964 results match your criteria ALTEX[Journal]


The impact of precision uncertainty on predictive accuracy metrics of non-animal testing methods.

ALTEX 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

BASF SE, Experimental Toxicology and Ecology, Ludwigshafen, Germany.

The ability of non-animal methods to correctly predict the outcome of in vivo testing in repeated applications is referred to as precision. Due to dichotomising continuous read-outs into discrete "positive/negative" hazard data, non-animal methods can reveal discordant classifications if results are sufficiently close to a defined classification threshold. This paper explores the impact of precision uncertainty on the predictive accuracy of non-animal methods. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.altex.org/index.php/altex/article/view/1173
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1810111DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Advice on avoiding the Valley of Death: insights from a 3Rs model of aversive and emetic compound identification.

ALTEX 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Division of Biomedical Sciences, St George's University of London, Tooting, London, United Kingdom.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1810182DOI Listing

Insights into in vitro biokinetics using Virtual Cell Based Assay simulations.

ALTEX 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy.

The Virtual Cell Based Assay (VCBA) is an in silico model that simulates the biokinetics of chemicals in in vitro test systems. Simulations by the VCBA can indicate the degree to which the bioavailable concentration varies across chemicals and experimental conditions, thereby providing important contextual information when comparing the results of different in vitro toxicity experiments. The simulated results can also be used to support in vitro to in vivo extrapolation of toxicity data, especially when the VCBA is coupled to a physiologically based kinetic model. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1812101DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Opportunities for refinement in neuroscience: Indicators of wellness and post-operative pain in laboratory macaques.

ALTEX 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Psychology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom.

Being able to assess pain in nonhuman primates undergoing biomedical procedures is important for preventing and alleviating pain, and for developing better guidelines to minimise the impacts of research on welfare in line with the 3Rs principle of Refinement. Nonhuman primates are routinely used biomedical models however it remains challenging to recognise negative states, including pain, in these animals. This study aimed to identify behavioural and facial changes that could be used as pain or general wellness indicators in the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1811061DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Presence of vasculature results in faster insulin response in adipocytes in vascularized adipose tissue model.

ALTEX 2019 03 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.

Besides being an energy storage, adipose tissue is an endocrine organ closely associated with vascular system. Human relevant in vitro models are needed to study adipose tissue and related diseases. Vasculature plays a central role in the development and inhibition of adipose tissue related diseases. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1811271DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Comparison of in chemico skin sensitization methods and development of an in chemico skin photosensitization assay.

ALTEX 2019 Mar 11. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Research & Development Division, Jai Research Foundation, Valvada, Gujarat, India.

Chemical substances that induce an allergic response in skin upon contact are called skin allergens or sensitizers, while chemical substances that elicit an allergic response only in presence of light are called photoallergens or photo sensitizers. The Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay (DPRA, OECD N⁰ 442C, 2015) and the Amino Acid Derivative Reactivity Assay (ADRA) are in chemico assays used to discriminate between allergens and non-allergens. The DPRA and the ADRA, respectively, monitor the depletion of model peptides and modified amino acids induced by crosslinking with test chemicals. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1811011DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

An in vitro coculture system for the detection of sensitization following aerosol exposure.

ALTEX 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Environmental Research and Innovation, Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology, Luxembourg.

The aim of the study was to develop an in vitro model that mimics the alveolar-capillary barrier and that allows assessment of the respiratory sensitizing potential of respiratory sensitizers. The 3D in vitro model cultured at the air liquid interface consists of alveolar type II epithelial cells (A549), endothelial cells (EA.hy926), macrophage-like cells (PMA-differentiated THP-1) and dendritic-like cells (non-differentiated THP-1). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1901241DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Addressing potential ethical issues regarding the supply of human-derived products or reagents in in vitro OECD Test Guidelines.

ALTEX 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Life Science Group Ltd, Wilden, Bedfordshire, UK.

The number and scope of Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in vitro test guidelines (TGs) are increasing, in an effort to both improve human relevance and replace in vivo animal testing.  In vitro test methods being developed for TG use are increasing the use of human based reagents, in combination with, or replacing animal derived reagents, and demand for human reagents is likely to grow in the near future.  There are a range of issues associated with the ethical use of human reagents, particularly human serum, in the adaptation and development of in vitro TGs, especially to ensure that there is no human exploitation, legal requirements are adhered to, and that the origin of the reagent is assured. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1901281DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

How complex should an in vitro model be? Evaluation of complex 3D alveolar model with transcriptomic data and computational biological network models.

ALTEX 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

PMI R&D, Philip Morris Products S.A., Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

To more accurately model inhalation toxicity in vitro, we developed a tetra-culture system that combines lung alveolar epithelial cells, endothelial cells, macrophages, and mast cells in a three-dimensional orientation. We characterized the influence of the added complexity using network perturbation analysis and gene expression data. This will allow us to gain insight into the steady-state profile of the assembled, complete three-dimensional model using all four cell types and of simpler models of one, two, or three cell types. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1811221DOI Listing
February 2019
6 Reads

Generalized Read-Across (GenRA): A workflow implemented into the EPA CompTox Chemicals Dashboard.

ALTEX 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

National Center for Computational Toxicology (NCCT), Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park (RTP), NC, USA.

Generalized Read-Across (GenRA) is a data driven approach which makes read-across predictions on the basis of a similarity weighted activity of source analogues (nearest neighbors). GenRA has been described in more detail in the literature (Shah et al., 2016; Helman et al. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1811292DOI Listing
February 2019
6 Reads

Improved defined approaches for predicting skin sensitization hazard and potency in humans.

ALTEX 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

School of Biology and Biological Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China.

Since the EU banned animal testing for cosmetic products and ingredients in 2013, many defined approaches (DA) for skin sensitization assessment have been developed. Machine learning models were shown to be effective in DAs, but the predictivity might be affected by data imbalance (i.e. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1809191DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

A modular approach for assembly of quantitative adverse outcome pathways.

ALTEX 2019 Jan 20. Epub 2019 Jan 20.

Environmental Laboratory, US Army Engineer Research & Development Center, Vicksburg, MS, USA.

The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework is a conceptual construct that mechanistically links molecular initiating events to adverse biological outcomes through a series of causal key events (KEs) that represent the perturbation of the biological system. Quantitative, predictive AOPs are necessary for screening emerging contaminants and potential substitutes to inform their prioritization for testing. In practice, they are not widely used because they can be costly to develop and validate. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1810181DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Chemical concentrations in cell culture compartments (C5) - concentration definitions.

ALTEX 2019 ;36(1):154-160

In vitro Toxicology and Biomedicine, Dept inaugurated by the Doerenkamp-Zbinden Foundation, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany.

Some laboratory issues are taken for granted as they seem to be simple and not worth much thought. This applies to "concentrations of a chemical tested for bioactivity/toxicity". Can there be any issue about weighing a compound, diluting it in culture medium and calculating the final mass (or particle number)-to-volume ratio? We discuss here some basic concepts about concentrations and their units, addressing also differences between "dose" and "concentration". Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1901031DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Advanced in vitro models analysis.

ALTEX 2019;36(1):144-147

Competence Centre TEDD and Centre for Cell Biology & Tissue Engineering, Institute of Chemistry and Biotechnology (ICBT), ZHAW Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Wädenswil, Switzerland.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1812131DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Alternative methods to replace or reduce animal models in biomedical research.

ALTEX 2019;36(1):141-142

Institute for Laboratory Animal Science and Central Animal Facility, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1812171DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Science instead of animal experiments.

ALTEX 2019;36(1):140-141

Doctors Against Animal Experiments, Cologne, Germany.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1811291DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Toward Good In Vitro Reporting Standards.

ALTEX 2019 ;36(1):3-17

University of Konstanz, CAAT-Europe, Konstanz, Germany.

A good experiment reported badly is worthless. Meaningful contributions to the body of science are made by sharing the full methodology and results so that they can be evaluated and reproduced by peers. Erroneous and incomplete reporting does not do justice to the resources spent on conducting the experiment and the time peers spend reading the article. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.altex.org/index.php/altex/article/view/1229
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1812191DOI Listing
January 2019
12 Reads

Optimizing drug discovery by Investigative Toxicology: Current and future trends.

ALTEX 2018 Dec 20. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Research & Development, Pharmaceuticals, Investigational Toxicology, Bayer AG, Berlin, Germany.

Investigative Toxicology describes the de-risking and mechanistic elucidation of toxicities, supporting early safety decisions in the pharmaceutical industry. Recently, Investigative Toxicology has contributed to a shift in pharmaceutical toxicology, from a descriptive to an evidence-based, mechanistic discipline. This was triggered by high costs and low throughput of Good Laboratory Practice in vivo studies, and increasing demands for adhering to the 3R (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement) principles of animal welfare. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.altex.org/index.php/altex/article/view/1163
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1808181DOI Listing
December 2018
24 Reads
5.467 Impact Factor

Workflow for defining reference chemicals for assessing performance of in vitro assays.

ALTEX 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

US EPA, National Center for Computational Toxicology, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.

Instilling confidence in use of in vitro assays for predictive toxicology requires evaluation of assay performance. Performance is typically assessed using reference chemicals--compounds with defined activity against the test system target. However, developing reference chemical lists has historically been very resource-intensive. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.altex.org/index.php/altex/article/view/1168
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1809281DOI Listing
December 2018
13 Reads

Human platelet lysate as validated replacement for animal serum to assess chemosensitivity.

ALTEX 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Toxicology, University Medical Center, Mainz, Germany.

Experiments with cultured mammalian cells represent an in vitro alternative to animal experiments. Fetal calf serum (FCS) is the most commonly used media supplement worldwide. FCS contains a mixture of largely undefined growth factors and cytokines, which support cell proliferation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.altex.org/index.php/altex/article/view/1167
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1809211DOI Listing
December 2018
15 Reads

Prenatal developmental toxicity testing of petroleum substances using the zebrafish embryotoxicity test.

ALTEX 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Division of Toxicology, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

The present study evaluates the applicability of the zebrafish embryotoxicity test (ZET) to assess prenatal developmental toxicity (PDT) potency of the DMSO-extracts of 9 petroleum substances (PS), with variable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content, and 2 gas-to-liquid (GTL) products, without any PAHs but otherwise similar properties to PS. The results showed that all PS extracts induced concentration-dependent in vitro PDT, as quantified in the ZET and that this potency is associated with their 3-5 ring PAH content. In contrast and as expected, GTL products did not induce any effect at all. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1808121DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Prioritizing substances of genotoxic concern for in-depth safety evaluation using non-animal approaches: The example of food contact materials.

ALTEX 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Scientific Direction Chemical and Physical Health Risks, Sciensano, Brussels, Belgium.

Due to the exponentially growing number of substances requiring safety evaluation, efficient prioritisation strategies are needed to identify those of highest concern. To limit unnecessary animal testing, such strategies should respect the 3R principles (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement). In the present study, a strategy based on non-animal approaches was developed to prioritize non-evaluated printed paper and board food contact material (FCM) substances for further in-depth safety evaluation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1810011DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Contradictory effects of chemical filters in UV/ROS-stressed human keratinocyte and fibroblast cells.

ALTEX 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Division of Medical Biochemistry, Biocenter, Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria.

Chemical UV-filters are frequently applied as active ingredients in sunscreen to protect from detrimental effects of UV radiation. Regardless, many of these compounds are not well characterized concerning their capacity to counteract UV induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Intracellular ROS release is an early event upon UV exposure and a crucial trigger of reaction cascades that may provoke adverse effects both in short- and long-term. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1808201DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Preclinical alternative model for analysis of porous scaffold biocompatibility in bone tissue engineering.

ALTEX 2019 23;36(1):121-130. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Institute of Anatomy, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

Using scaffolds with appropriate porosity represents a potential approach for repair of critical-size bone defects. Vascularization is essential for bone formation and healing. This study investigates methods for monitoring angiogenesis within porous biopolymer scaffolds on the basis of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)/chitosan. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1807241DOI Listing
November 2018
8 Reads

Detection and profiling of diarrheic marine biotoxins in shellfish by mRNA analysis of exposed Caco-2 cells using qRT-PCR and multiplex magnetic bead-based assays.

ALTEX 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

RIKILT Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

The mouse bioassay for the detection of marine biotoxins in shellfish products is 40 years old and still in use. A full ban or total replacement of this in vivo test has been postponed because of the fear that current chemical-based detection methods could miss a new emerging toxin. In order to fully replace the mouse bioassay, more efforts are needed on the search for functional assays with specific endpoints. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1805291DOI Listing
November 2018
26 Reads

The current status of alternative methods for cosmetics safety assessment in China.

ALTEX 2019;36(1):136-139. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

National Institutes for Food and Drug Control, Beijing, China.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1808021DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads
5.467 Impact Factor

Non-animal models in dermatological research.

ALTEX 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Laboratory of Molecular Oncology.

Despite widely used for basic and preclinical studies in dermatology, available animal models only partly recapitulate human skin features often leading to disappointing outputs when preclinical results are translated to the clinic. Therefore, the need to develop alternative, non-animal models is widely recognized to more closely recapitulate human skin pathophysiology and to address the pressing ethical demand of reducing the number of animals used for research purposes, following the globally accepted 3Rs principle (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement). Skin is the outermost organ of the body, and, as such, easily accessible. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1808022DOI Listing
November 2018
11 Reads

Characterizing sources of variability in zebrafish embryo screening protocols.

ALTEX 2019 10;36(1):103-120. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Division of the National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.

There is a need for fast, efficient, and cost-effective hazard identification and characterization of chemical hazards. This need is generating increased interest in the use of zebrafish embryos as both a screening tool and an alternative to mammalian test methods. A Collaborative Workshop on Aquatic Models and 21st Century Toxicology identified the lack of appropriate and consistent testing protocols as a challenge to the broader application of the zebrafish embryo model. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.altex.org/index.php/altex/article/view/997
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1804162DOI Listing
November 2018
16 Reads
5.470 Impact Factor

Zebrafish embryo and acute fish toxicity test show similar sensitivity for narcotic compounds.

ALTEX 2019 29;36(1):131-135. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Leipzig, Germany.

The zebrafish embryo test has been discussed as an alternative test system to provide data on acute fish toxicity required by diverse regulations. A meta-analysis of zebrafish embryo acute toxicity (ZFET) data has revealed conflicting evidence that narcotic compounds (i.e. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1808101DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

3Replacement Winter School - Out of the barriers: In vitro models in toxicology.

ALTEX 2018 ;35(4):520-521

Dipartimento Ambiente e Salute, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1807231DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

The ethical evaluation of animal experiments deserves more than empty phrases.

Authors:
Tilo Weber

ALTEX 2018 ;35(4):518-519

Animal Welfare Academy, German Animal Welfare Federation, Neubiberg, Germany.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1810041DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Lowering the p-value from 0.05 to 0.005 conflicts with the 3R rules - an advocacy for alternatives to hypothesis testing with the p-value approach.

ALTEX 2018 ;35(4):516-517

Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1807091DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Chemical hazard prediction and hypothesis testing using quantitative adverse outcome pathways.

ALTEX 2019 16;36(1):91-102. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS, USA.

Current efforts in chemical safety are focused on utilizing human in vitro or alternative animal data in biological pathway context. However, it remains unclear how biological pathways, and toxicology data developed in that context, can be used to quantitatively facilitate decision-making.  The objective of this work is to determine if hypothesis testing using Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) can provide quantitative chemical hazard predictions. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.altex.org/index.php/altex/article/view/1160
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1808241DOI Listing
October 2018
87 Reads

Botulinum toxin testing on animals is still a Europe-wide issue.

ALTEX 2019 10;36(1):81-90. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

European Coalition to End Animal Experiments, London, UK.

There have been significant developments in the use of animals to test Botulinum toxin products in Europe in recent years. This paper summarises and discusses these from the perspective of the animal protection organisation. A cell-based assay has been validated by Allergan and is now being used for the replacement of the mouse bioassay for the batch testing of their Botulinum toxin A products. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1807101DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

A three-dimensional model to study human synovial pathology.

ALTEX 2019 9;36(1):18-28. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Experimental Rheumatology, Department of Rheumatology, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Therapeutic agents that are used by patients with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases were originally developed and tested in animal models, and although retrospective studies show a limited predictive value, it could be explained by the fact that there are no good in vitro alternatives. In this study, we developed a 3-dimensional synovial membrane model made of either human primary synovial cell suspensions or a mix of primary fibroblast-like synoviocytes and CD14+ mononuclear cells. We analyzed the composition of the mature micromasses by immunohistochemical staining and flow cytometry and show that the outer surface forms a lining layer consisting out of fibroblast-like and macrophage-like cells, reflecting the in vivo naïve synovial membrane. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.altex.org/index.php/altex/article/view/827
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1804161DOI Listing
October 2018
25 Reads

Retrospective review of anesthetic and analgesic regimens used in animal research proposals.

ALTEX 2019 14;36(1):65-80. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Pain has a profound effect on an animal's wellbeing. In Germany, researchers using animals have been legally required since 1972 to reduce any possible pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm to an absolute minimum. To evaluate how these provisions have been implemented in practice, an assessment of refinements to experimental techniques was conducted by retrospectively reviewing 684 surgical interventions described in 506 animal research applications that were sent to the German competent authorities for approval in 2010. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1804011DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

An ex vivo porcine spleen perfusion as a model of bacterial sepsis.

ALTEX 2019 3;36(1):29-38. Epub 2018 Aug 3.

Department of Genetics and Genome Biology, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.

An ex vivo, porcine spleen perfusion model was established to study the early events occurring in the spleen prior to the onset of bacterial sepsis, using organs retrieved from animals slaughtered for food production. Porcine spleens were harvested from adult pigs and connected to a normothermic extracorporeal perfusion circuit. A constant perfusion of heparinized blood was performed for 6 hours. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1805131DOI Listing
August 2018
9 Reads

Sex and media: Considerations for cell culture studies.

ALTEX 2018 27;35(4):435-440. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

Diabetes, Obesity, and Wellness Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Cell culture has enhanced our understanding of cellular physiology and constitutes an important tool in advancing mechanistic insight. Researchers should be reminded, however, that there are limitations in extrapolating data derived from cultured cells to questions focusing on the impact of sex. In this Opinion, we highlight two underappreciated aspects of cell culture systems regarding sex: how cell culture media alters the sex hormone environment, and how the innate sex of the cell is often not factored into the overall analysis. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1806151DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Investigating cell type specific mechanisms contributing to acute oral toxicity.

ALTEX 2019 12;36(1):39-64. Epub 2018 Jul 12.

EU Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC), Ispra, Italy.

The replacement of animals in acute systemic toxicity testing remains a considerable challenge. Only animal data are currently accepted by regulators, including data generated by reduction and refinement methods. The development of Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment (IATA) is hampered by an insufficient understanding of the numerous toxicity pathways that lead to acute systemic toxicity. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1805181DOI Listing
July 2018
6 Reads

Replacement of foot-and-mouth disease virus cattle tongue titration by in vitro titration

ALTEX 2018 12;35(4):489-494. Epub 2018 Jul 12.

Boehringer-Ingelheim, Lyon, France.

Titration of foot-and-mouth disease cattle challenge virus in cattle tongue has been the standard for many years in many countries, although titration in animals has been replaced by in vitro methods for all other applications. The objective of the analysis was the replacement of in vivo titration of cattle challenge virus by in vitro titration. Using data from 32 in vivo titration experiments together with the in vitro titration results of the same samples obtained by plaque count on primary lamb or pig kidney cells, as well as data from the virus isolation control chart used in the laboratory, we show that the reproducibility of the in vitro titration is much higher than that of the in vivo titration. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1712222DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Essential components of methods papers.

ALTEX 2018 ;35(3):429-432

Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors (IfADo), Technical University of Dortmund, Dortmund, Germany.

Methods papers are important for the progress of biomedical research, as they provide the essential tools to explore new questions and help to better answer old ones. However, it is often not clear how a methods paper differs from a methods protocol. Confusion between these two very different types of publication is widespread. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1807031DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

Promoting 3Rs in Finland.

ALTEX 2018;35(3):425

Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1807021DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

The 3Rs Competence Centre (3RCC) - better research with less animal testing?

ALTEX 2018;35(3):422-424

Swiss Animal Protection (SAP), Basle, Switzerland.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1806251DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

Regulatory acceptance of read-across.

ALTEX 2018;35(3):413-419

Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT), Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1805081DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

Animal testing and its alternatives - the most important omics is economics.

ALTEX 2018 ;35(3):275-305

Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT), Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

For a long time, the discussion about animal testing vs its alternatives centered on animal welfare. This was a static warfare, or at least a gridlock, where life scientists had to take a position and make their value choices and hardly anyone changed sides. Technical advances have changed the frontline somewhat, with in vitro and in silico methods gaining more ground. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1807041DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

Reevaluating the role of megalin in renal vitamin D homeostasis using a human cell-derived microphysiological system

ALTEX 2018 8;35(4):504-515. Epub 2018 Jul 8.

Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

The role of megalin in the regulation of renal vitamin D homeostasis has previously been evaluated in megalin-knockout mice and rat proximal tubule epithelial cells. We revisited these hypotheses that were previously tested solely in rodent models, this time using a 3-dimensional proximal tubule microphysiological system incorporating primary human proximal tubule epithelial cells. Using this human cell-derived model, we confirmed that 25OHD3 is transported into the human proximal tubule epithelium via megalin-mediated endocytosis while bound to vitamin D binding protein. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1803161DOI Listing
February 2019
9 Reads

A human population-based organotypic in vitro model for cardiotoxicity screening.

ALTEX 2018 8;35(4):441-452. Epub 2018 Jul 8.

Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.

Assessing inter-individual variability in responses to xenobiotics remains a substantial challenge, both in drug development with respect to pharmaceuticals and in public health with respect to environmental chemicals. Although approaches exist to characterize pharmacokinetic variability, there are no methods to routinely address pharmacodynamic variability. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of characterizing inter-individual variability in a human in vitro model. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1805301DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6231908PMC
February 2019
10 Reads

Normalization of data for viability and relative cell function curves.

ALTEX 2018 ;35(2):268-271

In vitro Toxicology and Biomedicine, Dept inaugurated by the Doerenkamp-Zbinden Foundation, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany.

Many types of assays in cell biology, pharmacology and toxicology generate data in which a parameter is measured in a reference system (negative control) and then also under conditions of increasing stress or drug exposure. To make such data easily comparable, they are normalized, i.e. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/1803231DOI Listing
October 2018
4 Reads