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    26246 results match your criteria AJR. American journal of roentgenology[Journal]

    1 OF 525

    Clinical Application of Biparametric MRI Texture Analysis for Detection and Evaluation of High-Grade Prostate Cancer in Zone-Specific Regions.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Dec 8:W1-W8. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    4 Life Science, Advanced Application Team, GE Healthcare, Beijing, China.
    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of biparametric MRI texture analysis (TA) in detecting and evaluating high-grade prostate cancer in zone-specific regions.

    Materials And Methods: A retrospective study included 184 consecutively registered biopsy-naive patients in whom prostate cancer was suspected who were undergoing multiparametric prostate MRI. MR images were scored and evaluated by two readers using the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 (PI-RADSv2) and biparametric MRI TA in separate sessions. Read More

    Comparison of Xenon-Enhanced Area-Detector CT and Krypton Ventilation SPECT/CT for Assessment of Pulmonary Functional Loss and Disease Severity in Smokers.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Dec 8:W1-W9. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    1 Department of Radiology, Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017, Japan.
    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the capability of xenon-enhanced area-detector CT (ADCT) performed with a subtraction technique and coregistered 81mKr-ventilation SPECT/CT for the assessment of pulmonary functional loss and disease severity in smokers.

    Subjects And Methods: Forty-six consecutive smokers (32 men and 14 women; mean age, 67.0 years) underwent prospective unenhanced and xenon-enhanced ADCT, 81mKr-ventilation SPECT/CT, and pulmonary function tests. Read More

    Percutaneous Image-Guided Cryoneurolysis.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Dec 8:1-12. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    1 Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University Hospital, 1364 Clifton Rd NE, Ste D112, Atlanta, GA 30322.
    Objective: The aim of this article is to review the available evidence regarding image-guided percutaneous cryoneurolysis, with a focus on indications, technique, efficacy, and potential complications.

    Conclusion: Percutaneous image-guided cryoneurolysis is safe and effective for the management of several well-described syndromes involving neuropathic pain. Additional rigorous prospective study is warranted to further define the efficacy and specific role of these interventions. Read More

    Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound of the Liver: Optimizing Technique and Clinical Applications.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Dec 8:1-13. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    1 Department of Radiology, Vancouver General Hospital, 899 W 12th Ave, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9, Canada.
    Objective: The purpose of this article is to review the general principles, technique, and clinical applications of contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the liver.

    Conclusion: Proper technique and optimization of contrast-enhanced ultrasound require a balance between maintaining the integrity of the microbubble contrast agent and preserving the ultrasound signal. Established and emerging applications in the liver include diagnosis of focal lesions, aiding ultrasound-guided intervention, monitoring of therapy, and aiding surgical management. Read More

    Making Time for Patients: Positive Impact of Direct Patient Reporting.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Dec 8:W12-W17. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    1 Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University Hospital/BG20, 1364 Clifton Rd, NE, Atlanta, GA 30322.
    Objective: Using a novel patient-centric approach, we assessed the impact of direct patient radiology reporting on the patient experience and patient perception of radiologists in a high-volume head and neck clinic.

    Materials And Methods: A single head and neck surgeon at a large academic center identified prospective outpatients who met the following inclusion criteria: having received treatment for head and neck cancer and having recently undergone surveillance imaging using the Neck Imaging Reporting and Data System template at our institution. The surgeon introduced the concept and gave patients a survey with questions before and after the radiology consultation. Read More

    Changing Utilization of Noninvasive Diagnostic Imaging Over 2 Decades: An Examination Family-Focused Analysis of Medicare Claims Using the Neiman Imaging Types of Service Categorization System.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Dec 8:1-5. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    5 Department of Radiology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY.
    Objective: The objective of our study was to use a new modality and body region categorization system to assess changing utilization of noninvasive diagnostic imaging in the Medicare fee-for-service population over a recent 20-year period (1994-2013).

    Materials And Methods: All Medicare Part B Physician Fee Schedule services billed between 1994 and 2013 were identified using Physician/Supplier Procedure Summary master files. Billed codes for diagnostic imaging were classified using the Neiman Imaging Types of Service (NITOS) coding system by both modality and body region. Read More

    Biomarkers and Imaging of Breast Cancer.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Nov 22:1-8. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    1 Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Section of Breast Imaging, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Unit 1350, Houston, TX 77030-4009.
    Objective: The goals of this review are to provide background information on the definitions and applications of the general term "biomarker" and to highlight the specific roles of breast imaging biomarkers in research and clinical breast cancer care. A search was conducted of the main electronic biomedical databases (PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, MEDLINE [Ovid], Scopus, and Web of Science). The search was focused on review literature in general radiology and biomedical sciences and on reviews and primary research articles on biomarkers in breast imaging over the 15 years ending in June 2017. Read More

    Exploring the Negative Likelihood Ratio and How It Can Be Used to Minimize False-Positives in Breast Imaging.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Nov 22:1-6. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    3 Biomedical Statistical Consulting, Wynnewood, PA.
    Objective: This article describes the definition and proposed utilization of negative likelihood ratios (NLRs) as statistical parameters in breast imaging. Examples with calculations are provided using BI-RADS category 4 subcategories.

    Conclusion: By auditing individual performance early and often against American College of Radiology benchmark positive predictive value ranges for the BI-RADS category 4 subcategories, and by fully understanding NLRs and their application in breast imaging, radiologists can minimize false-positive findings and unnecessary biopsies. Read More

    JOURNAL CLUB: Redefining the Radiology Curriculum in Medical School: Vertical Integration and Global Accessibility.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Nov 22:1-5. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    1 Department of Radiology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, 600 Gresham Dr, Norfolk, VA 23501.
    Objective: Radiology interconnects medical disciplines given that a working understanding of imaging is essential to clinicians of every specialty. Using online education, we created a globally accessible, web-based undergraduate medical radiology curriculum modeled after the National Medical Student Curriculum in Radiology program of the Alliance of Medical Student Educators in Radiology.

    Subjects And Methods: Seventy-four radiology faculty-mentored video modules were produced, 50 of which were integrated into the 1st-year anatomy course. Read More

    In Vivo Differentiation of Uric Acid Versus Non-Uric Acid Urinary Calculi With Third-Generation Dual-Source Dual-Energy CT at Reduced Radiation Dose.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Nov 22:1-6. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    1 Department of Radiology, Hôpital Erasme, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Route de Lennik 808, Brussels B-1070, Belgium.
    Objective: The objective of our study was to evaluate in vivo urinary calculus characterization with third-generation dual-source dual-energy CT (DECT) at reduced versus standard radiation dose.

    Subjects And Methods: One hundred fifty-three patients requiring unenhanced CT for suspected or known urolithiasis were prospectively included in our study. They underwent two acquisitions at reduced-dose CT (90 kV and 50 mAsref; Sn150 kV and 31 mAsref, where Sn denotes the interposition of a tin filter in the high-energy beam) and standard-dose CT (90 kV and 50 mAsref; Sn150 kV and 94 mAsref). Read More

    Preliminary Results of Lung Cancer Screening in a Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Population.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Nov 22:1-8. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    1 Department of Radiology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, 1500 San Pablo St, 2nd Fl, Los Angeles, CA 90033.
    Objective: The objective of our study was to describe the preliminary results of our clinical low-dose CT (LDCT) lung cancer screening program targeting a minority, socioeconomically disadvantaged, high-risk population different from that studied in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST).

    Materials And Methods: Community partner clinics in an underserved region of south Los Angeles County referred interested candidates to our program. All patients met National Comprehensive Cancer Network eligibility criteria for lung cancer screening. Read More

    Screening for Lung Cancer: Communicating With Patients.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Nov 22:1-6. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    1 Department of Radiology, New York Presbyterian-Weill Cornell Medical Center, 525 E 68th St, Box 141, Rm L-017A, New York, NY 10065.
    Objective: The purposes of this article are to detail the experience of a single-center academic institution in applying the patient-centered approach to a lung cancer screening program and to examine how this approach can expand to other aspects of follow-up imaging of lung nodules.

    Conclusion: As the practice of patient-centered radiology gains attention, diagnostic radiologists are findings new ways to become more involved in patient care. A lung cancer screening program is one opportunity for radiologists to consult with and educate patients. Read More

    CT Features of the Usual Interstitial Pneumonia Pattern: Differentiating Connective Tissue Disease-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease From Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Nov 15:1-7. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    3 Department of Medicine, Section of Pulmonary/Critical Care; The University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL.
    Objective: A substantial proportion of cases of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) are due to connective tissue disease (CTD)-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD). The purpose of this study was to determine whether specific CT findings can help differentiate a UIP pattern of CTD-ILD from a UIP pattern of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and whether these signs are associated with survival.

    Materials And Methods: Adults visiting an ILD clinic from 2006 to 2015 enrolled in a research registry with a multidisciplinary diagnosis of CTD-ILD or IPF and a UIP pattern at high-resolution CT were included in the study. Read More

    11C-Choline PET/CT for Detection and Localization of Parathyroid Adenomas.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Nov 15:1-5. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    1 Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905.
    Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of 11C-choline PET/CT for the detection of parathyroid adenomas by retrospectively reviewing a large patient population.

    Materials And Methods: In this single-institution retrospective study, 7088 11C-choline PET/CT scans performed of 2933 men with prostate cancer from January 2005 through February 2016 were evaluated. Patients with suspected parathyroid adenomas were identified through a review of the electronic medical record and relevant imaging. Read More

    Comparison of Radiation Dose and Image Quality of Abdominopelvic CT Using Iterative (AIDR 3D) and Conventional Reconstructions.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Nov 15:1-7. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    1 Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging Department, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, 627 Albert Einstein Ave, São Paulo, SP 05651-901, Brasil.
    Objective: The purpose of this study is to compare radiation dose and image quality of abdominopelvic CT studies reconstructed with iterative and conventional techniques.

    Materials And Methods: This retrospective study enrolled 99 patients who underwent abdominopelvic CT examinations with the portal venous phase images reconstructed with both filtered back projection and Adaptive Iterative Dose Reduction 3D (AIDR 3D) at different time points. Subjective assessment of image quality was performed by two radiologists who scored axial images for overall quality, sharpness, noise, and acceptability in a blinded fashion. Read More

    A Randomized Study of Patient Risk Perception for Incidental Renal Findings on Diagnostic Imaging Tests.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Nov 15:1-7. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    7 Department of Population Health Sciences, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT.
    Objective: The purpose of this study is to assess differences in patient distress, risk perception, and treatment preferences for incidental renal findings with descriptive versus combined descriptive and numeric graphical risk information.

    Materials And Methods: A randomized survey study was conducted for adult patients about to undergo outpatient imaging studies at a large urban academic institution. Two survey arms contained either descriptive or a combination of descriptive and numeric graphical risk information about three hypothetical incidental renal findings at CT: 2-cm (low risk) and 5-cm (high risk) renal tumors and a 2-cm (low risk) renal artery aneurysm. Read More

    Ultrasound-Unenhanced CT Fusion for Detection and Localization of Ureteral Stones.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Nov 15:W1-W4. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    1 Department of Medical Imaging, Rambam Healthcare Center, Haifa 32000, Israel.
    Objective: The standard of care for the diagnosis and follow-up of urolithiasis is unenhanced CT. The hypothesis of this study was that that by using image fusion of subsequent ultrasound (US) with the initial unenhanced CT, ureteral stones can be precisely localized.

    Conclusion: Of the 25 stones founds on unenhanced CT studies, 22 (88%) were confidently identified using US-unenhanced CT fusion within 72 hours after the initial CT scan was obtained. Read More

    Radiology Reporting: Current Practices and an Introduction to Patient-Centered Opportunities for Improvement.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Nov 15:1-10. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    3 Department of Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 619 19th St S, Birmingham, AL 35249.
    Objective: As health care evolves, the radiology report must also change to satisfy referring physician and patient expectations. Knowledge of the issues and controversies regarding a patient-centered approach to reporting practices is important. This article will aid the radiologist in this endeavor by summarizing key facets of radiology reporting, including current reporting standards and emerging patient-centered concepts in report language, formatting, and delivery. Read More

    Prediction of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor Grade Based on CT Features and Texture Analysis.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Nov 15:1-6. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    1 All authors: Department of Radiology, Division of Abdominal Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, White 270, 55 Fruit St, Boston, MA 02114.
    Objective: The purposes of this study were to assess whether CT texture analysis and CT features are predictive of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) grade based on the World Health Organization (WHO) classification and to identify features related to disease progression after surgery.

    Materials And Methods: Preoperative contrast-enhanced CT images of 101 patients with PNETs were assessed. The images were evaluated for tumor location, tumor size, tumor pattern, predominantly solid or cystic composition, presence of calcification, presence of heterogeneous enhancement on contrast-enhanced images, presence of pancreatic duct dilatation, presence of pancreatic atrophy, presence of vascular involvement by the tumor, and presence of lymphadenopathy. Read More

    Transjugular Venous Approach for Endovascular Interventions in Hemodialysis Grafts and Fistulas of the Upper Extremities.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Nov 7:W1-W6. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    1 Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, NorthShore University Health System, Evanston Hospital, 2650 Ridge Ave, Evanston, IL 60201.
    Objective: This article describes the use of a transjugular venous access for interventions in upper extremity hemodialysis arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) and grafts. This access is used in selected patients in whom direct puncture of the hemodialysis access is considered to be difficult or cumbersome. Technical success was achieved in 96. Read More

    JOURNAL CLUB: MRI Evaluation of Midtarsal (Chopart) Sprain in the Setting of Acute Ankle Injury.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Nov 7:1-9. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    1 Department of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Division, NYU Langone Medical Center, 301 E 17th St, 6th Fl, New York, NY 10003.
    Objective: This study determined the frequency and MRI appearance of osseous and ligamentous injuries in midtarsal (Chopart) sprains and their association with ankle sprains after acute ankle injuries. Prospective diagnosis of and interobserver agreement regarding midtarsal injury among musculoskeletal radiologists were also assessed.

    Subjects And Methods: Two cohorts with ankle MRIs were identified via a digital PACS search: patients who had undergone MRI within 8 weeks after ankle injury and control subjects who had not sustained ankle trauma. Read More

    Percutaneous Thermal Ablation of Spinal Metastases: Recent Advances and Review.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Nov 7:1-11. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    3 Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO.
    Objective: The purpose of this study was to review the available armamentarium and most recent advances in minimally invasive, image-guided percutaneous thermal ablation for treatment of spinal metastases.

    Conclusion: Minimally invasive percutaneous spine thermal ablation technologies have proved safe and effective in management of selected patients with spinal metastases. Special attention to procedure techniques including choice of ablation modality, thermoprotection, adequacy of treatment, and postablation imaging is essential for improved patient outcomes. Read More

    Clinical Evaluation of Silent T1-Weighted MRI and Silent MR Angiography of the Brain.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Nov 7:1-8. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    2 Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Lucas Center, Stanford, CA.
    Objective: New MRI sequences based on rapid radial acquisition have reduced gradient noise. The purpose of this study was to compare Silent T1-weighted and unenhanced MR angiography (MRA) against conventional sequences in a clinical population.

    Materials And Methods: The study cohort consisted of 40 patients with suspected brain metastases (median age, 60 years; range, 23-91 years) who underwent T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI and 51 patients with suspected vascular lesions or cerebral ischemia (median age, 60 years; range, 16-94 years) who underwent unenhanced intracranial MRA. Read More

    Screening for Breast Cancer in Women Age 75 Years and Older.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Nov 7:1-8. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    3 Division of Breast Imaging, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, 12902 USF Magnolia Dr, Tampa, FL 33612.
    Objective: Older women undergoing regular mammography experience significant reductions in breast cancer mortality, except in women with severe comorbidities or limited life expectancy. Optimizing screening strategies requires informed discussions of benefits and risks given each woman's health status.

    Conclusion: This article will review the benefits and risks of screening mammography in women older than 75 years within the context of life expectancy and comorbidities and summarize the current recommendations from professional organizations for screening mammography in older women. Read More

    Safety and Efficacy of Catheter-Directed Therapies as a Supplement to Surgical Decompression in Venous Thoracic Outlet Syndrome.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Nov 7:W1-W6. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    1 Division of Interventional Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit St, Boston, MA 02114.
    Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of endovascular therapy in the management of venous thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS), with an emphasis on its role after surgical decompression.

    Materials And Methods: This single-center retrospective review identified all patients who underwent conventional contrast-enhanced venography as a component of the imaging evaluation of clinically suspected venous TOS from January 2004 through September 2015. Eighty-one patients were identified, with a mean (± SD) age of 33 ± 12 years, of whom 59% (48/81) were women. Read More

    Risk of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer Associated With Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System Category 3 (Equivocal) Lesions Identified on Multiparametric Prostate MRI.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Nov 7:1-11. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    1 Department of Radiology, University of Colorado, 1201 Larimer St, Denver, Co 80204.
    Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the frequency of clinically significant cancer (CSC) in Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) category 3 (equivocal) lesions prospectively identified on multiparametric prostate MRI and to identify risk factors (RFs) for CSC that may aid in decision making.

    Materials And Methods: Between January 2015 and July 2016, a total of 977 consecutively seen men underwent multiparametric prostate MRI, and 342 underwent MRI-ultrasound (US) fusion targeted biopsy. A total of 474 lesions were retrospectively reviewed, and 111 were scored as PI-RADS category 3 and were visualized using a 3-T MRI scanner. Read More

    Current Issues in the Overdiagnosis and Overtreatment of Breast Cancer.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Nov 1:1-7. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    3 Department of Radiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO.
    Objective: The discovery of breast cancer at earlier stages with screening brings the risk that some cancers will be overdiagnosed or overtreated. Reasonable estimates show the overdiagnosis rate due to screening mammography to be low, 1-10%.

    Conclusion: Overdiagnosis should not be used as a reason to delay the onset or decrease the frequency of screening, because neither strategy will decrease overdiagnosis. Read More

    Evidence-Based Reporting: A Method to Optimize Prostate MRI Communications With Referring Physicians.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Nov 1:1-5. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    1 Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 200 Lothrop St, Pittsburgh, PA 15213.
    Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop an evidence-based method to optimize prostate MRI reports that would improve communication between urologists and radiologists.

    Materials And Methods: This quality improvement initiative was approved by the institutional Quality Improvement Review Committee. A structured report was developed containing essential components defined by local practice norms and Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) lexicon version 2. Read More

    Effect of a Bayesian Penalized Likelihood PET Reconstruction Compared With Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization on Clinical Image Quality Over a Wide Range of Patient Weights.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Nov 1:1-5. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    1 Radiation Physics and Protection, Churchill Hospital, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford, OX3 7LE, United Kingdom.
    Objective: A study was performed to compare background liver signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and visually assessed image quality of clinical PET/CT studies from the same PET acquisition data reconstructed by Bayesian penalized likelihood (BPL) and ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) over a range of patient weights.

    Materials And Methods: The effect of a BPL PET reconstruction algorithm on liver SNR and visually assessed image quality over a range of patient weights (41-196 kg; n = 108) was retrospectively compared with standard-of-care OSEM reconstruction on the same PET acquisition data after IV administration of 18F-FDG (4 MBq/kg).

    Results: BPL showed no significant change (p > 0. Read More

    Harms of Restrictive Risk-Based Mammographic Breast Cancer Screening.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Nov 1:1-7. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    1 Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Health System, C415 MIB SPC 5842, 1500 E Medical Center Dr, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.
    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if restrictive risk-based mammographic screening could miss breast cancers that population-based screening could detect.

    Materials And Methods: Through a retrospective search of records at a single institution, we identified 552 screen-detected breast cancers in 533 patients. All in situ and invasive breast cancers detected at screening between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2014, were included. Read More

    Diagnostic Performance of DWI With Multiple Parameters for Assessment and Characterization of Pulmonary Lesions: A Meta-Analysis.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Nov 1:1-10. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    1 Department of Nuclear Medicine, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 37 Guoxue Alley, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China.
    Objective: The objective of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of DWI using a 5-point rank scale, lesion-to-spinal cord signal intensity ratio, which we refer to as "LSR," and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) for the characterization of pulmonary lesions.

    Materials And Methods: After a literature search in several databases, two investigators independently selected studies, assessed methodologic quality, and extracted data. On a per-lesion basis, we pooled and compared the three parameters for malignant and benign lesions. Read More

    Thyroid Nodules With Nondiagnostic Cytologic Results: Follow-Up Management Using Ultrasound Patterns Based on the 2015 American Thyroid Association Guidelines.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Nov 1:1-6. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    1 Department of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Korea.
    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the malignancy rate of nodules with nondiagnostic cytologic results based on the American Thyroid Association (ATA) ultrasound (US) patterns and to suggest management guidelines for these nodules.

    Materials And Methods: From January 2013 to December 2014, 441 nodules (≥ 1 cm) were found in 437 patients with nondiagnostic results of ultrasound (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (nondiagnostic nodules). A total of 191 nodules that were cytopathologically confirmed or were smaller (> 3 mm) at follow-up US were enrolled. Read More

    Performing Gadoxetic Acid-Enhanced MRI After CT for Guiding Curative Treatment of Early-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Nov 1:W1-W7. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    6 Department of Gastroenterology, Liver Center, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Objective: We determined the cost-effectiveness of two different diagnostic imaging strategies in guiding curative treatment of early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

    Materials And Methods: We developed a decision analytic model using as its starting point a cohort of patients aged 55 years with early-stage HCC detected at dynamic multiphasic CT and with Child-Pugh class A cirrhosis. The model compared two strategies on the initial workup: conventional CT strategy using dynamic multiphasic CT only and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI strategy using additional gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI after initial CT. Read More

    American College of Radiology-Compliant Short Protocol Breast MRI for High-Risk Breast Cancer Screening: A Prospective Feasibility Study.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Nov 1:1-8. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    3 Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.
    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of a short protocol for screening breast MRI that is noninferior to standard-of-care (SOC) MRI in image quality that complies with American College of Radiology accreditation requirements.

    Subjects And Methods: In a prospective feasibility trial, 23 women at high risk underwent both an initial SOC MRI examination that included axial iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) and T1-weighted volume imaging for breast assessment (VIBRANT) dynamic contrast-enhanced sequences and a separate short breast MRI protocol comprising a fast spin-echo (FSE) triple-echo Dixon T2 sequence for T2-weighted imaging and a 3D dual-echo fast spoiled gradient-echo two-point Dixon sequence for dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging from October 1, 2015, through May 2, 2016. Image quality assessment was performed by three radiologists, who scored the images for fat saturation, artifact severity, and quality of normal anatomic structures. Read More

    Adverse Prognostic CT Findings for Patients With Advanced Lung Adenocarcinoma Receiving First-Line Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Therapy.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Nov 1:1-9. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    1 Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, 120-752 Seoul, Korea.
    Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate adverse prognostic CT findings in patients with advanced-stage lung adenocarcinoma who are receiving epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy as first-line therapy.

    Materials And Methods: We included 199 patients (71 men and 128 women; mean ± SD age, 64.3 ± 11. Read More

    Prospective Study of the Impact of Liver Biopsy Core Size on Specimen Adequacy and Procedural Complications.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Nov 1:1-6. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    4 Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA.
    Objective: An American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) consensus document stressed the importance of obtaining sufficient liver biopsy specimens to minimize sampling errors. Many centers continue to use smaller-diameter core systems to minimize perceived complication risks. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of core gauge (18- vs 16-gauge) on specimen adequacy and procedural complications. Read More

    Image Quality of Prospectively ECG-Triggered Coronary CT Angiography in Heart Transplant Recipients.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Nov 1:1-6. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    1 MTA-SE Cardiovascular Imaging Research Group, Heart and Vascular Center, Semmelweis University, 68 Városmajor St, Budapest H-1122, Hungary.
    Objective: Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is among the top causes of death 1 year after heart transplantation (HTx). Coronary CT angiography (CTA) is a potential alternative to invasive imaging in the diagnosis of CAV. However, the higher heart rate (HR) of HTx recipients prompts the use of retrospective ECG-gating, which is associated with higher radiation dose, a major concern in this patient population. Read More

    Gender Differences in the Publication Rate Among Breast Imaging Radiologists in the United States and Canada.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Nov 1:1-6. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    1 Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine whether academic achievement differs by gender among breast imaging radiologists.

    Materials And Methods: We examined the gender disparity in academic breast radiology using several parameters, including the h-index, the number of publications, and the number of citations. We also inspected gender disparity in academic ranks and leadership ranks. Read More

    Pelvic Blood Flow Predicts Fibroid Volume and Embolic Required for Uterine Fibroid Embolization: A Pilot Study With 4D Flow MR Angiography.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Nov 1:1-12. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    1 Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, 200 W Arbor Dr, MC 0834, San Diego, CA 92103-0834.
    Objective: We report here an initial experience using 4D flow MRI in pelvic imaging-specifically, in imaging uterine fibroids. We hypothesized that blood flow might correlate with fibroid volume and that quantifying blood flow might help to predict the amount of embolic required to achieve stasis at subsequent uterine fibroid embolization (UFE).

    Materials And Methods: Thirty-three patients with uterine fibroids and seven control subjects underwent pelvic MRI with 4D flow imaging. Read More

    Safety and Efficacy Outcomes of Embolization in Hepatic Sarcomas.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Nov 1:1-8. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    4 Department of Radiology, Division of Interventional Radiology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, 757 Westwood Plaza, Rm 2125, Los Angeles, CA 90095.
    Objective: The outcome for patients with unresectable hepatic sarcoma is poor with a median survival period of 12-16 months. The purpose of this study was to evaluate liver-directed transcatheter therapies for the treatment of hepatic sarcomas.

    Materials And Methods: In a retrospective study, the cases of patients with primary and metastatic hepatic sarcoma treated by transcatheter embolization, chemoembolization, and 90Y radioembolization between 2004 and 2015 were identified. Read More

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