent years. Indications for CEEG include evaluation of patients with altered mental status, characterization of paroxysmal events, and detection of electrographic seizures, including monitoring of patients with limited neurological examination or conditions that put them at high risk for electrographic seizures (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2020.04.009DOI Listing

Epilepsy and Electroencephalographic Abnormalities in SATB2-Associated Syndrome.

Pediatr Neurol 2020 Apr 13. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Section of Genetics and Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas. Electronic address:

Background: Seizures are an under-reported feature of the SATB2-associated syndrome phenotype. We describe the electroencephalographic findings and seizure semiology and treatment in a population of individuals with SATB2-associated syndrome.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 101 individuals with SATB2-associated syndrome who were reported to have had a previous electroencephalographic study to identify those who had at least one reported abnormal result. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2020.04.006DOI Listing

Associations between Infant and Parent Characteristics and Measures of Family Well-Being in Neonates with Seizures: A Cohort Study.

J Pediatr 2020 Jun;221:64-71.e4

Departments of Neurology and Pediatrics, UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.

Objective: To characterize and determine risk factors for key dimensions of well-being at hospital discharge in families of neonates with acute symptomatic seizures.

Study Design: This prospective, observational cohort study enrolled 144 parent-infant dyads among neonates with acute symptomatic seizures from 9 pediatric hospitals in the Neonatal Seizure Registry. One parent per family completed a discharge survey, which included measures of anxiety and depression, health-related quality of life, and impact on the family. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.02.024DOI Listing

Othello Syndrome Secondary to Cerebral Tuberculoma: A Case Report.

Rev Colomb Psiquiatr 2020 Apr - Jun;49(2):116-120. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Instituto Nacional de Salud Mental Honorio Delgado-Hideyo Noguchi, Lima, Perú; Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú. Electronic address:

Introduction: Othello syndrome, an eponym of Shakespeare's character, is a transnosological diagnostic term that designates a clinical picture characterised by the presence of delusions of infidelity with respect to a partner and that, consequently, can lead to typical jealousy attitudes and violent behaviour towards the partner. In its pure form, it corresponds to delusional disorder of infidelity, but it may also be secondary to brain organicity and drug use.

Methods: Case report and non-systematic review of the relevant literature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rcp.2018.09.001DOI Listing
October 2018

Electroclinical spectrum of childhood epilepsy secondary to neonatal hypoglycemic brain injury in a low resource setting: A 10-year experience.

Seizure 2020 May 20;79:90-94. Epub 2020 May 20.

Neurology Division, Department of Pediatrics, Lady Hardinge Medical College and Associated Kalawati Saran Children's Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Purpose: Neonatal hypoglycemic brain injury (NHBI) is being increasingly recognized as an important cause of drug resistant childhood epilepsy in low resource settings. We report the electro-clinical spectrum of children with epilepsy secondary to NHBI.

Methods: This was a retrospective study of children enrolled in the Epilepsy Clinic from January 2009 to August 2019. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2020.05.010DOI Listing

Absence seizure provocation during routine EEG: Does position of the child during hyperventilation affect the diagnostic yield?

Seizure 2020 May 8;79:86-89. Epub 2020 May 8.

Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. Electronic address:

Purpose: When performed correctly, hyperventilation (HV) for three minutes provokes absence seizures in virtually all children, a finding suggestive of a diagnosis of childhood absence epilepsy (CAE). Interestingly, some children experience absence seizures while performing HV in the office yet do not experience absences during HV on subsequent routine EEG. In most instances, HV during routine EEG is performed in the supine position, while in the office HV is done with the child sitting-up. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2020.03.013DOI Listing

Venom-derived modulators of epilepsy-related ion channels.

Biochem Pharmacol 2020 May 20:114043. Epub 2020 May 20.

Griffith Institute for Drug Discovery, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111, Australia. Electronic address:

Epilepsy is characterised by spontaneous recurrent seizures that are caused by an imbalance between neuronal excitability and inhibition. Since ion channels play fundamental roles in the generation and propagation of action potentials as well as neurotransmitter release at a subset of excitatory and inhibitory synapses, their dysfunction has been linked to a wide variety of epilepsies. Indeed, these unique proteins are the major biological targets for antiepileptic drugs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2020.114043DOI Listing

CRISPR/dCas9-based Scn1a gene activation in inhibitory neurons ameliorates epileptic and behavioral phenotypes of Dravet syndrome model mice.

Neurobiol Dis 2020 May 20:104954. Epub 2020 May 20.

Laboratory for Neurogenetics, RIKEN Center for Brain Science, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan; Department of Neurodevelopmental Disorder Genetics, Institute of Brain Sciences, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8601, Japan. Electronic address:

Dravet syndrome is a severe infantile-onset epileptic encephalopathy which begins with febrile seizures and is caused by heterozygous loss-of-function mutations of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene SCN1A. We designed a CRISPR-based gene therapy for Scn1a-haplodeficient mice using multiple guide RNAs (gRNAs) in the promoter regions together with the nuclease-deficient Cas9 fused to transcription activators (dCas9-VPR) to trigger the transcription of SCN1A or Scn1a in vitro. We tested the effect of this strategy in vivo using an adeno-associated virus (AAV) mediated system targeting inhibitory neurons and investigating febrile seizures and behavioral parameters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2020.104954DOI Listing

Cognitive behavioural therapy for adults with dissociative seizures (CODES): a pragmatic, multicentre, randomised controlled trial.

Lancet Psychiatry 2020 Jun;7(6):491-505

Department of Psychological Medicine, King's College London, London, UK.

Background: Dissociative seizures are paroxysmal events resembling epilepsy or syncope with characteristic features that allow them to be distinguished from other medical conditions. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) plus standardised medical care with standardised medical care alone for the reduction of dissociative seizure frequency.

Methods: In this pragmatic, parallel-arm, multicentre randomised controlled trial, we initially recruited participants at 27 neurology or epilepsy services in England, Scotland, and Wales. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30128-0DOI Listing

The CODES trial for dissociative seizures: a landmark study and inflection point.

Authors:
David L Perez

Lancet Psychiatry 2020 Jun;7(6):464-465

Departments of Neurology and Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30143-7DOI Listing

Antiseizure potential of the ancient Greek medicinal plant Helleborus odorus subsp. cyclophyllus and identification of its main active principles.

J Ethnopharmacol 2020 May 20:112954. Epub 2020 May 20.

Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Western Switzerland, University of Geneva, CMU - Rue Michel Servet 1, CH-1211, Geneva 4, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Ethnopharmacological data and ancient texts support the use of black hellebore (Helleborus odorus subsp. cyclophyllus, Ranunculaceae) for the management and treatment of epilepsy in ancient Greece.

Aim Of The Study: A pharmacological investigation of the root methanolic extract (RME) was conducted using the zebrafish epilepsy model to isolate and identify the compounds responsible for a potential antiseizure activity and to provide evidence of its historical use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.112954DOI Listing

Development and Validation of a Free Carbamazepine Assay on an Automated Chemistry Analyzer.

J Appl Lab Med 2020 Mar;5(2):357-362

Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH.

Background: Carbamazepine is an effective drug for treating seizures and trigeminal neuralgia. Therapeutic drug monitoring of free carbamazepine in serum can be useful in situations that drug--protein binding is altered to guide regimen adjustment and to aid in the diagnosis of clinical toxicity.

Methods: Separation of the nonprotein bound carbamazepine was achieved via ultrafiltration through a molecular weight cut-off filter. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jalm/jfz003DOI Listing

3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type VIII in an Indian neonate.

Birth Defects Res 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Neonatology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Neonatal encephalopathy manifests with altered sensorium, tone abnormalities, and often with abnormal movements and seizures. The causes are heterogeneous and many. We report a late preterm neonate who presented with depressed sensorium, cranial nerve abnormalities, mixed hypertonia and hypotonia, and respiratory failure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bdr2.1717DOI Listing

Periventricular nodular heterotopia in a Chihuahua.

J Vet Intern Med 2020 May 23. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Small Animal Clinic, Neurosurgery, Neuroradiology and Clinical Neurology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

Periventricular nodular heterotopia is a common neuronal malformation in humans, often leading to epilepsy and other neurologic diseases. A 2-month-old female Chihuahua weighing 750 g was examined because of a history of epileptic seizures and abnormalities in gait and behavior. Results of the clinical examination were consistent with a multifocal neurologic disease with localization in the forebrain and spinovestibular system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.15803DOI Listing

A review of seizures and epilepsy following traumatic brain injury.

J Neurol 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the commonest presentations to emergency departments and is associated with seizures carrying different significance at different stages following injury. We describe the epidemiology of early and late seizures following TBI, the significance of intracranial haemorrhage of different types in the risk of later epilepsy and the gaps in current understanding of risk factors contributing to the risk of post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE). The delay from injury to epilepsy presents an opportunity to understand the mechanisms underlying changes in the brain and how they may reveal potential targets for anti-epileptogenic therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-020-09926-wDOI Listing

Agonist-induced phosphorylation bar code and differential post-activation signaling of the delta opioid receptor revealed by phosphosite-specific antibodies.

Sci Rep 2020 May 22;10(1):8585. Epub 2020 May 22.

Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Jena University Hospital, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Drackendorfer Str. 1, 07747, Jena, Germany.

The δ-opioid receptor (DOP) is an attractive pharmacological target due to its potent analgesic, anxiolytic and anti-depressant activity in chronic pain models. However, some but not all selective DOP agonists also produce severe adverse effects such as seizures. Thus, the development of novel agonists requires a profound understanding of their effects on DOP phosphorylation, post-activation signaling and dephosphorylation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65589-7DOI Listing

Investigating the potential for seizure prediction in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy: owner-reported prodromal changes and seizure triggers.

Vet Rec 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Clinical Science and Services, Royal Veterinary College, Hertfordshire, UK

Background: Canine idiopathic epilepsy (IE) is characterised by recurrent seizure activity, which can appear unpredictable and uncontrollable. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential for seizure prediction in dogs by exploring owner-perceived seizure prediction abilities and identifying owner-reported prodromal changes (long-term changes in disposition that indicate forthcoming seizures) and seizure triggers (stimuli that precipitate seizures) in dogs with IE.

Methods: This is an online, international, cross-sectional survey of 229 owners of dogs diagnosed with IE, meeting the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force tier I diagnostic criteria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.105307DOI Listing

Upregulated and Hyperactivated Thalamic Connexin 43 Plays Important Roles in Pathomechanisms of Cognitive Impairment and Seizure of Autosomal Dominant Sleep-Related Hypermotor Epilepsy with S284L-Mutant α4 Subunit of Nicotinic ACh Receptor.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2020 May 18;13(5). Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Division of Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine, Mie University, Tsu, Mie 514-8507, Japan.

To understand the pathomechanism and pathophysiology of autosomal dominant sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (ADSHE), we studied functional abnormalities of glutamatergic transmission in thalamocortical pathway from reticular thalamic nucleus (RTN), mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MDTN) to orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) associated with S286L-mutant α4β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), and connexin43 (Cx43) hemichannel of transgenic rats bearing rat S286L-mutant gene (S286L-TG), corresponding to the human S284L-mutant gene using simple Western analysis and multiprobe microdialysis. Cx43 expression in the thalamic plasma membrane fraction of S286L-TG was upregulated compared with that of wild-type. Subchronic administrations of therapeutic-relevant doses of zonisamide (ZNS) and carbamazepine (CBZ) decreased and did not affect Cx43 expression of S286L-TG, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph13050099DOI Listing

Periictal electroclinical characteristics of postictal generalized electroencephalographic suppression after generalized convulsive seizures.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 May;99(20):e19940

Department of Neurology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.

The aim of this study was to investigate the demographic, clinical, and electrophysiological characteristics of postictal generalized electroencephalography (EEG) suppression (PGES), thereby facilitating the recognition of PGES and providing clues regarding its risk factors, pathophysiology, and relationship with sudden unexpected death in epilepsy patients (SUDEP).We retrospectively reviewed 237 generalized convulsive seizures (GCSs) in 126 patients during long-term video-EEG (VEEG) recordings. The associations of PGES and prolonged PGES (duration >20 seconds) with person- and seizure-specific variables were evaluated independently using SPSS software. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000019940DOI Listing

Analysis of risk factors and clinical sequelae of direct electrical cortical stimulation-induced seizures and afterdischarges in patients undergoing awake mapping.

J Neurosurg 2020 May 22:1-8. Epub 2020 May 22.

Departments of2Neurological Surgery and.

Objective: Intraoperative stimulation has emerged as a crucial adjunct in neurosurgical oncology, aiding maximal tumor resection while preserving sensorimotor and language function. Despite increasing use in clinical practice of this stimulation, there are limited data on both intraoperative seizure (IS) frequency and the presence of afterdischarges (ADs) in patients undergoing such procedures. The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for IS or ADs, and to determine the clinical consequences of these intraoperative events. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.3.JNS193231DOI Listing

Antiepileptic drugs for acute encephalitic patients presented with seizure.

Epilepsy Res 2020 May 19;164:106347. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Neurology and National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of this study was to clarify the pattern and efficacy of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in acute encephalitis and discuss how long AEDs should be used after the acute phase.

Methods: Patients with acute encephalitis who presented with seizure were enrolled. The clinical features were systematically gathered, and the information about AEDs and seizures was obtained by a clinical follow-up and (or) a telephone interview based on a structured form. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2020.106347DOI Listing

Examining the function of the visual word form area with stereo EEG electrical stimulation: A case report of pure alexia.

Cortex 2020 Apr 28;129:112-118. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA; Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

Functional imaging studies have implicated an area in the left lateral fusiform gyrus, known as the visual word form area (VWFA), in pre-lexical orthographic processing. There are very few studies that have examined the functional specificity of this area in patients with discrete lesions limited to this region. Here we describe a rare opportunity to examine the functional specificity of the VWFA in a patient with stereo EEG (sEEG) electrodes implanted for localization of seizures prior to epilepsy surgery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2020.04.012DOI Listing

Changes in clinical presentation and treatment over time in patients with unruptured intracranial AVMs.

World Neurosurg 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Treatment of unruptured intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) has become controversial since the ARUBA study was published in 2014. We sought to analyze changes in the demographics, clinical presentation and treatment strategies in two patient cohorts from the same institution separated by 40 years.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records for a consecutive series of patients with unruptured intracranial AVMs seen at the Mayo Clinic between 2003-2017 and compared them to a previously published historical cohort from the same institution, seen between 1974-1985. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.05.094DOI Listing

Early cerebrovascular and long-term neurological modifications ensue following juvenile mild traumatic brain injury in male mice.

Neurobiol Dis 2020 May 19:104952. Epub 2020 May 19.

CNRS UMR5287, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France; Basic Science Department, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Clinical evidence suggests that a mild traumatic brain injury occurring at a juvenile age (jmTBI) may be sufficient to elicit pathophysiological modifications. However, clinical reports are not adequately integrated with experimental studies examining changes occurring post-jmTBI. Here, we used a closed head mouse model of jmTBI to monitor the cerebrovascular modifications and to assess the long-term behavioral and electrographic changes consequent to the head trauma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2020.104952DOI Listing

Reactive bite-related tongue lesions in cognitively impaired epilepsy patients: A report of two cases.

Spec Care Dentist 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Tokai University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Aim: Tongue bites frequently occur during seizures in epilepsy patients. We report two cases of cognitively impaired Lennox-Gastaut syndrome patients with reactive lesions on the tongues.

Case Presentations: Case 1 was a 30-year-old man whose chief complaint was mouth pain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/scd.12470DOI Listing

Neurotoxicity Associated with Radiological Contrast Agents Used during Coronary Angiography: A Systematic Review.

Am J Med Case Rep 2020 7;8(2):60-66. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Division of Cardiovascular Disease and Department of Internal Medicine, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.A.

Contrast media enhances the visualization of the anatomic structures in radiological studies, allowing internal tissues such as blood vessels, kidney, ureters, adrenals and other organs to be identified. The evolution of contrast media highlights the efforts to develop less toxic chemical agents that possess low viscosity and osmolality. However, adverse effects such as idiosyncratic reactions, and organ specific damage are well characterized. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12691/ajmcr-8-2-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7241527PMC
January 2020

Biotinidase Deficiency: Prevalence, Impact And Management Strategies.

Pediatric Health Med Ther 2020 4;11:127-133. Epub 2020 May 4.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey.

Biotinidase deficiency is an autosomal recessive inherited neurocutaneous disorder. Clinically untreated patients with BD can present with variable neurological and dermatological signs, such as seizures, hypotonia, feeding problems, developmental delay, hearing loss, optic atrophy ataxia, alopecia, and skin rash. Clinical findings of patients with partial BD reported in the literature show that it can occur from infancy to adulthood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PHMT.S198656DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7211084PMC

Vagal Nerve Stimulation in Epilepsy: Experiences of Participants with Cognitive Deficits.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2020 8;16:1181-1188. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Neurology and Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine patients' experiences of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) with a special interest in patients with cognitive deficit (CD).

Materials And Methods: An open, retrospective study was conducted on 82 patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy, who were treated with VNS for at least 10 months. Based on the inability to live independently, they were divided into two groups: patients with cognitive deficit (CD group) and patients without cognitive deficit (non-CD group). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S241716DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7217302PMC

Nonlinear Analysis of Visually Normal EEGs to Differentiate Benign Childhood Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes (BECTS).

Sci Rep 2020 May 21;10(1):8419. Epub 2020 May 21.

Computational Health Informatics Program, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, USA.

Childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes, previously known as Benign Epilepsy with Centro-temporal Spikes (BECTS) or Rolandic Epilepsy, is one of the most common forms of focal childhood epilepsy. Despite its prevalence, BECTS is often misdiagnosed or missed entirely. This is in part due to the nocturnal and brief nature of the seizures, making it difficult to identify during a routine electroencephalogram (EEG). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65112-yDOI Listing

Neuropsychiatric Aspects of Epilepsy.

Psychiatr Clin North Am 2020 Jun 8;43(2):275-290. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Brown University, Rhode Island Hospital, Potter 3, 593 Eddy Street, Providence, RI 02903, USA.

This article reviews common and clinically important neuropsychiatric aspects of epilepsy. Comorbidities are common, underdiagnosed, and powerfully impact clinical outcomes. Biological, psychological, and social factors contribute to the associations between epilepsy and neuropsychiatric disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psc.2020.02.002DOI Listing

Epidemiology of traumatic brain injury-associated epilepsy in western China: An analysis of multicenter data.

Epilepsy Res 2020 May 11;164:106354. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Neurology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 37, Guo Xue Xiang, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan Province, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study aims to explore the probability of developing posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) in the following 8 years after traumatic brain injury (TBI), the risk factors associated with PTE and its cumulative prevalence.

Methods: This is a retrospective follow-up study of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) discharged from the West China Hospital between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2017, Chengdu Shang Jin Nan Fu Hospital and Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital from January 1, 2013 to March 1, 2015. We used forward stepwise method to build the final multivariate cox proportional hazard regression model to obtain estimates of hazard ratio (HR) of PTE and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2020.106354DOI Listing

Agreement of Palestinian nursing students with recommendations to eliminate epilepsy stigma and change perception of the general public about epilepsy: A cross-sectional study.

Authors:
Ramzi Shawahna

Epilepsy Behav 2020 May 18;109:107126. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Physiology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine; An-Najah BioSciences Unit, Centre for Poisons Control, Chemical and Biological Analyses, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine. Electronic address:

Objective: This study was conducted to assess the degree of agreement of Palestinian nursing students with recommendations and key messages to eliminate/reduce epilepsy stigma and change perception of the general public about epilepsy and people with epilepsy (PWE).

Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted among undergraduate nursing students. The study tool was a questionnaire with 24 items which collected the sociodemographic and academic characteristics of the participants (6 items) and agreements with 18 recommendations and key messages to eliminate/reduce epilepsy stigma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2020.107126DOI Listing

Pathways to quality of life in adolescents with genetic generalized epilepsy: The role of seizure features and affective symptoms.

Epilepsy Behav 2020 May 18;109:107115. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Pavia, Italy.

Both clinical features of seizures and affective problems (i.e., depressive and/or anxious symptoms) affect quality of life perception in patients with epilepsy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2020.107115DOI Listing

Clinical and experimental insight into pathophysiology, comorbidity and therapy of absence seizures.

Brain 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Cerebral dynamics, learning and plasticity, Integrative Neuroscience and Cognition Center - UMR 8002, Paris, France.

Absence seizures in children and teenagers are generally considered relatively benign because of their non-convulsive nature and the large incidence of remittance in early adulthood. Recent studies, however, show that 30% of children with absence seizures are pharmaco-resistant and 60% are affected by severe neuropsychiatric comorbid conditions, including impairments in attention, cognition, memory and mood. In particular, attention deficits can be detected before the epilepsy diagnosis, may persist even when seizures are pharmacologically controlled and are aggravated by valproic acid monotherapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awaa072DOI Listing

Distinctive binding properties of human monoclonal LGI1 autoantibodies determine pathogenic mechanisms.

Brain 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Oxford Autoimmune Neurology Group, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Autoantibodies against leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) are found in patients with limbic encephalitis and focal seizures. Here, we generate patient-derived monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against LGI1. We explore their sequences and binding characteristics, plus their pathogenic potential using transfected HEK293T cells, rodent neuronal preparations, and behavioural and electrophysiological assessments in vivo after mAb injections into the rodent hippocampus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awaa104DOI Listing

Evidence From Meta-Analysis Supports Ictal Magnetoencephalographic Source Imaging as an Accurate Method in Presurgery Evaluation of Patients With Drug-Resistant Epilepsy.

Clin EEG Neurosci 2020 May 21:1550059420921534. Epub 2020 May 21.

NedComm Lab-Laboratory of NeuroDynamics of Human Communication and Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Background.: Successful epilepsy surgery relies on localization and removal of the brain area responsible for initializing the seizures called the epileptogenic zone (EZ). Intracranial EEG (icEEG) is gold standard of this localization but has several limitations like invasiveness and limited covered area. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1550059420921534DOI Listing

GAD-65 autoantibody associated epilepsy.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Endocrinology, Division of Diabetology, Medical University Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria.

Objectives The aim of this report is to describe a case of GAD-65 autoantibody associated epilepcy, diagnosed long before the onset of autoimmune diabetes. Case presentation This report presents a 36-year-old female with type 1 diabetes, diagnosed at the age of 26, and a cryptogenic focal epilepsy with complex partial seizures, with duration of 2-3 min and frequency of 5-6 per month, diagnosed at 16 years of age. Electroencephalography revealed epileptiform abnormalities temporally and centro-parietally on the left and temporally on the right with forward propagation on both sides. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2019-0395DOI Listing

Peri-ictal heart rate variability parameters as surrogate markers of seizure severity.

Epilepsia 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Danish Epilepsy Centre, Dianalund, Denmark.

This study aims at defining objective parameters reflecting the severity of peri-ictal autonomic changes and their relation to post-ictal generalized electroencephalography (EEG) suppression (PGES), with the view that such changes could be detected by wearable seizure detection systems and prove useful to assess the risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). To this purpose, we assessed peri-ictal changes in heart rate variability (HRV) and correlated them with seizure duration, intensity of electromyography-based ictal muscle activity, and presence and duration of post-ictal generalized EEG suppression (PGES). We evaluated 75 motor seizures from 40 patients, including 61 generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) and 14 other major motor seizure types. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.16491DOI Listing

Autoinjector device for rapid administration of drugs and antidotes in emergency situations and in mass casualty management.

J Int Med Res 2020 May;48(5):300060520926019

Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, India.

There are several situations such as medical emergencies and incidents involving mass casualties where drugs and antidotes have to be administered immediately along with other first aid at the site of the event. Self-administration by the affected person or by a companion is required as a life-saving measure. Autoinjector devices (AIDs) are useful for the rapid administration of drugs and antidotes and they can also be used by those who have not been medically trained. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300060520926019DOI Listing

Stroke in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection: case series.

J Neurol 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Clinical Neurology Unit, Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Friuli Centrale, Presidio Ospedaliero Santa Maria della Misericordia, Udine, Italy.

Background: Italy is one of the most affected countries by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The responsible pathogen is named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic infection to severe pneumonia, leading to intensive care unit admission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-020-09885-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238403PMC

Epilepsy surgery in children: what the radiologist needs to know.

Neuroradiology 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Great Ormond St, London, WC1N 3JH, UK.

This review updates the radiologist on current epilepsy surgery practice in children, with a specific focus on the role of imaging in pre-surgical work-up, current and novel surgical techniques, expected post-surgical imaging appearances and important post-operative complications. A comprehensive review of the current and emerging international practices in paediatric epilepsy surgical planning and post-operative imaging is provided with details on case-based radiological findings. A detailed discussion of the pathophysiology and imaging features of different epileptogenic lesions will not be discussed as this is not the objective of this paper. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00234-020-02448-2DOI Listing

Impact of epilepsy training on school teachers and counselors: An intervention study in Lebanon.

Epilepsy Behav Rep 2020 29;14:100365. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Neurosurgery, Hotel-Dieu de France Hospital, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon.

This study aimed to evaluate the immediate impact of an epilepsy training through the administration of a questionnaire (in Arabic) before and immediately after the intervention in Lebanese public and private schools. This project is part of an awareness campaign applied to 3 groups of teachers and counselors and consisted of a pretest, a unified conference and a posttest. The statistical analysis used the McNemar and Stuart Maxwell tests (statistical significance level of 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebr.2020.100365DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7232080PMC

Late-onset argininosuccinic aciduria associated with hyperammonemia triggered by influenza infection in an adolescent: A case report.

Mol Genet Metab Rep 2020 Sep 15;24:100605. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.

Hyperammonemia is a typical symptom of urea cycle disorders. While early-onset argininosuccinic aciduria (ASA) can often be detected by hyperammonemia, patients with late-onset ASA predominantly present with psychomotor retardation and mental disorders. However, in late-onset ASA that develops during early childhood, hyperammonemia can sometimes be caused by acute infections, stress, and reduced dietary intake. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgmr.2020.100605DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7232106PMC
September 2020