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    26169 results match your criteria AJR. American journal of roentgenology[Journal]

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    CSF Venous Fistulas in Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension: Imaging Characteristics on Dynamic and CT Myelography.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Oct 12:1-7. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    1 All authors: Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3808, Durham, NC 27710.
    Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the anatomic and imaging features of CSF venous fistulas, which are a recently reported cause of spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH).

    Materials And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients with SIH caused by CSF venous fistulas who received treatment at our institution. The anatomic details of each fistula were recorded. Read More

    Diagnostic Performance of DWI for Differentiating High- From Low-Grade Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Oct 12:W1-W8. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    1 Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744, Korea.
    Objective: The purpose of our study was to review the diagnostic performance of DWI for differentiating high- from low-grade clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC).

    Materials And Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases were searched up to March 15, 2017. We included diagnostic accuracy studies that used DWI for differentiating high- from low-grade clear cell RCC compared with histopathologic results of Fuhrman grade based on nephrectomy or biopsy specimens in original research articles. Read More

    Predictability of (99m)Tc-Galactosyl Human Serum Albumin Scintigraphy for Posthepatectomy Liver Failure.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Oct 12:1-8. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    1 Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Shogoinkawahara-cho, Sakyo-Ku, Kyoto, 606-8507, Japan.
    Objective: Posthepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) is one of the most serious complications after hepatectomy. The objective of the present study is to assess the potential diagnostic ability of (99m)Tc-galactosyl human serum albumin (GSA) scintigraphy to predict PHLF as defined by the International Study Group of Liver Surgery (ISGLS).

    Materials And Methods: Data from 100 patients who underwent (99m)Tc-GSA scintigraphy and subsequent hepatectomy were retrospectively analyzed. Read More

    Primary Hepatic Neoplasms of Vascular Origin: Key Imaging Features and Differential Diagnoses With Radiology-Pathology Correlation.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Oct 12:W1-W10. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    1 Department of Radiology, Medstar Georgetown University Hospital, 3800 Reservoir Rd, Washington, DC 20007.
    Objective: This article describes, illustrates, and correlates imaging and pathologic features of primary vascular mesenchymal neoplasms of the liver, which arise from the vascular endothelium and perivascular epithelioid cells.

    Conclusion: Familiarity with the spectrum of benign, malignant-potential and malignant vascular neoplasms, and nonneoplastic mimickers allows consideration in the differential diagnosis of enhancing hepatic masses. Understanding relevant pathologic features facilitates recognition of key imaging features, specifically dynamic contrast enhancement patterns on CT and MRI, which provide a useful classification system. Read More

    Interpretive Differences Between Patients and Radiologists Regarding the Diagnostic Confidence Associated With Commonly Used Phrases in the Radiology Report.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Oct 12:1-4. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    1 Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St. L., MO.
    Objective: Despite patients' increasing interest in reading their own imaging results, little is known about how patients interpret the reporting terminology of radiologists. The purpose of this study was to survey patients and radiologists to improve understanding of how each group views commonly used phrases within the radiology report.

    Subjects And Methods: Patients and radiologists were asked to assign a numerical likelihood of the presence of metastatic disease based on their understanding of radiology report phrasing. Read More

    Incisional Hernia Repair: What the Radiologist Needs to Know.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Oct 12:W1-W8. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    1 Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, 1500 E Hospital Dr, B1D502, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.
    Objective: Incisional hernias are becoming more prevalent with increases in the obesity of the population and the complexity of abdominal surgeries. Radiologists' understanding of these hernias is limited. This article examines abdominal wall anatomy, surgical techniques, the role of imaging (current and emerging), and complications from the surgical perspective, to enhance to the role of the radiologist. Read More

    Benign Posttraumatic Pseudopneumoperitoneum.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Oct 12:1-7. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    1 Department of Radiology, Southern District Health Board, Dunedin Hospital, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Objective: The objective of our study was to retrospectively determine the anatomic distribution of chest wall ectopic gas resembling pneumoperitoneum (i.e., pseudopneumoperitoneum) and its relationship with trauma mechanisms and clinical outcomes using CT. Read More

    Nonstandardized Terminology to Describe Focal Liver Lesions in Patients at Risk for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Implications Regarding Clinical Communication.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Oct 12:1-6. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    1 Department of Radiology, University of California, Davis Medical Center, 4860 Y St, Ste 3100, Sacramento, CA 95817.
    Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the correlation between malignancy risk of focal liver observations in patients at risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) implied by phrases used in nonstructured radiology reports with the risk inferred by hepatologists.

    Materials And Methods: We performed a retrospective review of nonstructured radiology reports issued before Liver Imaging and Reporting Data System (LI-RADS) adoption from four-phase liver CT examinations of patients at risk for HCC. The phrase used by the radiologist in the report impression to describe each focal liver observation was recorded. Read More

    Effect of Radiology Study Flow on Report Turnaround Time.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Oct 5:1-4. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    1 Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar St, PO Box 208042, New Haven, CT 06520.
    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the importance of relative value unit (RVU) flow and other factors in report turnaround time (TAT) in emergency radiologic operations.

    Materials And Methods: RVU flow was defined as the normalized (to 60 minutes) total work RVUs for studies performed in a given time interval of 30 minutes (RVU flow 30) or 60 minutes (RVU flow 60). Twenty-five weekday emergency radiology shifts each for four radiologists were randomly selected. Read More

    The ABCs of BHD: An In-Depth Review of Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Oct 5:1-6. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    1 Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Unit 1473, Houston, TX 77030.
    Objective: Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited syndrome involving multiple organs. In young patients, renal neoplasms that are multiple, bilateral, or both, such as oncocytomas, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC), hybrid chromophobe RCC-oncocytomas, clear cell RCC, and papillary RCC, can suggest BHD syndrome. Extrarenal findings, including dermal lesions, pulmonary cysts, and spontaneous pneumothoraces, also aid in diagnosis. Read More

    Follow-Up of Treatment Response With Dynamic Doppler Ultrasound in Raynaud Phenomenon.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Oct 5:W1-W7. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    1 Department of Radiology, Eskisehir Osmangazi University Faculty of Medicine, Eskisehir, 26480, Turkey.
    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of flow parameters obtained with dynamic Doppler ultrasound in the objective follow-up of treatment response in patients with Raynaud phenomenon (RP).

    Subjects And Methods: The study included 33 patients with newly diagnosed primary RP, 31 with secondary RP, and 26 healthy participants (control subjects). Both groups of patients with RP underwent sonography before and after treatment. Read More

    Malignancy Rate, Histologic Grade, and Progression of Bosniak Category III and IV Complex Renal Cystic Lesions.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Oct 5:1-6. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    1 Department of Radiology, Hospital Israelita Albert Enstein, Avenida Albert Einstein, 627/701, Morumbi, 05652-900, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Objective: The primary purpose of this study is to determine the malignancy rate, histologic grade, and initial stage of surgically treated complex renal cysts classified as Bosniak category III or IV. For nonsurgical lesions, a secondary objective was to evaluate lesion progression on follow-up examinations.

    Materials And Methods: We searched our database for cystic lesions classified as Bosniak III or IV category on CT or MRI from January 2008 to April 2016. Read More

    Dendriform Pulmonary Ossification in the Absence of Usual Interstitial Pneumonia: CT Features and Possible Association With Recurrent Acid Aspiration.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Oct 5:1-6. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    2 Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic Hospital, Phoenix, AZ.
    Objective: Dendriform pulmonary ossification (DPO) is a rare lung disease in which mature bone is present in the peripheral interstitium of the lung. It typically occurs in patients with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). We assessed patients with CT findings of DPO without UIP to determine possible causative factors and to assess the clinical and CT course. Read More

    Distinguishing Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension From Other Causes of Pulmonary Hypertension Using CT.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Oct 5:1-11. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    2 Department of Internal Medicine II, Division of Cardiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Objective: The purpose of this study was to discern imaging findings that separate chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) from other causes of pulmonary hypertension (PH).

    Materials And Methods: A total of 143 patients with proven PH (group 1, pulmonary arterial hypertension; group 2, PH due to left heart disease; group 3, PH due to lung disease; group 4, CTEPH; and group 5, PH due to unclear or multifactorial mechanisms) underwent MDCT angiography. The CT images were assessed for the presence of chronic pulmonary embolism (PE), disparity in segmental vessel size, mosaic perfusion, parenchymal densities, bronchial dilatation, and collateral arteries. Read More

    Comparison of Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System Versions 1 and 2 for the Detection of Peripheral Zone Gleason Score 3 + 4 = 7 Cancers.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Oct 5:W1-W9. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    1 Department of Medical Imaging, The Ottawa Hospital, The University of Ottawa, 1053 Carling Ave, Ottawa, ON, Canada, K1Y 4E9.
    Objective: The objective of our study was to compare Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System Version 1 (PI-RADSv1) and Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System Version 2 (PI-RADSv2) for the detection of peripheral zone (PZ) Gleason score 3 + 4 = 7 cancers.

    Materials And Methods: Forty-seven consecutive patients with 52 PZ Gleason score 3 + 4 = 7 cancers that were 0.5 cm(3) or larger underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) and 3-T MRI between 2012 and 2015. Read More

    Abdominal Imaging Findings in Neurocutaneous Syndromes: Looking Below the Diaphragm.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Oct 5:1-12. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    1 Department of Radiology, Vancouver General Hospital and University of British Columbia, 899 W 12th Ave, Vancouver, BC, Canada V5Z 1M9.
    Objective: Neurocutaneous syndromes are a heterogeneous group of multisystemic disorders. We review the multimodality imaging findings in the disorders with a propensity for intraabdominal disease. We highlight more recently recognized disease patterns and discuss imaging surveillance optimization. Read More

    Whole-Body MRI: Current Applications in Oncology.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Oct 5:W1-W14. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    2 Radiology Department, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton, UK.
    Objective: The purpose of this article is to review current image acquisition and interpretation for whole-body MRI, clinical applications, and the emerging roles in oncologic imaging, especially in the assessment of bone marrow diseases.

    Conclusion: Whole-body MRI is an emerging technique used for early diagnosis, staging, and assessment of therapeutic response in oncology. The improved accessibility and advances in technology, including widely available sequences (Dixon and DWI), have accelerated its deployment and acceptance in clinical practice. Read More

    Modified 3-Point MRI-Based Tumor Regression Grade Incorporating DWI for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Oct 5:1-9. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    4 Colorectal Cancer Center, Kyungpook National University Medical Center, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.
    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic relevance of a modified 3-point MRI-based tumor regression grading system incorporating DWI for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT).

    Materials And Methods: Between March 2012 and September 2013, 118 consecutively registered patients with middle or lower locally advanced rectal cancer who underwent CRT followed by surgery were enrolled in this retrospective study. Two radiologists in consensus assessed MRI tumor regression grade (mrTRG) based on T2-weighted images and high b value DW images (0 and 1000 s/mm(2)) using the following grades: 0, complete regression (no obvious tumor); 1, intermediate regression (dominant fibrosis, regression > 50%); 2, poor regression (dominant tumor, regression ≤ 50%). Read More

    Imaging Genetic Heterogeneity in Glioblastoma and Other Glial Tumors: Review of Current Methods and Future Directions.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Oct 5:1-9. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    6 Department of Radiology, North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, NY.
    Objective: The purpose of this review is to summarize advances in the molecular analysis of gliomas, the role genetics plays in MRI features, and how machine-learning approaches can be used to survey the tumoral environment.

    Conclusion: The genetic profile of gliomas influences the course of treatment and clinical outcomes. Though biopsy is the reference standard for determining tumor genetics, it can suffer diagnostic delays due to surgical planning and pathologic assessment. Read More

    CT Predictors of Unfavorable Clinical Outcomes of Acute Right Colonic Diverticulitis.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Oct 5:1-9. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    3 Department of Radiology, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon, Korea.
    Objective: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively assess CT predictors of unfavorable outcomes of medical treatment in patients with right colonic diverticulitis.

    Materials And Methods: Of 394 patients with right colonic diverticulitis diagnosed on the basis of CT findings from January 2010 through August 2013, we included 328 (190 men, 138 women; mean age, 41.3 ± 12. Read More

    Whole-Body High-Pitch CT Angiography: Strategies to Reduce Radiation Dose and Contrast Volume.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Oct 5:1-8. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    1 Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the noninferiority of dual-source high-pitch CT angiography (CTA) performed with high-concentration (iopamidol 370) low-volume (60 mL) iodinated contrast material at low voltage (100 kVp) in comparison with dual-source high-pitch CTA with standard-of-care low-concentration (iopamidol 300) standard-volume (75 mL) iodinated contrast material at high voltage (120 kVp) to determine whether use of the high-concentration low-volume method would afford a reduction in radiation dose and contrast volume without negatively affecting vascular opacification.

    Subjects And Methods: This study had three arms. A phantom was used to assess vascular contrast enhancement at different iodine and saline solution dilutions with iopamidol 300 or 370 to compare lower-iodination (iopamidol 300) high-voltage (120 kVp) high-pitch (120 kVp, 250 mAs) imaging with higher-iodination (iopamidol 370) low-voltage (100 kVp) high-pitch (100 kVp, 100-240 mAs) acquisition. Read More

    Do MRI Structured Reports for Multiple Sclerosis Contain Adequate Information for Clinical Decision-Making?
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Sep 27:1-6. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    1 Department of Neuroradiology, C. Mondino National Neurological Institute, IRCCS, Pavia, Italy.
    Objective: Few data are available on how often MRI reports provide sufficient information for clinical decision-making in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study is to evaluate if structured reporting of MRI in MS contain adequate information for clinical decision-making compared with nonstructured reporting.

    Materials And Methods: Brain and spinal cord MRI reports of patients with suspected or known MS before and after implementation of a structured reporting template were included. Read More

    Sporadic Inclusion Body Myositis: MRI Findings and Correlation With Clinical and Functional Parameters.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Sep 27:W1-W8. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    1 Department of Radiology, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Objective: The purpose of this prospective study is to assess MRI findings in patients with sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM) and correlate them with clinical and functional parameters.

    Subjects And Methods: This study included 12 patients with biopsy-proven sporadic IBM. All patients underwent MRI of the bilateral upper and lower extremities. Read More

    Smartphone-Guided Needle Angle Selection During CT-Guided Procedures.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Sep 27:1-7. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    1 Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Clinical Center, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bldg 10, Rm 1C351, Bethesda, MD 20892.
    Objective: In CT-guided intervention, translation from a planned needle insertion angle to the actual insertion angle is estimated only with the physician's visuospatial abilities. An iPhone app was developed to reduce reliance on operator ability to estimate and reproduce angles.

    Materials And Methods: The iPhone app overlays the planned angle on the smartphone's camera display in real-time based on the smartphone's orientation. Read More

    CT in the Evaluation of Acute Injuries of the Anterior Eye Segment.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Sep 27:1-7. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    1 The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Division of Neuroradiology, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 600 N Wolfe St, Baltimore, MD 21287.
    Objective: Slit-lamp ophthalmologic examination and ocular B-scan sonography of the globe are frequently constrained by technical limitations in the setting of traumatic orbital injury. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of CT in acute anterior segment ocular injuries as an adjunctive diagnostic modality.

    Materials And Methods: We retrospectively identified 122 patients who presented to the emergency department from April 2011 through April 2016 with recent direct trauma to the anterior segment of the eye. Read More

    Multiparametric MRI for Differentiation of Radiation Necrosis From Recurrent Tumor in Patients With Treated Glioblastoma.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Sep 27:1-6. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    4 Departments of Neurosurgery and Radiation Oncology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.
    Objective: Differentiation of radiation necrosis (RN) from recurrent tumor (RT) in treated patients with glioblastoma remains a diagnostic challenge. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic performance of multiparametric MRI in distinguishing RN from RT in patients with glioblastoma, with the use of a combination of MR perfusion and diffusion parameters.

    Materials And Methods: Patients with glioblastoma who had a new enhancing mass develop after completing standard treatment were retrospectively evaluated. Read More

    Comparison of Absolute Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) Values in ADC Maps Generated Across Different Postprocessing Software: Reproducibility in Endometrial Carcinoma.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Sep 27:1-8. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    1 Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector 12, Chandigarh 160012, India.
    Objective: Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps are usually generated by builtin software provided by the MRI scanner vendors; however, various open-source postprocessing software packages are available for image manipulation and parametric map generation. The purpose of this study is to establish the reproducibility of absolute ADC values obtained using different postprocessing software programs.

    Materials And Methods: DW images with three b values were obtained with a 1. Read More

    Web-Based Tool for Standardized Reporting of Thyroid Ultrasound Studies.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Sep 27:1-4. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    3 Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre and Dalhousie University, Victoria General, 3rd Fl, 1276 South Park St, Halifax, NS B3H 2Y9, Canada.
    Objective: Our objective was to create a user-friendly synoptically driven web-based tool for radiologists to report thyroid ultrasound studies and thereby improve the quality, completeness, and recommendations of reports.

    Conclusion: The tool, developed using JavaScript and PHP (hypertext preprocessor), provides radiologists with a way to generate complete thyroid ultrasound reports and automatically categorize thyroid nodules of varying suspicion. Future work will focus on integration with the radiology information system for seamless reporting and the development of a prospective database. Read More

    Percutaneous Image-Guided Cryoablation of Hepatic Tumors: Single-Center Experience With Intermediate to Long-Term Outcomes.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Sep 27:1-9. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    1 Department of Radiology, Division of Abdominal Imaging and Intervention, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115.
    Objective: The purpose of this article is to report our intermediate to long-term outcomes with image-guided percutaneous hepatic tumor cryoablation and to evaluate its technical success, technique efficacy, local tumor progression, and adverse event rate.

    Materials And Methods: Between 1998 and 2014, 299 hepatic tumors (243 metastases and 56 primary tumors; mean diameter, 2.5 cm; median diameter, 2. Read More

    Head-To-Head Comparison Between High- and Standard-b-Value DWI for Detecting Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Sep 27:1-10. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    1 Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744, Republic of Korea.
    Objective: The purpose of this study was to perform a head-to-head comparison between high-b-value (> 1000 s/mm(2)) and standard-b-value (800-1000 s/mm(2)) DWI regarding diagnostic performance in the detection of prostate cancer.

    Materials And Methods: The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched up to April 1, 2017. The analysis included diagnostic accuracy studies in which high- and standard-b-value DWI were used for prostate cancer detection with histopathologic examination as the reference standard. Read More

    Injectable Viscoelastic Supplements: A Review for Radiologists.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Oct;209(4):883-888
    1 Department of Radiology, Cappagh National Orthopaedic Hospital, Cappagh Rd, Finglas, Dublin 11, Republic of Ireland, D11 EV29.
    Objective: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is increasingly used by musculoskeletal radiologists in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Although the evidence base for its efficacy is controversial, it remains in common use. With initial evidence suggesting its efficacy in the knee, it is now offered for treating OA of the hip, ankle, and elsewhere. Read More

    Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Perfusion Area-Detector CT: Preliminary Comparison of Diagnostic Performance for N Stage Assessment With FDG PET/CT in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Sep 20:W1-W10. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    1 Department of Radiology, Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0017, Japan.
    Objective: The objective of our study was to directly compare the capability of dynamic first-pass contrast-enhanced (CE) perfusion area-detector CT (ADCT) and FDG PET/CT for differentiation of metastatic from nonmetastatic lymph nodes and assessment of N stage in patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC).

    Subjects And Methods: Seventy-seven consecutive patients, 45 men (mean age ± SD, 70.4 ± 5. Read More

    Can Breast Compression Be Reduced in Digital Mammography and Breast Tomosynthesis?
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Sep 20:W1-W11. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    2 Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center and Dutch Reference Centre for Screening, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen 766, The Netherlands.
    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of decreasing breast compression during digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis (DBT) on perceived pain and image quality.

    Materials And Methods: In this two-part study, two groups of women with prior mammograms were recruited. In part 1, subjects were positioned for craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) views, and four levels of compression force were applied to evaluate changes in breast thickness, perceived pain, and relative tissue coverage. Read More

    Ethanol-Gel Sclerotherapy of Venous Malformations: Effectiveness and Safety.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Sep 20:1-6. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    1 Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Regensburg, 93042 Regensburg, Germany.
    Objective: In the treatment of venous malformations, ethanol may be administered in a gelified form to increase local effects and reduce systemic ones. The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a commercially available viscous ethanol gel in the treatment of venous malformations.

    Subjects And Methods: Thirty-one patients (mean age, 23. Read More

    Splenic Artery Embolization in Blunt Trauma: A Single-Center Retrospective Comparison of the Use of Gelatin Sponge Versus Coils.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Sep 20:W1-W6. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    1 Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, 501 Smyth Rd, Ottawa, ON K1H 8L6, Canada.
    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of gelatin sponge with that of coils for splenic artery embolization in the treatment of blunt splenic injury.

    Materials And Methods: A single-center retrospective review was performed with the records of 63 patients (45 men, 18 women; mean age, 45.5 years; range, 16-84 years) with blunt splenic injury treated at a tertiary care trauma center by splenic artery embolization with gelatin sponge (n = 30 patients) or metallic coils (n = 33 patients) between 2005 and 2014. Read More

    Clustered Microcysts on Breast Ultrasound: What Is an Appropriate Management Recommendation?
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Sep 20:W1-W5. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    1 Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, Mount Zion Medical Center, 1600 Divisadero St, Rm C-250, San Francisco, CA 94115.
    Objective: The objective of our study was to determine outcomes of lesions identified as clustered microcysts on breast ultrasound to augment the existing literature and help guide appropriate management recommendations.

    Materials And Methods: We retrospectively identified cases at our institution, from January 2003 through December 2013, of all lesions classified as clustered microcysts at breast ultrasound. Breast ultrasound examinations were performed by the interpreting physician. Read More

    Lung Cancer Risk Associated With New Solid Nodules in the National Lung Screening Trial.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Sep 12:1-6. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    4 Department of Radiology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC.
    Objective: As low-dose CT (LDCT) lung cancer screening moves into routine clinical practice, evaluation of nodules identified as new becomes critical. We examine the frequency and clinical outcomes of new lung nodules reported at the two postbaseline annual screening examinations (hereafter referred to as postbaseline time 1 [T1] and time 2 [T2]), compared with those detected at baseline in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST).

    Materials And Methods: Radiologists classified nodules detected at T1 and T2 as new or preexisting on the basis of comparison with findings from prior LDCT screening examinations. Read More

    Imaging of Children With Nontraumatic Headaches.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Sep 12:1-10. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    1 Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, 201 Dowman Dr, Atlanta, GA 30322.
    Objective: Headache in children is a common symptom and often is worrisome for clinicians and parents because of the breadth of possible underlying significant abnormalities, including meningitis, brain neoplasms, and intracranial hemorrhage. For this reason, many children with headaches undergo neuroimaging. Most neuroimaging studies performed of children with headaches have normal findings but may lead to significant downstream effects, including unnecessary exposure to ionizing radiation or sedation, as well as unnecessary cost to the health care system. Read More

    Trans-Atlantic Comparison of CT Radiation Doses in the Era of Radiation Dose-Tracking Software.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Sep 12:1-6. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    1 Clinic of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Petersgraben 4, Basel, CH 4031, Switzerland.
    Objective: The purpose of this study is to compare diagnostic reference levels from a local European CT dose registry, using radiation-tracking software from a large patient sample, with preexisting European and North American diagnostic reference levels.

    Materials And Methods: Data (n = 43,761 CT scans obtained over the course of 2 years) for the European local CT dose registry were obtained from eight CT scanners at six institutions. Means, medians, and interquartile ranges of volumetric CT dose index (CTDIvol), dose-length product (DLP), size-specific dose estimate, and effective dose values for CT examinations of the head, paranasal sinuses, thorax, pulmonary angiogram, abdomen-pelvis, renal-colic, thorax-abdomen-pelvis, and thoracoabdominal angiogram were obtained using radiation-tracking software. Read More

    Technologist-Directed Repeat Musculoskeletal and Chest Radiographs: How Often Do They Impact Diagnosis?
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Sep 12:1-5. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    1 Department of Radiology, Center for Biomedical Imaging, NYU School of Medicine, NYU Langone Medical Center, 660 First Ave, 3rd Fl, New York, NY 10016.
    Objective: Radiologic technologists may repeat images within a radiographic examination because of perceived suboptimal image quality, excluding these original images from submission to a PACS. This study assesses the appropriateness of technologists' decisions to repeat musculoskeletal and chest radiographs as well as the utility of repeat radiographs in addressing examinations' clinical indication.

    Materials And Methods: We included 95 musculoskeletal and 87 chest radiographic examinations in which the technologist repeated one or more images because of perceived image quality issues, rejecting original images from PACS submission. Read More

    Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Retrospective Cohort Study of the Predictive Value of Perfusion Defect Volume Measured With Dual-Energy CT.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Sep 12:1-8. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    1 Department of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-752, South Korea.
    Objective: The purposes of this study were to investigate dual-energy CT findings predictive of clinical outcome and to determine the incremental risk stratification benefit of dual-energy CT findings compared with CT ventricular diameter ratio in patients with acute pulmonary embolism.

    Materials And Methods: A retrospective evaluation was conducted of the cases of 172 patients with acute pulmonary embolism who underwent dual-energy CT. Ventricular diameter ratio and relative perfusion defect volume were measured. Read More

    Computerized Bone Age Estimation Using Deep Learning Based Program: Evaluation of the Accuracy and Efficiency.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Sep 12:1-7. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    2 Vuno Research Center, Vuno Inc., Seoul, South Korea.
    Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of a new automatic software system for bone age assessment and to validate its feasibility in clinical practice.

    Materials And Methods: A Greulich-Pyle method-based deep-learning technique was used to develop the automatic software system for bone age determination. Using this software, bone age was estimated from left-hand radiographs of 200 patients (3-17 years old) using first-rank bone age (software only), computer-assisted bone age (two radiologists with software assistance), and Greulich-Pyle atlas-assisted bone age (two radiologists with Greulich-Pyle atlas assistance only). Read More

    Diagnostic Utility of MRI After Negative or Inconclusive Mammography for the Evaluation of Pathologic Nipple Discharge.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Sep 12:1-6. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    1 Department of Radiology, Division of Breast Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit St, WAC 240, Boston, MA 02114.
    Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the diagnostic utility of MRI after negative or inconclusive mammography for the evaluation of pathologic nipple discharge.

    Materials And Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of breast MRI examinations from January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2015, that were performed after negative or inconclusive mammography for the evaluation of nipple discharge. Clinical notes, imaging findings, and pathology outcomes were reviewed. Read More

    Imaging of Uncommon Causes of Large-Bowel Obstruction.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Sep 5:W1-W10. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    2 Department of Radiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY.
    Objective: The most common causes of large-bowel obstruction (LBO) are colon carcinoma and volvulus. Nevertheless, the increased frequency of the condition and widespread use of diagnostic imaging have revealed uncommon causes of LBO. We review the imaging features of the unusual causes of LBO on several imaging modalities, with particular emphasis on CT, along with the current literature. Read More

    Mammography Positioning Standards in the Digital Era: Is the Status Quo Acceptable?
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Sep 5:1-7. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    1 Department of Radiology, The University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd, Mail Stop 4032, Kansas City, KS 66160.
    Objective: The objective of our study was to evaluate positioning of full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) compared with film-screen (FS) mammography positioning standards.

    Materials And Methods: A retrospective study was conducted of consecutive patients who underwent screening FFDM in 2010-2012 and DBT in 2012-2013 at an academic institution. Examinations were performed by five experienced technologists who underwent updated standardized positioning training. Read More

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