26,823 results match your criteria AJR. American journal of roentgenology[Journal]


Overstated Harms of Breast Cancer Screening? A Large Outcomes Analysis of Complications Associated With 9-Gauge Stereotactic Vacuum-Assisted Breast Biopsy.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Feb 11:1-8. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

1 Department of Radiology, NYU School of Medicine, NYU Langone Health, 160 E 34th St, 3rd Fl, New York, NY 10016.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the rate, type, and severity of complications related to 9-gauge stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (SVAB) and to delineate associated factors that may contribute to a higher rate of complications.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective study included 4776 patients who underwent SVAB between 2003 and 2016. A total of 319 patients with documented postbiopsy complications were identified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20421DOI Listing
February 2019

Neurofibromatosis Type 1: Description of a Novel Diagnostic Scoring System in Pediatric Optic Nerve Glioma.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Feb 11:1-7. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

1 Department of Medical Imaging, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University, 1001 Decarie Blvd, Rm B02.7005, Montreal, QC H4A 3J1, Canada.

Objective: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a multisystemic genetic disease in which patients develop benign tumors including optic nerve gliomas (ONG). Optic nerve thickening and tortuosity are radiologic markers of tumors but can also be present in children with NF1 who do not have gliomas, thus complicating screening and diagnosis. We undertook this study to retrospectively determine quantitative and qualitative diagnostic criteria using MRI of the orbits for ONG in children with NF1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20044DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Qualitative Radiogenomics: Association Between BI-RADS Calcification Descriptors and Recurrence Risk as Assessed by the Oncotype DX Ductal Carcinoma In Situ Score.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Feb 4:1-6. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

2 Department of Radiology & Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.

Objective: Treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is controversial given the variable recurrence and progression to invasive carcinoma. Identifying women who would benefit from adjuvant radiation therapy on the basis of their recurrence risk may allow more individualized management strategies. The Oncotype DX Breast DCIS Score-which we refer to here as the "DCIS score"-is a validated surrogate marker of local recurrence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20306DOI Listing
February 2019

Diagnostic Accuracy of Dual-Energy CT for Evaluation of Renal Masses: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Feb 4:1-6. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

1 Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, School of Epidemiology, Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of dual-energy CT (DECT) using quantitative iodine concentration in patients with renal masses using histopathologic analysis or follow-up imaging as the reference standard. The secondary objective is to compare the accuracy of DECT (using iodine concentration) to that of conventional CT (using Hounsfield unit measurements).

Materials And Methods: We searched the MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for studies evaluating the accuracy of DECT for renal mass characterization (1947-2018). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20527DOI Listing
February 2019

The Influence of Background Signal Intensity Changes on Cancer Detection in Prostate MRI.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Feb 4:1-7. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

6 Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Objective: The objective of this study was to develop a scoring system for background signal intensity changes or prostate homogeneity on prostate MRI and to assess these changes' influence on cancer detection.

Materials And Methods: This institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant, retrospective study included 418 prostate MRI examinations in 385 men who subsequently underwent MRI-guided biopsy. The Likert score for suspicion of cancer assigned by the primary radiologist was extracted from the original report, and histopathologic work-up of the biopsy cores served as the reference standard. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20295DOI Listing
February 2019

Feasibility of Image Fusion for Concurrent MRI Evaluation of Vessel Lumen and Vascular Calcifications in Peripheral Arterial Disease.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Feb 4:1-5. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

1 Department of Radiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL.

Objective: With MR angiography of peripheral arterial disease, calcifications are unapparent, so a separate calcification-sensitive pulse sequence (proton density-weighted in-phase 3D stack-of-stars [PDIP-SOS]) is needed for complete assessment. We hypothesized that, despite being acquired separately, MR angiography and PDIP-SOS images could be coregistered and fused without loss of significant diagnostic information.

Conclusion: In a prospective study of 15 patients, MR image fusion enabled the simultaneous display of vessel lumen and vascular calcifications similarly to CT angiography. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20000DOI Listing
February 2019

Neurointerventional Radiology for the Aspiring Radiology Resident: Current State of the Field and Future Directions.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Jan 30:1-6. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

3 Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Neuroradiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Objective: The purposes of this study were to document recent trends in stroke intervention at a tertiary-care facility with a comprehensive stroke center and to analyze current procedure volumes and the employment of specialty providers in neurointerventional radiology (NIR).

Materials And Methods: Institutional trends in the volume of mechanical thrombectomy were analyzed on the basis of the number of patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy from 2013 to 2017. To evaluate the current status of mechanical thrombectomy volumes in the United States, the number of patients in the Medicare fee-for-service database who underwent mechanical thrombectomy in 2016 was assessed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20336DOI Listing
January 2019

Percutaneous Ultrasound-Guided Intervention for Upper Extremity Neural and Perineural Abnormalities: A Retrospective Review of 242 Cases.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Jan 30:W1-W10. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

3 Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe clinical experience with ultrasound-guided therapeutic procedures and associated pathologic conditions involving the peripheral nerves of the upper extremity over 5 years at a large academic institution.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective database search of procedure codes was performed for all ultrasound-guided upper extremity peripheral nerve procedures between 2012 and 2017. Retrospective review of the electronic medical record for patient demographics, indications, interval follow-up pain relief, and complications was undertaken. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20047DOI Listing
January 2019

Automatic Disease Annotation From Radiology Reports Using Artificial Intelligence Implemented by a Recurrent Neural Network.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Jan 30:1-7. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

4 Center for Integration of Advanced Medicine Life Science Innovative Technologies, Department of Advanced Medical Initiatives, Kyushu University, 3-1-1, Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka-shi, Fukuoka-ken 812-8582, Japan.

Objective: Radiology reports are rich resources for biomedical researchers. Before utilization of radiology reports, experts must manually review these reports to identify the categories. In fact, automatically categorizing electronic medical record (EMR) text with key annotation is difficult because it has a free-text format. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.19869DOI Listing
January 2019

Detection of Hyperacute Reactions of Desacetylvinblastine Monohydrazide in a Xenograft Model Using Intravoxel Incoherent Motion DWI and R2* Mapping.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Jan 30:1-10. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

1 Medical Imaging Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, No. 613, Huangpu Rd West, Tianhe District, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510630, China.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) DWI and R2* (transverse relaxation rate) mapping to monitor the hyperacute therapeutic efficacy of desacetylvinblastine monohydrazide (DAVLBH) on an experimental hepatocellular carcinoma mouse model within 24 hours.

Materials And Methods: Forty-four mice were implanted with hepatocellular carcinoma and divided into three random groups. A treatment group and a control group underwent IVIM-DWI and R2* mapping examinations before and after a single injection of DAVLBH or saline at 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20517DOI Listing
January 2019

Ulnar Collateral Ligament Insertional Injuries in Pediatric Overhead Athletes: Are MRI Findings Predictive of Symptoms or Need for Surgery?

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Jan 30:1-7. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

1 Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital-Columbia University Medical Center, 622 W 168th St, MC-28, New York, NY 10032.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) insertion below the articular margin (so-called T sign) exists in the pediatric population and whether MRI features can be used to identify insertional UCL injuries in overhead athletes that are symptomatic or require surgery.

Materials And Methods: Retrospective review of elbow MR images of patients younger than 21 years from 2011 to 2017 yielded 26 control subjects who were not overhead athletes and 97 overhead athletes. According to the clinical diagnosis, 50 of the overhead athletes had symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20474DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Safety and Image Quality of 1.5-T Endorectal Coil Multiparametric MRI of the Prostate or Prostatectomy Fossa for Patients With Pacemaker or Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Jan 30:1-8. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

3 Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to report the patient safety and image quality of 1.5-T multiparametric MRI of the prostate in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs).

Materials And Methods: In this retrospective study, a database was searched to identify prostate multiparametric 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20266DOI Listing
January 2019

New Job, New Challenges: Life After Radiology Training.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Jan 30:1-7. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

1 Department of Radiology, Wake Forest University and Baptist Health, 1 Medical Center Blvd, Winston-Salem, NC 27157.

Objective: Beginning a new job after radiology training is exciting but can also be nerve-racking. The key challenge remains making the strange familiar and assimilating with the new practice as soon as possible. This process is complicated and may require learning new policies, getting to know new colleagues, adapting to new surroundings, and learning new skills. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20398DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read
2.731 Impact Factor

Comparison of Radiation Dose and Image Quality of Contrast-Enhanced Dual-Source CT of the Chest: Single-Versus Dual-Energy and Second-Versus Third-Generation Technology.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Jan 30:1-7. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

1 Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Division of Experimental and Imaging, University Hospital Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt, Germany.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare radiation dose and image quality of single- and dual-energy CT (SECT, DECT) examinations of the chest in matched cohorts for second and third-generation dual-source CT (DSCT) systems.

Materials And Methods: We analyzed 200 patients (100 men; mean age, 61.7 ± 14. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20065DOI Listing
January 2019

Evaluation of a Ferromagnetic Marker Technology for Intraoperative Localization of Nonpalpable Breast Lesions.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Jan 23:1-7. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

1 All authors: Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Ave, Toronto, ON M4N 3M5, Canada.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the magnetic occult lesion localization instrument (MOLLI) system that involves implantation of a small, ferromagnetic marker to guide surgical excision of nonpalpable breast lesions. Characterization of the system was undertaken as part of what is, to our knowledge, the first study to assess the MOLLI system.

Materials And Methods: The MOLLI system consists of a handheld probe that can detect the position and distance of an implanted magnetic marker. Read More

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https://www.ajronline.org/doi/10.2214/AJR.18.20195
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20195DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads
2.731 Impact Factor

Dual-Source Dual-Energy CT in Detection and Characterization of Urinary Stones in Patients With Large Body Habitus: Observations in a Large Cohort.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Jan 23:1-6. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

1 Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit St, White 270, Boston, MA 02114.

Objective: The objective of our study was to investigate the impact of large body habitus on dual-energy CT (DECT) image quality and stone characterization.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively included 105 consecutive patients with large body habitus (> 90 kg) who underwent stone protocol DECT between 2015 and 2017. The evaluation of DECT datasets was performed for image quality assessment based on European Guidelines on Quality Criteria for Computed Tomography and for determination of stone composition (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20293DOI Listing
January 2019

Differentiation Between Lymphangioleiomyomatosis and Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome: Analysis of Pulmonary Cysts on CT Images.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Jan 23:1-7. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

2 Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objective: The purposes of this study were to identify diagnostic imaging markers for differentiating pulmonary cysts in lymphangioleiomyomatosis and Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome and to identify potential risk factors for spontaneous pneumothorax in the two diseases.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective study included 44 patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis (44 women; mean age, 35 ± 10.9 years) and 13 patients with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (nine men, four women; mean age, 45. Read More

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https://www.ajronline.org/doi/10.2214/AJR.18.20232
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20232DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads
2.731 Impact Factor

Pilot Study to Diagnose Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis With Dynamic F-FDG PET.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Jan 23:1-9. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

2 Department of Radiology, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, CA.

Objective: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are major causes of chronic liver disease characterized by steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. Diagnosis of inflammation is limited by the need for liver biopsy. Dynamic PET with the widely used radiotracer F-FDG provides a novel method for evaluating spatial and temporal changes in liver inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20012DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Detection Rates for Benign and Malignant Diagnoses on Breast Cancer Screening With Digital Breast Tomosynthesis in a Statewide Mammography Registry Study.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Jan 23:1-6. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

1 Department of Surgery, University of Vermont, 1 S Prospect St, UHC Rm 4425, Burlington, VT 05401.

Objective: The objective of our study was to determine whether detection rates of specific benign and malignant diagnoses differ for breast cancer screening with digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) versus full-field digital mammography (FFDM) alone.

Materials And Methods: We analyzed observational data from the Vermont Breast Cancer Surveillance System, including 86,349 DBT screening examinations and 97,378 FFDM screening examinations performed at eight radiology facilities in Vermont that adopted DBT screening during 2012-2016. We determined the most severe diagnosis made within 6 months after positive screening examinations. Read More

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https://www.ajronline.org/doi/10.2214/AJR.18.20255
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20255DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Tomosynthesis-Guided Needle Localization of Breast and Axillary Lesions: Our Initial Experience.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Jan 23:1-4. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

1 Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to review tomosynthesis-guided wire and seed needle localizations of the breast and axilla performed at our institution.

Conclusion: Tomosynthesis-guided needle localizations were performed for 38 lesions, including 14 architectural distortions, five groups of calcifications, two focal asymmetries, three masses, four breast clips, and 10 axillary clips. All lesions were successfully removed at surgery, indicating that breast and axillary lesions can be precisely localized under tomosynthesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20363DOI Listing
January 2019

Comparison of Tin Filter-Based Spectral Shaping CT and Low-Dose Protocol for Detection of Urinary Calculi.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Jan 23:1-7. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

1 Department of Radiology, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 676 N Saint Clair St, Ste 800, Chicago, IL 60611.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the performance of tin filter-based spectral shaping CT compared with routine low-dose CT for detection of urolithiasis.

Materials And Methods: Unenhanced third-generation dual-source CT scans of 129 consecutively registered patients were retrospectively reviewed: 43 patients underwent CT for detection of renal stones with tin filtration (Sn150 kV); 43 patients underwent a routine low-dose CT protocol at 100 kV; and 43 patients underwent a routine CT protocol with automated tube potential selection (110-120 kV). Image quality was evaluated subjectively and objectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20154DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Naviculocuneiform and Second and Third Tarsometatarsal Articulations: Underappreciated Normal Anatomy and How It May Affect Fluoroscopy-Guided Injections.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Jan 23:1-9. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

2 Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.

Objective: Because the second and third tarsometatarsal (TMT) and naviculocuneiform joints normally communicate, the least arthritic or technically most straightforward joint was injected when a fluoroscopically guided therapeutic injection was ordered for one or both joints. We hypothesized that pain relief would be equivalent regardless of the joint injected and would result in less radiation and a lower steroid dose compared with patients who had both articulations injected.

Materials And Methods: Seventy-eight patients were divided into four joint groups: naviculocuneiform requested and injected (n = 15), nonrequested naviculocuneiform or second and third TMT injected (n = 25), both injected (n = 23), and TMT requested and injected (n = 15). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20347DOI Listing
January 2019

Accuracy of 3-T MRI for Preoperative T Staging of Esophageal Cancer After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy, With Histopathologic Correlation.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Jan 23:1-8. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

1 Department of Radiology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan Cancer Hospital, 127 Dongming Rd, Zhengzhou, China 450008.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the value of 3-T MRI for evaluating the preoperative T staging of esophageal cancer (EC) treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), with histopathologic confirmation.

Subjects And Methods: This prospective study enrolled patients for whom endoscopic biopsy showed EC and pretreatment CT showed stage cT1N+M0 or cT2-T4aN0-N3M0. All patients received two cycles of NAC (paclitaxel and nedaplatin protocol) followed by 3-T MRI and surgical resection. Read More

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https://www.ajronline.org/doi/10.2214/AJR.18.20204
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20204DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor: Imaging Pattern of Disease at Presentation.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Jan 23:W1-W10. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

4 Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical, pathologic, and multimodality cross-sectional imaging features of a cohort of 94 patients with desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT).

Materials And Methods: This retrospective study of 94 patients with pathologically verified DSRCT was conducted at a tertiary cancer center between 2001 and 2013. Epidemiologic, clinical, pathologic, and imaging findings were recorded. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20179DOI Listing
January 2019

Negative Biopsy of Focal Hepatic Lesions: Decision Tree Model for Patient Management.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Jan 23:1-9. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

1 Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, 2301 Erwin Rd, Durham, NC 27710.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate patient- and procedure-related variables affecting the false-negative rate of ultrasound (US)-guided liver biopsy and to develop a standardized patient-tailored predictive model for the management of negative biopsy results.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively included 389 patients (mean age ± SD, 62 ± 12 years old) who had undergone US-guided liver biopsy of 405 liver lesions between January 1, 2013, and June 30, 2015. We collected multiple patient- and procedure-related variables. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20268DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Patient Shielding in Diagnostic Imaging: Discontinuing a Legacy Practice.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Jan 23:1-3. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

1 University of Colorado School of Medicine, 12700 E. 19th Ave, Mail Stop C278, Aurora, CO 80045.

Objective: Patient shielding is standard practice in diagnostic imaging, despite growing evidence that it provides negligible or no benefit and carries a substantial risk of increasing patient dose and compromising the diagnostic efficacy of an image. The historical rationale for patient shielding is described, and the folly of its continued use is discussed.

Conclusion: Although change is difficult, it is incumbent on radiologic technologists, medical physicists, and radiologists to abandon the practice of patient shielding in radiology. Read More

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https://www.ajronline.org/doi/10.2214/AJR.18.20508
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20508DOI Listing
January 2019
19 Reads

Resected Pure Small Cell Lung Carcinomas and Combined Small Cell Lung Carcinomas: Histopathology Features, Imaging Features, and Prognoses.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Jan 23:1-9. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

3 Department of Thoracic Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: The objective of our study was to investigate histopathology features, imaging features, and prognoses of surgically resected pure small cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs) and combined SCLCs.

Materials And Methods: Forty-one patients with a pure SCLC or a combined SCLC underwent preoperative chest CT and F-FDG PET/CT and subsequent surgical resection. The clinicopathologic findings were noted by reviewing the electronic medical records. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20519DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Clinical Assessment of Metal Artifact Reduction Methods in Dual-Energy CT Examinations of Instrumented Spines.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Feb 12;212(2):395-401. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

1 Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 1st St SW, Rochester, MN 55905.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of three metal artifact reduction methods in dual-energy CT (DECT) examinations of instrumented spines.

Materials And Methods: Twenty patients with instrumented spines who underwent spine DECT were retrospectively identified. All scans were obtained on a dual-source 128-MDCT scanner. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.19757DOI Listing
February 2019

Detection of Lumbar Spine Osseous Metastases Using Dual-Energy CT: Phantom Results and Preliminary Clinical Validation.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Feb 12;212(2):402-410. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

1 Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Ave, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity, tumor conspicuity, and image quality of different material decomposition images of phantoms and patients with nearly isodense bone metastases using rapid-kilovoltage-switching dual-energy CT (DECT).

Materials And Methods: Fifty-one semianthropomorphic lumbar spine phantoms embedded with 75 simulated tumors were scanned without and with outer torso-attenuating encasement under the same scan settings. Two radiologists independently reviewed the 70-keV virtual monochromatic and material decomposition images (hydroxyapatite-water, water-hydroxyapatite, cortical bone-water, water-cortical bone). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.19933DOI Listing
February 2019

Reply to "Ultrasound Versus CT for the Diagnosis of Acute Cholecystitis".

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Feb;212(2):W44

1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20540DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Corrections.

Authors:

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Feb;212(2):479

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.21056DOI Listing
February 2019

Corrections.

Authors:

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Feb;212(2):479

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.21055DOI Listing
February 2019

Ultrasound Versus CT for the Diagnosis of Acute Cholecystitis.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Feb;212(2):W43

1 Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20440DOI Listing
February 2019

Response to: "MRI Features Predictive of Invasive Placenta With Extrauterine Spread in High-Risk Gravid Patients: Methodologic Issues".

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Feb;212(2):W42

1 National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Aretaieion Hospital, Athens, Greece

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20647DOI Listing
February 2019

MRI Features Predictive of Invasive Placenta With Extrauterine Spread in High-Risk Gravid Patients: Methodologic Issues.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Feb;212(2):W41

2 School of Public Health, Safety Promotions and Injury Prevention Research Centre, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20426DOI Listing
February 2019

New Frontiers: An Update on Computer-Aided Diagnosis for Breast Imaging in the Age of Artificial Intelligence.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Feb;212(2):300-307

1 Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, 160 E 34th St, New York, NY 10016.

Objective: The purpose of this article is to compare traditional versus machine learning-based computer-aided detection (CAD) platforms in breast imaging with a focus on mammography, to underscore limitations of traditional CAD, and to highlight potential solutions in new CAD systems under development for the future.

Conclusion: CAD development for breast imaging is undergoing a paradigm shift based on vast improvement of computing power and rapid emergence of advanced deep learning algorithms, heralding new systems that may hold real potential to improve clinical care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20392DOI Listing
February 2019

Why Am I Seeing Double?

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Feb;212(2):237

1 Editor in Chief

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20672DOI Listing
February 2019

Section Editor's Notebook: Augmented Intelligence in Women's Imaging-A Compelling Value Proposition.

Authors:
Marcia C Javitt

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Feb;212(2):248-249

1 Section Editor for Women's Imaging, Rambam Health Care Campus

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20175DOI Listing
February 2019

Dual-Energy CT Material Density Iodine Quantification for Distinguishing Vascular From Nonvascular Renal Lesions: Normalization Reduces Intermanufacturer Threshold Variability.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Feb;212(2):366-376

3 Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether a single, uniform normalized iodine threshold reduces variability and enables reliable differentiation between vascular and nonvascular renal lesions independent of the dual-energy CT (DECT) platform used.

Materials And Methods: In this retrospective, HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board-approved study, 247 patients (156 men, 91 women; mean age ± SD, 67 ± 12 years old) with 263 renal lesions (193 nonvascular, 70 vascular) underwent unenhanced single-energy and contrast-enhanced DECT scans. One hundred and six nonvascular and 38 vascular lesions were scanned on two dual-source DECT (dsDECT) scanners, and 87 nonvascular and 32 vascular lesions were scanned on two rapid-kilovoltage-switching single-source DECT (rsDECT) scanners. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20115DOI Listing
February 2019
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DWI of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: A Pilot Study to Estimate the Correlation With Metastatic Disease Potential and Overall Survival.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Feb 4;212(2):323-331. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

1 Department of Radiology, Division of Abdominal Imaging, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Ave, Ansin 235, Boston, MA 02115.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and the presence or development of metastasis and overall survival (OS).

Materials And Methods: Of 290 consecutive patients with histopathologically proven PDAC from January 2013 to December 2014, staging DWI was performed for 124 patients. Image quality was adequate in 112 studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20017DOI Listing
February 2019

Predicting the Development of Surgically Induced Chronic Kidney Disease After Total Nephrectomy Using Body Surface Area-Adjusted Renal Cortical Volume on CT Angiography.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Feb 12;212(2):W32-W40. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

1 Department of Radiology, Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, #125-1, 5-Ka Anam-dong, Sungbukku, Seoul 136-705, Korea.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to predict the probability of surgically induced chronic kidney disease (CKD) developing in patients who underwent total nephrectomy by measuring the body surface area (BSA)-adjusted renal cortical volume (RCV) with preoperative CT angiography (CTA).

Materials And Methods: A total of 105 patients with a normal preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) who underwent preoperative CTA and subsequent total nephrectomy for kidney donation (n = 67) or a renal tumor (n = 38) were included in this retrospective study. Patients were divided into group A (patients without surgically induced CKD; n = 61) and group B (patients with surgically induced CKD; n = 44) according to postoperative renal function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20135DOI Listing
February 2019

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AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Feb;212(2):479

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20994DOI Listing
February 2019

Factors Predicting Positive Culture in CT-Guided Bone Biopsy Performed for Suspected Osteomyelitis.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Jan 15:1-5. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

2 Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, 185 Berry St, Ste 350, Lobby 6, San Francisco, CA 94107.

Objective: The goal of this study was to identify clinical factors and radiographic characteristics associated with positive culture results from bone biopsy in cases of suspected osteomyelitis.

Materials And Methods: A total of 997 CT-guided bone biopsies were reviewed. We reviewed the images and medical records of 29 cases of suspected osteomyelitis to determine if any of the following factors affected culture results: age, sex, history of diabetes, collection of fluid aspirate at the time of biopsy, recent antibiotic therapy, elevated WBC count, and mean attenuation. Read More

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https://www.ajronline.org/doi/10.2214/AJR.18.20125
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20125DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Children: Clinical and Imaging Features.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Jan 15:1-10. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

4 Neurology Division, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH.

Objective: The objective of our study was to identify the clinical features and imaging findings of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in children.

Materials And Methods: During the study period, ACS was diagnosed in 50 children, 14 of whom underwent CT or MRI. We reviewed the medical records of the 50 children to obtain clinical information, such as underlying risk factors, therapeutic approach, and clinical outcome, and we evaluated the CT and MRI examinations of the 14 children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20119DOI Listing
January 2019
15 Reads

The Relevance of Ulnar-Sided Contrast Extravasation During Radiocarpal Joint Wrist Arthrography.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Jan 15:1-6. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

2 Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University School of Medicine, PO Box 208042, New Haven, CT 06520-8042.

Objective: Contrast material often extends from the radiocarpal joint into the proximal soft tissues adjacent to the ulnar aspect of the ulnar styloid during single-compartment radiocarpal joint MR arthrography of the wrist. The hypothesis of this study was that this is a common finding unrelated to symptoms or examination technique.

Materials And Methods: Wrist MR arthrograms were retrospectively reviewed in consensus by two radiologists. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20304DOI Listing
January 2019
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Texture Analysis of Imaging: What Radiologists Need to Know.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Jan 15:1-9. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

1 All authors: Department of Radiology, University of Southern California, 1441 Eastlake Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90033.

Objective: Radiologic texture is the variation in image intensities within an image and is an important part of radiomics. The objective of this article is to discuss some parameters that affect the performance of texture metrics and propose recommendations that can guide both the design and evaluation of future radiomics studies.

Conclusion: A variety of texture-extraction techniques are used to assess clinical imaging data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20624DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Multiparametric CT for Noninvasive Staging of Hepatitis C Virus-Related Liver Fibrosis: Correlation With the Histopathologic Fibrosis Score.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Jan 15:1-7. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

1 Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine & Public Health, E3/311 Clinical Science Center, 600 Highland Ave, Madison, WI 53792-3252.

Objective: The objective was to develop a multiparametric CT algorithm to stage liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.

Materials And Methods: Abdominal CT and laboratory measures in 469 patients with HCV (340 men and 129 women; mean age, 50.1 years) were compared against the histopathologic Metavir fibrosis reference standard (F0, n = 49 patients; F1, n = 69 patients; F2, n = 102 patients; F3, n = 76 patients; F4, n = 173 patients). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20284DOI Listing
January 2019
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Differentiation of Kawasaki Disease From Other Causes of Fever and Cervical Lymphadenopathy: A Diagnostic Scoring System Using Contrast-Enhanced CT.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Jan 15:1-7. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

1 Department of Radiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, Aichi, 467-8601 Japan.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the characteristic findings of contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) of the neck in patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) and to develop a diagnostic scoring system to facilitate the diagnosis of KD versus other causes of fever and cervical lymphadenopathy.

Materials And Methods: Two blinded radiologists evaluated CECT images of 37 patients with KD and 92 patients without KD who had febrile cervical lymphadenopathy, first independently and then in consensus. Significant findings in CECT images were evaluated through cervical edema and lymph node scores. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20262DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

High-Pitch Wide-Coverage Fast-Kilovoltage-Switching Dual-Energy CT: Impact of Pitch on Noise, Spatial Resolution, and Iodine Quantification in a Phantom Study.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Jan 15:W1-W9. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

1 Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, 2301 Erwin Rd, Box 3808, Durham, NC 27710.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of high pitch values on image noise, spatial resolution, and iodine quantification in single-source wide-coverage fast-kilovoltage-switching dual-energy CT (DECT).

Materials And Methods: Two phantom experiments were conducted. First, image noise and spatial resolution in the x-, y-, and z-directions were assessed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.19851DOI Listing
January 2019
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Diagnostic Yield and Complication Rate in Percutaneous Needle Biopsy of Renal Hilar Masses With Comparison With Renal Cortical Mass Biopsies in a Cohort of 195 Patients.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Jan 15:1-6. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

1 Department of Medical Imaging, The Ottawa Hospital, 1053 Carling Ave, Rm C159, Ottawa, ON K1Y 4E9, Canada.

Objective: The objective of this study was to compare diagnostic yield and complication rate in needle biopsy (NB) of renal hilar and cortical masses.

Materials And Methods: With institutional review board approval, we retrospectively studied 195 patients (120 men, 75 women; mean age ± SD, 67 ± 13 years old) who underwent ultrasound-guided renal mass NB between January 2013 and December 2017. Operator years of experience, biopsy technique (coaxial or successive), needle gauge (22-gauge fine-needle aspiration, 18-gauge core-needle, or both), number of passes, postprocedural complication, and histopathologic diagnoses were recorded. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20221DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads