956 results match your criteria ALTEX[Journal]


How complex should an in vitro model be? Evaluation of complex 3D alveolar model with transcriptomic data and computational biological network models.

ALTEX 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

PMI R&D, Philip Morris Products S.A., Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

To more accurately model inhalation toxicity in vitro, we developed a tetra-culture system that combines lung alveolar epithelial cells, endothelial cells, macrophages, and mast cells in a three-dimensional orientation. We characterized the influence of the added complexity using network perturbation analysis and gene expression data. This will allow us to gain insight into the steady-state profile of the assembled, complete three-dimensional model using all four cell types and of simpler models of one, two, or three cell types. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1811221DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Generalized Read-Across (GenRA): A workflow implemented into the EPA CompTox Chemicals Dashboard.

ALTEX 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

National Center for Computational Toxicology (NCCT), Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park (RTP), NC, USA.

Generalized Read-Across (GenRA) is a data driven approach which makes read-across predictions on the basis of a similarity weighted activity of source analogues (nearest neighbors). GenRA has been described in more detail in the literature (Shah et al., 2016; Helman et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1811292DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Improved defined approaches for predicting skin sensitization hazard and potency in humans.

ALTEX 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

School of Biology and Biological Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China.

Since the EU banned animal testing for cosmetic products and ingredients in 2013, many defined approaches (DA) for skin sensitization assessment have been developed. Machine learning models were shown to be effective in DAs, but the predictivity might be affected by data imbalance (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1809191DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

A modular approach for assembly of quantitative adverse outcome pathways.

ALTEX 2019 Jan 20. Epub 2019 Jan 20.

Environmental Laboratory, US Army Engineer Research & Development Center, Vicksburg, MS, USA.

The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework is a conceptual construct that mechanistically links molecular initiating events to adverse biological outcomes through a series of causal key events (KEs) that represent the perturbation of the biological system. Quantitative, predictive AOPs are necessary for screening emerging contaminants and potential substitutes to inform their prioritization for testing. In practice, they are not widely used because they can be costly to develop and validate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1810181DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Chemical concentrations in cell culture compartments (C5) - concentration definitions.

ALTEX 2019 ;36(1):154-160

In vitro Toxicology and Biomedicine, Dept inaugurated by the Doerenkamp-Zbinden Foundation, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany.

Some laboratory issues are taken for granted as they seem to be simple and not worth much thought. This applies to "concentrations of a chemical tested for bioactivity/toxicity". Can there be any issue about weighing a compound, diluting it in culture medium and calculating the final mass (or particle number)-to-volume ratio? We discuss here some basic concepts about concentrations and their units, addressing also differences between "dose" and "concentration". Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1901031DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Advanced in vitro models analysis.

ALTEX 2019;36(1):144-147

Competence Centre TEDD and Centre for Cell Biology & Tissue Engineering, Institute of Chemistry and Biotechnology (ICBT), ZHAW Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Wädenswil, Switzerland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1812131DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Alternative methods to replace or reduce animal models in biomedical research.

ALTEX 2019;36(1):141-142

Institute for Laboratory Animal Science and Central Animal Facility, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1812171DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Science instead of animal experiments.

ALTEX 2019;36(1):140-141

Doctors Against Animal Experiments, Cologne, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1811291DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Toward Good In Vitro Reporting Standards.

ALTEX 2019 ;36(1):3-17

University of Konstanz, CAAT-Europe, Konstanz, Germany.

A good experiment reported badly is worthless. Meaningful contributions to the body of science are made by sharing the full methodology and results so that they can be evaluated and reproduced by peers. Erroneous and incomplete reporting does not do justice to the resources spent on conducting the experiment and the time peers spend reading the article. Read More

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https://www.altex.org/index.php/altex/article/view/1229
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1812191DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

Optimizing drug discovery by Investigative Toxicology: Current and future trends.

ALTEX 2018 Dec 20. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Research & Development, Pharmaceuticals, Investigational Toxicology, Bayer AG, Berlin, Germany.

Investigative Toxicology describes the de-risking and mechanistic elucidation of toxicities, supporting early safety decisions in the pharmaceutical industry. Recently, Investigative Toxicology has contributed to a shift in pharmaceutical toxicology, from a descriptive to an evidence-based, mechanistic discipline. This was triggered by high costs and low throughput of Good Laboratory Practice in vivo studies, and increasing demands for adhering to the 3R (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement) principles of animal welfare. Read More

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https://www.altex.org/index.php/altex/article/view/1163
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1808181DOI Listing
December 2018
10 Reads
5.467 Impact Factor

Workflow for defining reference chemicals for assessing performance of in vitro assays.

ALTEX 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

US EPA, National Center for Computational Toxicology, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.

Instilling confidence in use of in vitro assays for predictive toxicology requires evaluation of assay performance. Performance is typically assessed using reference chemicals--compounds with defined activity against the test system target. However, developing reference chemical lists has historically been very resource-intensive. Read More

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https://www.altex.org/index.php/altex/article/view/1168
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1809281DOI Listing
December 2018
8 Reads

Human platelet lysate as validated replacement for animal serum to assess chemosensitivity.

ALTEX 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Toxicology, University Medical Center, Mainz, Germany.

Experiments with cultured mammalian cells represent an in vitro alternative to animal experiments. Fetal calf serum (FCS) is the most commonly used media supplement worldwide. FCS contains a mixture of largely undefined growth factors and cytokines, which support cell proliferation. Read More

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https://www.altex.org/index.php/altex/article/view/1167
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1809211DOI Listing
December 2018
8 Reads

Prenatal developmental toxicity testing of petroleum substances using the zebrafish embryotoxicity test.

ALTEX 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Division of Toxicology, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

The present study evaluates the applicability of the zebrafish embryotoxicity test (ZET) to assess prenatal developmental toxicity (PDT) potency of the DMSO-extracts of 9 petroleum substances (PS), with variable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content, and 2 gas-to-liquid (GTL) products, without any PAHs but otherwise similar properties to PS. The results showed that all PS extracts induced concentration-dependent in vitro PDT, as quantified in the ZET and that this potency is associated with their 3-5 ring PAH content. In contrast and as expected, GTL products did not induce any effect at all. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1808121DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Prioritizing substances of genotoxic concern for in-depth safety evaluation using non-animal approaches: The example of food contact materials.

ALTEX 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Scientific Direction Chemical and Physical Health Risks, Sciensano, Brussels, Belgium.

Due to the exponentially growing number of substances requiring safety evaluation, efficient prioritisation strategies are needed to identify those of highest concern. To limit unnecessary animal testing, such strategies should respect the 3R principles (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement). In the present study, a strategy based on non-animal approaches was developed to prioritize non-evaluated printed paper and board food contact material (FCM) substances for further in-depth safety evaluation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1810011DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Contradictory effects of chemical filters in UV/ROS-stressed human keratinocyte and fibroblast cells.

ALTEX 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Division of Medical Biochemistry, Biocenter, Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria.

Chemical UV-filters are frequently applied as active ingredients in sunscreen to protect from detrimental effects of UV radiation. Regardless, many of these compounds are not well characterized concerning their capacity to counteract UV induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Intracellular ROS release is an early event upon UV exposure and a crucial trigger of reaction cascades that may provoke adverse effects both in short- and long-term. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1808201DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Preclinical alternative model for analysis of porous scaffold biocompatibility in bone tissue engineering.

ALTEX 2019 23;36(1):121-130. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Institute of Anatomy, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

Using scaffolds with appropriate porosity represents a potential approach for repair of critical-size bone defects. Vascularization is essential for bone formation and healing. This study investigates methods for monitoring angiogenesis within porous biopolymer scaffolds on the basis of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)/chitosan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1807241DOI Listing
November 2018
6 Reads

Detection and profiling of diarrheic marine biotoxins in shellfish by mRNA analysis of exposed Caco-2 cells using qRT-PCR and multiplex magnetic bead-based assays.

ALTEX 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

RIKILT Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

The mouse bioassay for the detection of marine biotoxins in shellfish products is 40 years old and still in use. A full ban or total replacement of this in vivo test has been postponed because of the fear that current chemical-based detection methods could miss a new emerging toxin. In order to fully replace the mouse bioassay, more efforts are needed on the search for functional assays with specific endpoints. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1805291DOI Listing
November 2018
21 Reads

The current status of alternative methods for cosmetics safety assessment in China.

ALTEX 2019;36(1):136-139. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

National Institutes for Food and Drug Control, Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1808021DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read
5.467 Impact Factor

Non-animal models in dermatological research.

ALTEX 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Laboratory of Molecular Oncology.

Despite widely used for basic and preclinical studies in dermatology, available animal models only partly recapitulate human skin features often leading to disappointing outputs when preclinical results are translated to the clinic. Therefore, the need to develop alternative, non-animal models is widely recognized to more closely recapitulate human skin pathophysiology and to address the pressing ethical demand of reducing the number of animals used for research purposes, following the globally accepted 3Rs principle (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement). Skin is the outermost organ of the body, and, as such, easily accessible. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1808022DOI Listing
November 2018
6 Reads

Characterizing sources of variability in zebrafish embryo screening protocols.

ALTEX 2019 10;36(1):103-120. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Division of the National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.

There is a need for fast, efficient, and cost-effective hazard identification and characterization of chemical hazards. This need is generating increased interest in the use of zebrafish embryos as both a screening tool and an alternative to mammalian test methods. A Collaborative Workshop on Aquatic Models and 21st Century Toxicology identified the lack of appropriate and consistent testing protocols as a challenge to the broader application of the zebrafish embryo model. Read More

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https://www.altex.org/index.php/altex/article/view/997
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1804162DOI Listing
November 2018
10 Reads
5.470 Impact Factor

Zebrafish embryo and acute fish toxicity test show similar sensitivity for narcotic compounds.

ALTEX 2019 29;36(1):131-135. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Leipzig, Germany.

The zebrafish embryo test has been discussed as an alternative test system to provide data on acute fish toxicity required by diverse regulations. A meta-analysis of zebrafish embryo acute toxicity (ZFET) data has revealed conflicting evidence that narcotic compounds (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1808101DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

3Replacement Winter School - Out of the barriers: In vitro models in toxicology.

ALTEX 2018 ;35(4):520-521

Dipartimento Ambiente e Salute, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1807231DOI Listing
January 2018
1 Read

The ethical evaluation of animal experiments deserves more than empty phrases.

Authors:
Tilo Weber

ALTEX 2018 ;35(4):518-519

Animal Welfare Academy, German Animal Welfare Federation, Neubiberg, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1810041DOI Listing
January 2018
1 Read

Lowering the p-value from 0.05 to 0.005 conflicts with the 3R rules - an advocacy for alternatives to hypothesis testing with the p-value approach.

ALTEX 2018 ;35(4):516-517

Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1807091DOI Listing
January 2018
1 Read

Chemical hazard prediction and hypothesis testing using quantitative adverse outcome pathways.

ALTEX 2019 16;36(1):91-102. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS, USA.

Current efforts in chemical safety are focused on utilizing human in vitro or alternative animal data in biological pathway context. However, it remains unclear how biological pathways, and toxicology data developed in that context, can be used to quantitatively facilitate decision-making.  The objective of this work is to determine if hypothesis testing using Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) can provide quantitative chemical hazard predictions. Read More

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https://www.altex.org/index.php/altex/article/view/1160
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1808241DOI Listing
October 2018
64 Reads

Botulinum toxin testing on animals is still a Europe-wide issue.

ALTEX 2019 10;36(1):81-90. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

European Coalition to End Animal Experiments, London, UK.

There have been significant developments in the use of animals to test Botulinum toxin products in Europe in recent years. This paper summarises and discusses these from the perspective of the animal protection organisation. A cell-based assay has been validated by Allergan and is now being used for the replacement of the mouse bioassay for the batch testing of their Botulinum toxin A products. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1807101DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

A three-dimensional model to study human synovial pathology.

ALTEX 2019 9;36(1):18-28. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Experimental Rheumatology, Department of Rheumatology, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Therapeutic agents that are used by patients with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases were originally developed and tested in animal models, and although retrospective studies show a limited predictive value, it could be explained by the fact that there are no good in vitro alternatives. In this study, we developed a 3-dimensional synovial membrane model made of either human primary synovial cell suspensions or a mix of primary fibroblast-like synoviocytes and CD14+ mononuclear cells. We analyzed the composition of the mature micromasses by immunohistochemical staining and flow cytometry and show that the outer surface forms a lining layer consisting out of fibroblast-like and macrophage-like cells, reflecting the in vivo naïve synovial membrane. Read More

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https://www.altex.org/index.php/altex/article/view/827
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1804161DOI Listing
October 2018
12 Reads

Retrospective review of anesthetic and analgesic regimens used in animal research proposals.

ALTEX 2019 14;36(1):65-80. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Pain has a profound effect on an animal's wellbeing. In Germany, researchers using animals have been legally required since 1972 to reduce any possible pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm to an absolute minimum. To evaluate how these provisions have been implemented in practice, an assessment of refinements to experimental techniques was conducted by retrospectively reviewing 684 surgical interventions described in 506 animal research applications that were sent to the German competent authorities for approval in 2010. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1804011DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

An ex vivo porcine spleen perfusion as a model of bacterial sepsis.

ALTEX 2019 3;36(1):29-38. Epub 2018 Aug 3.

Department of Genetics and Genome Biology, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.

An ex vivo, porcine spleen perfusion model was established to study the early events occurring in the spleen prior to the onset of bacterial sepsis, using organs retrieved from animals slaughtered for food production. Porcine spleens were harvested from adult pigs and connected to a normothermic extracorporeal perfusion circuit. A constant perfusion of heparinized blood was performed for 6 hours. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1805131DOI Listing
August 2018
8 Reads

Sex and media: Considerations for cell culture studies.

ALTEX 2018 27;35(4):435-440. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

Diabetes, Obesity, and Wellness Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Cell culture has enhanced our understanding of cellular physiology and constitutes an important tool in advancing mechanistic insight. Researchers should be reminded, however, that there are limitations in extrapolating data derived from cultured cells to questions focusing on the impact of sex. In this Opinion, we highlight two underappreciated aspects of cell culture systems regarding sex: how cell culture media alters the sex hormone environment, and how the innate sex of the cell is often not factored into the overall analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1806151DOI Listing
July 2018
3 Reads

Investigating cell type specific mechanisms contributing to acute oral toxicity.

ALTEX 2019 12;36(1):39-64. Epub 2018 Jul 12.

EU Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC), Ispra, Italy.

The replacement of animals in acute systemic toxicity testing remains a considerable challenge. Only animal data are currently accepted by regulators, including data generated by reduction and refinement methods. The development of Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment (IATA) is hampered by an insufficient understanding of the numerous toxicity pathways that lead to acute systemic toxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1805181DOI Listing
July 2018
6 Reads

Replacement of foot-and-mouth disease virus cattle tongue titration by in vitro titration

ALTEX 2018 12;35(4):489-494. Epub 2018 Jul 12.

Boehringer-Ingelheim, Lyon, France.

Titration of foot-and-mouth disease cattle challenge virus in cattle tongue has been the standard for many years in many countries, although titration in animals has been replaced by in vitro methods for all other applications. The objective of the analysis was the replacement of in vivo titration of cattle challenge virus by in vitro titration. Using data from 32 in vivo titration experiments together with the in vitro titration results of the same samples obtained by plaque count on primary lamb or pig kidney cells, as well as data from the virus isolation control chart used in the laboratory, we show that the reproducibility of the in vitro titration is much higher than that of the in vivo titration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1712222DOI Listing
July 2018
4 Reads

Essential components of methods papers.

ALTEX 2018 ;35(3):429-432

Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors (IfADo), Technical University of Dortmund, Dortmund, Germany.

Methods papers are important for the progress of biomedical research, as they provide the essential tools to explore new questions and help to better answer old ones. However, it is often not clear how a methods paper differs from a methods protocol. Confusion between these two very different types of publication is widespread. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1807031DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

Promoting 3Rs in Finland.

ALTEX 2018;35(3):425

Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1807021DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

The 3Rs Competence Centre (3RCC) - better research with less animal testing?

ALTEX 2018;35(3):422-424

Swiss Animal Protection (SAP), Basle, Switzerland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1806251DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

Regulatory acceptance of read-across.

ALTEX 2018;35(3):413-419

Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT), Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1805081DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

Animal testing and its alternatives - the most important omics is economics.

ALTEX 2018 ;35(3):275-305

Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT), Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

For a long time, the discussion about animal testing vs its alternatives centered on animal welfare. This was a static warfare, or at least a gridlock, where life scientists had to take a position and make their value choices and hardly anyone changed sides. Technical advances have changed the frontline somewhat, with in vitro and in silico methods gaining more ground. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1807041DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

Reevaluating the role of megalin in renal vitamin D homeostasis using a human cell-derived microphysiological system

ALTEX 2018 8;35(4):504-515. Epub 2018 Jul 8.

Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

The role of megalin in the regulation of renal vitamin D homeostasis has previously been evaluated in megalin-knockout mice and rat proximal tubule epithelial cells. We revisited these hypotheses that were previously tested solely in rodent models, this time using a 3-dimensional proximal tubule microphysiological system incorporating primary human proximal tubule epithelial cells. Using this human cell-derived model, we confirmed that 25OHD3 is transported into the human proximal tubule epithelium via megalin-mediated endocytosis while bound to vitamin D binding protein. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1803161DOI Listing
July 2018
9 Reads

A human population-based organotypic in vitro model for cardiotoxicity screening.

ALTEX 2018 8;35(4):441-452. Epub 2018 Jul 8.

Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.

Assessing inter-individual variability in responses to xenobiotics remains a substantial challenge, both in drug development with respect to pharmaceuticals and in public health with respect to environmental chemicals. Although approaches exist to characterize pharmacokinetic variability, there are no methods to routinely address pharmacodynamic variability. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of characterizing inter-individual variability in a human in vitro model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1805301DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6231908PMC
July 2018
10 Reads

Normalization of data for viability and relative cell function curves.

ALTEX 2018 ;35(2):268-271

In vitro Toxicology and Biomedicine, Dept inaugurated by the Doerenkamp-Zbinden Foundation, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany.

Many types of assays in cell biology, pharmacology and toxicology generate data in which a parameter is measured in a reference system (negative control) and then also under conditions of increasing stress or drug exposure. To make such data easily comparable, they are normalized, i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/1803231DOI Listing
October 2018
4 Reads

Adaptation of the human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT) to Animal-Product-Free Conditions.

ALTEX 2018 13;35(4):477-488. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

XCellR8 Ltd, The Innovation Centre, Sci-Tech Daresbury, Daresbury, Cheshire, UK.

Skin sensitisers are substances that can elicit allergic responses following skin contact and the process by which this occurs is described as skin sensitisation. Skin sensitisation is defined as a series of key events, that form an adverse outcome pathway (AOP). Key event three in the AOP is dendritic cell activation that can be modelled by the human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT) and is typified by changes in cell surface markers CD54 and CD86 in dendritic cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1710051DOI Listing
June 2018
4 Reads

Completely defined co-culture of adipogenic differentiated ASCs and microvascular endothelial cells

ALTEX 2018 13;35(4):464-476. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Reutlingen University, Reutlingen, Germany.

Vascularized adipose tissue models are highly demanded as alternative to existing animal models to elucidate the mechanisms of widespread diseases, screen for new drugs or asses corresponding safety levels. Standardly used animal-derived sera therein, are associated to ethical concerns, the risk of contaminations and many uncertainties in their composition and impact on cells. Therefore their use should be completely omitted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1802191DOI Listing
June 2018
3 Reads

Material-mediated pyrogens in medical devices: Applicability of the in vitro Monocyte Activation Test.

ALTEX 2018 14;35(4):453-463. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Medtronic plc, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Pyrogenicity presents a challenge to clinicians, medical device manufacturers, and regulators. A febrile response may be caused by endotoxin contamination, microbial components other than endotoxin, or chemical agents that generate a material-mediated pyrogenic response. While test methods for the assessment of endotoxin contamination and some microbial components other than endotoxin are well-established, material-mediated pyrogens remain elusively undefined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1709221DOI Listing
June 2018
25 Reads

In vitro and in silico liver models: Current trends, challenges and opportunities.

ALTEX 2018 28;35(3):397-412. Epub 2018 May 28.

Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia.

Most common drug development failures originate from either bioavailability problems, or unexpected toxic effects. The culprit is often the liver, which is responsible for biotransformation of a majority of xenobiotics. Liver may be modeled using "liver on a chip" devices, which may include established cell lines, primary human cells, and stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1803221DOI Listing
November 2018
27 Reads

A standardized method based on pigmented epidermal models evaluates sensitivity against UV-irradiation.

ALTEX 2018 13;35(3):390-396. Epub 2018 Apr 13.

Translational Center Regenerative Therapies, Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research, Würzburg, Germany.

To protect the human skin from extensive solar radiation, melanocytes produce melanin and disperse it via melanosomes to keratinocytes in the basal and suprabasal layers of the human epidermis. Moreover, melanocytes are associated with pathological skin conditions such as vitiligo and psoriasis. Thus, an in vitro skin model that comprises a defined cutaneous pigmentation system is highly relevant in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and medical research. Read More

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https://www.altex.org/index.php/altex/article/view/248
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1712211DOI Listing
November 2018
16 Reads

Advanced Good Cell Culture Practice for human primary, stem cell-derived and organoid models as well as microphysiological systems.

ALTEX 2018 13;35(3):353-378. Epub 2018 Apr 13.

CAAT-Europe, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany.

A major reason for the current reproducibility crisis in the life sciences is the poor implementation of quality control measures and reporting standards. Improvement is needed, especially regarding increasingly complex in vitro methods. Good Cell Culture Practice (GCCP) was an effort from 1996 to 2005 to develop such minimum quality standards also applicable in academia. Read More

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https://www.altex.org/index.php/altex/article/view/1000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1710081DOI Listing
November 2018
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Giving meaning to alternative methods to animal testing.

ALTEX 2018 ;35(2):256-257

LARF-DIMES, Department of Experimental Medicine (DIMES), University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1802122DOI Listing
January 2018
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