26,963 results match your criteria AJR. American journal of roentgenology[Journal]


Current Status of Molecular Imaging of Infection: A Primer.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 23:1-9. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

1 Department of Radiology & Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, Emory University Hospital, 1364 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30322.

Molecular imaging of infection has evolved since its inception. This articles covers a number of infectious processes, including osteomyelitis, diabetic foot infections, periprosthetic infections, cardiovascular infections (including those due to implantable devices), abdominal infections, and fever of unknown origin. Planar, SPECT, SPECT/CT, F-FDG PET/CT, and PET/MRI are also discussed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.19.21094DOI Listing

Iodine Dose of Administered Contrast Media Affects the Level of Radiation-Induced DNA Damage During Cardiac CT Scans.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 23:1-6. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

1 Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, Brussels 1090, Belgium.

The purpose of this study is to investigate the contributing effect of contrast media (CM) iodine dose on radiation-induced DNA damage in blood lymphocytes during a cardiac CT scan. The minipigs were exposed 12 times in total to a fixed cardiac CT scan protocol. An unenhanced and two CM injection protocols were considered, the latter with 50% saline diluted (160 mg I/mL) and standard iodixanol. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20950DOI Listing

Utility of CT Radiomics Features in Differentiation of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma From Normal Pancreatic Tissue.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 23:1-9. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

1 The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 N Wolfe St, Baltimore, MD 21287.

The objective of our study was to determine the utility of radiomics features in differentiating CT cases of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) from normal pancreas. In this retrospective case-control study, 190 patients with PDAC (97 men, 93 women; mean age ± SD, 66 ± 9 years) from 2012 to 2017 and 190 healthy potential renal donors (96 men, 94 women; mean age ± SD, 52 ± 8 years) without known pancreatic disease from 2005 to 2009 were identified from radiology and pathology databases. The 3D volume of the pancreas was manually segmented from the preoperative CT scans by four trained researchers and verified by three abdominal radiologists. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20901DOI Listing

Asymmetric Ductal Ectasia: An Often Overlooked Sign of Malignancy.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 17:1-9. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

1 Department of Radiology, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, 234 Goodman St, Mail Location 0772, Cincinnati, OH 45219-2316.

The objective of this article is to define the clinical significance of asymmetric ductal ectasia by a review of literature and to describe the imaging findings. Asymmetric ductal ectasia has a significant risk for malignancy and high-risk lesions. The findings on conventional imaging may be subtle and easily overlooked. Read More

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https://www.ajronline.org/doi/10.2214/AJR.18.20651
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20651DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Detection and Characterization of Atypical Renal Cysts and Solid Renal Masses in Kidney Transplant Patients by Use of Dual-Energy CT Iodine Maps.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 17:1-8. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

1 Department of Radiology, Amiens University Hospital, Ave Rene Laennec, Amiens, France 80054.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether dual-energy CT follow-up of kidney transplant recipients performed with only two contrast-enhanced phases and reconstructed material maps has the same diagnostic efficiency as triphasic conventional CT in detection and characterization of atypical renal cysts and renal masses. In a retrospective study, 175 renal transplant patients underwent dual-energy CT as part of their follow-up (monoenergetic unenhanced, late contrast-enhanced, and tubular contrast-enhanced dual-energy phases). An unenhanced virtual series and material separation maps were reconstructed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20574DOI Listing

Focal Liver Uptake on FDG PET/CT Without CT Correlate: Utility of MRI in the Evaluation of Patients With Known Malignancy.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 17:1-7. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

1 Department of Radiology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, MA.

The purpose of this study was to determine the significance and utility of MRI in evaluation of focal hepatic uptake on FDG PET/CT without a CT correlate in patients with known malignancy. In this retrospective study, we identified 36 of 1851 patients between 2005 and 2012 with known malignancy (19 women, 17 men; mean age, 56.1 years old) who had focal hepatic uptake on FDG PET/CT without a CT correlate and follow-up MRI within 100 days for assessment of uptake. Read More

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https://www.ajronline.org/doi/10.2214/AJR.18.21035
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.21035DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Cost-Utility Analysis of Imaging for Surveillance and Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 17:1-9. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

1 Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada.

The purpose of this study is to compare imaging-based surveillance and diagnostic strategies in patients at risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) while taking into account technically inadequate examinations and patient compliance. A Markov model simulated seven strategies for HCC surveillance and diagnosis in patients with cirrhosis: strategy A, ultrasound (US) for surveillance and CT for diagnosis; strategy B, US for surveillance and complete MRI for diagnosis; strategy C, US for surveillance and CT for inadequate or positive surveillance; strategy D, US for surveillance and complete MRI for inadequate or positive surveillance; strategy E, surveillance and diagnosis with CT followed by complete MRI for inadequate surveillance; strategy F, surveillance and diagnosis with complete MRI followed by CT for inadequate surveillance; and strategy G, surveillance with abbreviated MRI followed by CT for inadequate surveillance or complete MRI for positive surveillance. Two compliance scenarios were evaluated: optimal and conservative. Read More

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https://www.ajronline.org/doi/10.2214/AJR.18.20341
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20341DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Implementing Abbreviated MRI Screening Into a Breast Imaging Practice.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 17:1-4. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

1 Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, 11100 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44106.

The purpose of this article is to describe steps for implementing abbreviated breast MRI into a breast imaging practice. Mammographic screening for breast cancer has been the standard of care. However, breast cancer remains a leading cause of death of women. Read More

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https://www.ajronline.org/doi/10.2214/AJR.18.20396
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20396DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Evaluation and Optimization of a New PET Reconstruction Algorithm, Bayesian Penalized Likelihood Reconstruction, for Lung Cancer Assessment According to Lesion Size.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 17:1-7. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

1 Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hyogo Prefectural Amagasaki General Medical Center, 2-17-77, Higashinaniwa-cho, Amagasaki-shi, Hyogo, 660-8550 Japan.

The purpose of this study was to characterize the Bayesian penalized likelihood (BPL) reconstruction algorithm in comparison with an ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction algorithm and to determine its optimal penalization factor (expressed as a beta value) for clinical use. FDG PET/CT scans of 46 patients with lung cancer were reconstructed using OSEM and BPL with beta values of 200, 300, 400, 500, and 1000. The liver signal-to-noise ratio, mean standardized uptake value (SUV) of the liver, and maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) and SUV of the cancers were measured. Read More

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https://www.ajronline.org/doi/10.2214/AJR.18.20478
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20478DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Mucin-Containing Rectal Carcinomas: Overview of Unique Clinical and Imaging Features.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 17:1-9. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

3 Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI.

The purpose of this study is to review the unique clinical and imaging features of mucin-containing rectal carcinomas. Mucinous rectal carcinoma is an uncommon tumor subtype with a worse prognosis. At MRI, it is marked by T2-hyperintense extracellular mucin. Read More

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https://www.ajronline.org/doi/10.2214/AJR.18.20864
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20864DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Clinical Value of MRI in Assessing the Stability of Osteochondritis Dissecans Lesions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 17:1-8. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

2 Sichuan Key Laboratory of Medical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, Sichuan, China.

The purpose of this study is to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the clinical value of MRI in assessing the stability of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesions. A systematic review of the literature published from January 1995 to July 2018 was performed by two independent reviewers using predefined search terms. The reference standard was established as arthroscopy or open surgery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20710DOI Listing

Quantifying the Severity of Parkinson Disease by Use of Dopaminergic Neuroimaging.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 17:1-6. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

1 Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

Parkinson disease is characterized by dopaminergic neuron loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta resulting in presynaptic nigrostriatal dopamine dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to search for an optimal image biomarker to quantify the severity of Parkinson disease by comparing neuromelanin MRI and dopamine transporter SPECT. Forty patients with Parkinson disease (Hoehn and Yahr [HY] stage 1, four patients; stage 2, 18 patients; stage 3, eight patients; stage 4, six patients; stage 5, four patients) who underwent neuromelanin MRI and dopamine transporter SPECT were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20655DOI Listing

Role of Virtual Biopsy in the Management of Renal Masses.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 17:1-10. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

1 Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 2201 Inwood Rd, Ste 210, Dallas, TX 75225.

Renal masses comprise a heterogeneous group of pathological conditions, including benign and indolent diseases and aggressive malignancies, complicating management. In this article, we explore the emerging role of imaging to provide a comprehensive noninvasive characterization of a renal mass-so-called "virtual biopsy"-and its potential use in the management of patients with renal tumors. Percutaneous renal mass biopsy (RMB) remains a valuable method to provide a presurgical histopathologic diagnosis of renal masses, but it is an invasive procedure and is not always feasible. Read More

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https://www.ajronline.org/doi/10.2214/AJR.19.21172
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.19.21172DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Frequency of Bleeding Complications After Percutaneous Core Needle Biopsy and the Association With Aspirin Usage and Length of Aspirin Discontinuation.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 17:1-5. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

1 Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Ave SW, Rochester, MN 55905.

The purpose of this study is to report the frequency of major bleeding after percutaneous image-guided core biopsy and its association with aspirin usage and duration of prebiopsy aspirin abstinence. A retrospective review of percutaneous image-guided core biopsies performed at our institution between September 1, 2005, and September 1, 2016, was performed ( = 30,966). Patients were excluded if aspirin usage data were missing ( = 633). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20366DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Detection and Localization of Prostate Cancer at 3-T Multiparametric MRI Using PI-RADS Segmentation.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 17:W1-W10. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

3 Department of Urology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA.

The purpose of this study is to determine the overall and sector-based performance of 3-T multiparametric MRI for prostate cancer (PCa) detection and localization by using Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System version 2 (PI-RADSv2) scoring and segmentation compared with whole-mount histopathologic analysis. Multiparametric 3-T MRI examinations of 415 consecutive men were compared with thin-section whole-mount histopathologic analysis. A genitourinary radiologist and pathologist collectively determined concordance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20113DOI Listing

Radioligand Therapy With Lu-PSMA for Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 17:1-11. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

1 Department of Nuclear Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India 110029.

Several clinical studies have shown the efficacy of Lu-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) radioligand therapy (RLT) for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). The purpose of this article is to present results of a systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at compiling and outlining efficacy and safety data on Lu-PSMA RLT for mCRPC across all studies published to date. The results of the systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that Lu-PSMA RLT is an effective treatment of advanced-stage mCRPC that is refractory to standard therapeutic options and that it has a low toxicity profile. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20845DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Selective Citation Practices in Imaging Research: Are Diagnostic Accuracy Studies With Positive Titles and Conclusions Cited More Often?

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 17:1-7. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

1 Department of Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa Hospital Civic Campus, 1053 Carling Ave, Rm c159, Ottawa, ON K1Y 4E9, Canada.

The purpose of this study was to examine the existence of selective citation practices in the imaging literature by assessing whether diagnostic accuracy studies with positive titles or conclusions are cited more frequently than those with negative (or neutral) titles or conclusions. MEDLINE was searched for meta-analyses of diagnostic accuracy studies published in imaging journals from January 2005 to April 2016. Primary studies from the meta-analyses were screened for eligibility. Read More

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https://www.ajronline.org/doi/10.2214/AJR.18.20977
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20977DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Preoperative Diagnosis of Regional Lymph Node Metastasis of Colorectal Cancer With Quantitative Parameters From Dual-Energy CT.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 17:1-9. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

1 Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, 107 Yanjiang Rd W, Guangzhou 510120, China.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of quantitative parameters derived from dual-energy CT (DECT) in the preoperative diagnosis of regional metastatic lymph nodes (LNs) in patients with colorectal cancer. Triphasic contrast-enhanced DECT was performed for 178 patients with colon or high rectal cancer. The morphologic criteria, short-axis diameter, and quantitative DECT parameters of the largest regional LN were measured and compared between pathologically metastatic and nonmetastatic LNs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20843DOI Listing

Quantitative MRI Musculoskeletal Techniques: An Update.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 17:1-10. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

1 Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, CA.

For many years, MRI of the musculoskeletal system has relied mostly on conventional sequences with qualitative analysis. More recently, using quantitative MRI applications to complement qualitative imaging has gained increasing interest in the MRI community, providing more detailed physiologic or anatomic information. In this article, we review the current state of quantitative MRI, technical and software advances, and the most relevant clinical and research musculoskeletal applications of quantitative MRI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.19.21143DOI Listing

Optimizing the Diagnosis of Parkinsonian Syndromes With I-Ioflupane Brain SPECT.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 17:1-11. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

3 Department of Medical Imaging, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

The purpose of this article is to provide a review of I-ioflupane SPECT in the evaluation of suspected parkinsonian syndromes (PSs). This collection of diseases presents frequent diagnostic challenges, even by movement disorder and dementia specialists. The I-ioflupane scan serves as an imaging biomarker of the status of presynaptic dopamine transporters (DATs) in the striatum. Read More

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https://www.ajronline.org/doi/10.2214/AJR.19.21088
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.19.21088DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

CT Staging to Triage Selection of Patients with Poor-Prognosis Rectal Cancer for Neoadjuvant Treatment.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 17:1-7. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

1 Radiology Department, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, Travessa da Rua Dr, Ovídio Pires de Campos, 75, São Paulo, Brazil.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate CT as a screening tool for determining high risk of local recurrence of rectal tumors in a scenario of limited MRI availability. Data were retrospectively analyzed for 180 consecutively registered patients with rectal adenocarcinoma and no previous treatment who underwent baseline CT and MRI staging within 30 days of each other. Two radiologists independently reviewed CT and MR images. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20929DOI Listing

Update on Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agent-Enhanced Imaging in the Genitourinary System.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 11:1-11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

3 Department of Radiology, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

Objective: The purpose of this article is to review gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA)-enhanced MRI applications in the genitourinary system.

Conclusion: Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is rare or nonexistent with standard dosing of group II GBCAs. Gadolinium retention, cost, and examination times are emerging considerations affecting GBCA use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.19.21137DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Living Donor Liver Transplantation: Preoperative Planning and Postoperative Complications.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 11:1-12. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

7 Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Objective: The purposes of this article are to highlight the similarities and differences in workup and work flow across multiple institutions in the preoperative imaging assessment of liver donors; to lay the foundation for developing consensus guidelines; to illustrate clinically relevant anatomic variants; to introduce a standardized reporting template; and to review postprocessing work flow and postoperative donor complications.

Conclusion: Further investigation and consensus are needed to determine protocols, time intervals, and duration of follow-up of liver donors that are cost-effective and clinically relevant. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.21064DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read
2.731 Impact Factor

Living Donor Liver Transplantation: Overview, Imaging Technique, and Diagnostic Considerations.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 11:1-11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

7 Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Objective: The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of becoming a liver donor, describe the surgical methods used for transplantation, and critically review preoperative and intraoperative imaging techniques.

Conclusion: Radiologists play a vital role in ensuring the safety of living liver donors; however, consensus guidelines do not exist for imaging protocol or reporting. Standardization would provide more consistent image quality across centers, improve communication with the transplant team, and facilitate data mining for quality assurance and research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.21034DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read
2.731 Impact Factor

Predicting Underlying Neoplasms in Appendiceal Mucoceles at CT: Focal Versus Diffuse Luminal Dilatation.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 11:1-6. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

1 Toronto Joint Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network-Mount Sinai Hospital-Women's College Hospital, University of Toronto, 585 University Ave, 1PMB-283, Toronto, ON M5G 2N2, Canada.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether a novel morphologic characteristic of appendiceal mucoceles at CT-focal distal appendiceal dilatation with a segment of morphologically normal appendix proximally-could predict an underlying neoplastic pathologic abnormality before surgery and histopathologic assessment.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective study was performed that assessed CT cases from 2012 through 2014. Cases showing morphologic features of a mucocele were identified and categorized into two subgroups: focal distal dilatation with a segment of normal appendix proximally and generalized appendiceal dilatation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20562DOI Listing

Os Conundrum: Identifying Symptomatic Sesamoids and Accessory Ossicles of the Foot.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 11:1-10. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

2 Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI.

Objective: Sesamoids and accessory ossicles are frequently encountered normal osseous structures in the foot that may be an uncommon cause of pain. Familiarity with their imaging findings allows the radiologist to provide reassurance in normal cases and increase confidence when making the relatively uncommon diagnosis of a pathologic sesamoid or symptomatic ossicle.

Conclusion: Image-guided injections targeted to the symptomatic ossicle can confirm the suspected diagnosis and predict therapeutic outcomes before surgical intervention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20761DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Multimodality Imaging of Ileal Neuroendocrine (Carcinoid) Tumor.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 11:1-9. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

1 Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, E3/311 Clinical Science Center, 600 Highland Ave, Madison, WI 53792-3252.

Objective: The purpose of this article is to provide a multimodality imaging review of ileal carcinoid tumor.

Conclusion: Ileal carcinoid tumors display a variety of radiologic findings. Delay in diagnosis is common because of initial nonspecific symptoms and subtle imaging findings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.21025DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Unenhanced CT Texture Analysis of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinomas: A Machine Learning-Based Study for Predicting Histopathologic Nuclear Grade.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 11:W1-W8. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

1 Department of Radiology, Istanbul Training and Research Hospital, Samatya, Istanbul 34098, Turkey.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the predictive performance of machine learning (ML)-based unenhanced CT texture analysis in distinguishing low (grades I and II) and high (grades III and IV) nuclear grade clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCCs).

Materials And Methods: For this retrospective study, 81 patients with clear cell RCC (56 high and 25 low nuclear grade) were included from a public database. Using 2D manual segmentation, 744 texture features were extracted from unenhanced CT images. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20742DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Bleeding Liver Masses: Imaging Features With Pathologic Correlation and Impact on Management.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 11:1-9. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

6 Department of Radiology, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, 1400 Pressler St, Houston, TX 77030.

Objective: The purposes of this article are to discuss a variety of liver masses that can present with hemorrhage, including their characteristic imaging features, and to propose a diagnostic approach.

Conclusion: A broad spectrum of pathologic conditions can present as spontaneous hemorrhage within or surrounding the liver and may present acutely or as a chronic or incidental finding. Imaging characteristics and clinical history can often narrow the differential diagnosis and guide management. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.19.21240DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Biopsy Marker Standardization: What's in a Name?

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 11:1-6. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

1 2Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Evelyn H. Lauder Breast Center, 300 E 66th St, New York, NY 10065.

Objective: The purposes of this study were to compile mammographic images in various projections showing commercially available breast biopsy site markers and to provide a standardized nomenclature and marker guide to improve physician communication and patient care.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective review of all breast biopsy markers encountered at one institution was conducted from January 2012 to January 2018. Markers placed at the facility and those placed at outside institutions with the patient subsequently referred to the study institution were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20577DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

Diagnostic Performance Evaluation of a Computer-Assisted Imaging Analysis System for Ultrasound Risk Stratification of Thyroid Nodules.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 11:1-6. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

1 Endocrinology and Nutrition Service, Department of Medicine, Germans Trias i Pujol Health Science Research Institute and Hospital, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Badalona, Spain.

Objective: Ultrasound-based stratification of the malignancy risk of thyroid nodules has potential variability. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic effectiveness of the first commercially available system for computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) imaging analysis.

Materials And Methods: Ultrasound images of 300 thyroid nodules (135 of which were malignant) acquired before surgical treatment were retrospectively reviewed by a thyroid expert, and his classification of each image was then compared with the classification rendered by an image analysis program (AmCAD-UT, AmCAD Biomed). Read More

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https://www.ajronline.org/doi/10.2214/AJR.18.20740
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20740DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Positive Predictive Value for Colorectal Lesions at CT Colonography: Analysis of Factors Impacting Results in a Large Screening Cohort.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 11:W1-W8. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

3 Digestive Endoscopy Unit, Nuovo Regina Margherita Hospital, Rome, Italy.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate factors affecting the positive predictive value (PPV) for detecting colorectal lesions at CT colonography (CTC), using optical colonoscopy (OC) as the reference standard for concordance.

Materials And Methods: Consecutive CTC studies from a single screening program interpreted as positive for at least one detected colorectal lesion 6 mm or larger and sent for subsequent OC were analyzed according to per-polyp and per-patient results. Univariable and multivariable analysis of multiple input factors was performed. Read More

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https://www.ajronline.org/doi/10.2214/AJR.18.20686
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20686DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Chest High-Resolution CT Findings of Microscopic Polyangiitis: A Japanese First Nationwide Prospective Cohort Study.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 11:1-11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

1 Department of Respiratory Medicine, Toho University Omori Medical Center, Ota-ku Omori nisi 6-11-1, Tokyo 143-8541, Japan.

Objective: The lung is one of the organs possibly involved in microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) is commonly found in patients with MPA. The aim of this study was to assess pulmonary lesions in Japanese patients with MPA.

Subjects And Methods: This prospective study was based on 144 patients with MPA who were enrolled in the Remission Induction Therapy in Japanese Patients With ANCA-Associated Vasculitis and Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis Study and who underwent chest high-resolution CT (HRCT) imaging at the time of diagnosis during 2011-2014. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20967DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Current Imaging Techniques for Noninvasive Staging of Hepatic Fibrosis.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 11:1-13. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

1 Department of Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 619 19th St S, Birmingham, AL 35249.

Objective: The purpose of this article is to discuss quantitative methods of CT, MRI, and ultrasound (US) for noninvasive staging of hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic fibrosis is the hallmark of chronic liver disease (CLD), and staging by random liver biopsy is invasive and prone to sampling errors and subjectivity. Several noninvasive quantitative imaging methods are under development or in clinical use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.19.21144DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Digital Tomosynthesis and Fractal Analysis Predict Prevalent Vertebral Fractures in Patients With Multiple Myeloma: A Preliminary In Vivo Study.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 11:W1-W7. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

1 Department of Orthopaedics, Bone and Joint Center, Henry Ford Health System, HFH/WSU Integrative Biosciences (iBio) Research Bldg, 6135 Woodward Ave, Detroit, MI 48202.

Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the association of fractal-derived bone microstructural parameters with vertebral fracture status using in vivo digital tomosynthesis images of the spine.

Materials And Methods: Digital tomosynthesis images of the thoracic and lumbar spine from T1 to L5 were acquired from 36 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma or monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (age range, 39-85 years old). Scans were performed with patients in the supine position with reconstructed planes formed in the coronal direction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20700DOI Listing
April 2019
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Novel Geographic Thematic Study of the Largest Radiology Societies Globally: How Is Gender Structure Biased Within Editorial Boards?

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 11:1-6. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

1 Department of Radiology, Vancouver General Hospital/University of British Columbia, 899 W 12th Ave, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9, Canada.

Objective: Radiology has traditionally been a male-dominated medical specialty, and this is also reflected in the authorship of radiology publications and the composition of radiology journal editorial boards. The purpose of this study was to quantify the extent of the gender disparities reflected within the journal editorial boards of the largest international radiologic societies.

Materials And Methods: Methods were crafted to generate a geographically based gender analysis of the editorial boards of the largest general radiologic societies globally. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20965DOI Listing
April 2019
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Radiation Dose Reduction of Unenhanced CT Limited to the Kidneys for Follow-Up of Patients With Known Nephrolithiasis Without Symptoms.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 11:1-4. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

1 Department of Radiology, University of California, Davis, 4860 Y St, Ste 3100, Sacramento, CA 95817.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to identify the landmarks and associated radiation dose reduction for limited CT of the kidneys of patients requiring follow-up for known nephrolithiasis.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective study included all adult patients who underwent CT examination type "CT abdomen + pelvis renal stone" at our institution during 2017. Several exclusion criteria were identified, including scoliosis and congenital renal abnormalities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20805DOI Listing
April 2019
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Associations Between Sonographic Findings and Operative Time of Transumbilical Laparoscopic-Assisted Appendectomy for Acute Appendicitis in Children.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 11:1-9. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

1 Department of Radiology, Saitama Children's Medical Center, Japan.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between sonographic findings and the operative time of transumbilical laparoscopic-assisted appendectomy (TULAA) for appendicitis in children.

Materials And Methods: We included 131 children who underwent ultrasound within 24 hours before TULAA. We evaluated the associations between operative time and patients' demographics, as well as the following sonographic findings: maximum outer wall diameter of the appendix, appendicolith, ascites (not echogenic), echogenic ascites, abscess formation, increased intraabdominal fat echo in the right lower quadrant (RLQ; 3-point scale), and the location of the appendix (three locations). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20937DOI Listing
April 2019
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MRI of the Sacroiliac Joint in Healthy Children.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 11:1-7. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

3 Department of Epidemiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Objective: Increasing reliance on MRI for the evaluation of sacroiliitis requires that radiologists be familiar with the normal appearance of the developing sacroiliac joint. We describe age-related MRI features of the sacroiliac joints in healthy children.

Subjects And Methods: Seventy healthy children from three age groups-prepubertal (8-10 years), peripubertal (11-13 years), and approaching skeletal maturity (14-17 years)-completed questionnaires and underwent sacroiliac joint MRI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20708DOI Listing
April 2019
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DWI and T2-Weighted MRI Volumetry in Resectable Rectal Cancer: Correlation With Lymphovascular Invasion and Lymph Node Metastases.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 1:1-8. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

1 Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess whether MR volumetric data on DW and T2-weighted MR images are correlated with lymphovascular invasion and lymph node metastases in resectable rectal cancer.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective study consisted of 50 consecutive patients with rectal cancer who underwent radical surgery within 1 week of MRI. The gross tumor volume was determined on both diffusion-weighted and T2-weighted MR images and correlated with pathologic lymphovascular invasion and lymph node metastases using univariate, multivariate, and ROC curve analyses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20564DOI Listing

Impact of Direct MRI-Guided Biopsy of the Prostate on Clinical Management.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 1:1-6. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

1 Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oregon Health & Science University, 3181 SW SAm Jackson Park Rd, Mail Code L340, Portland, OR 97239.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of direct MRI-guided biopsy of the prostate on clinical management in practice.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively identified 127 patients with unknown (n = 98) or untreated prostate cancer with a Gleason score of 6 (n = 29) who underwent direct MRI-guided biopsy of the prostate at our institution between August 2013 and January 2018, after initial multiparametric endorectal MRI examination revealed one or more Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS or PI-RADSv2) category 4 or 5 target lesion. All available medical and imaging records were reviewed to determine pertinent clinical details, biopsy findings, and postbiopsy management. Read More

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https://www.ajronline.org/doi/10.2214/AJR.18.21009
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.21009DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Deep Learning Model to Assess Cancer Risk on the Basis of a Breast MR Image Alone.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 1:1-7. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

2 Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to develop an image-based deep learning (DL) model to predict the 5-year risk of breast cancer on the basis of a single breast MR image from a screening examination.

Materials And Methods: We collected 1656 consecutive breast MR images from screening examinations performed for 1183 high-risk women from January 2011 to June 2013, to predict the risk of cancer developing within 5 years of the screening. Women who lacked a 5-year screening follow-up examination and women who had cancer other than primary breast cancer develop in their breast were excluded from the study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20813DOI Listing
April 2019
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Patellofemoral Instability in Children: Correlation Between Patellofemoral Incongruence, Mechanism of Injury, and Cartilage Damage.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 1:1-9. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

5 Department of Pharmacology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: The objective of our study was to assess correlation between patellofemoral incongruency and injury mechanism, recurrence, bilaterality, and cartilage damage in patients with patellofemoral instability (PFI).

Materials And Methods: Ninety-four knee MRI examinations (10 bilateral) of 84 patients with PFI (47 female and 37 male patients; mean age ± SD, 15.0 ± 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20778DOI Listing
April 2019
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CT-Based Radiomics Model for Predicting Brain Metastasis in Category T1 Lung Adenocarcinoma.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 1:1-6. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

2 Department of Radiology, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 W 168th St, New York, NY 10032.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate an unenhanced CT-based radiomics model to predict brain metastasis (BM) in patients with category T1 lung adenocarcinoma.

Materials And Methods: A total of 89 eligible patients with category T1 lung adenocarcinoma were enrolled and classified as patients with BM (n = 35) or patients without BM (n = 54). A total of 1160 quantitative radiomic features were extracted from unenhanced CT images of each patient. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20591DOI Listing
April 2019
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Can Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Replace Full-Field Digital Mammography? A Multireader, Multicase Study of Wide-Angle Tomosynthesis.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 1:1-7. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

9 Diagnostic Imaging, X-Ray Products, Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Forchheim, Germany.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis whether two-view wide-angle digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) can replace full-field digital mammography (FFDM) for breast cancer detection.

Subjects And Methods: In a multireader multicase study, bilateral two-view FFDM and bilateral two-view wide-angle DBT images were independently viewed for breast cancer detection in two reading sessions separated by more than 1 month. From a pool of 764 patients undergoing screening and diagnostic mammography, 330 patient-cases were selected. Read More

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https://www.ajronline.org/doi/10.2214/AJR.18.20294
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20294DOI Listing
April 2019
8 Reads

Tumor Heterogeneity on FDG PET/CT and Immunotherapy: An Imaging Biomarker for Predicting Treatment Response in Patients With Metastatic Melanoma.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 1:1-9. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

1 Department of Radiology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75390-8896.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability of quantitative F-FDG PET parameters to predict outcomes of patients with malignant melanoma who have been treated with immune modulation therapy.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively investigated 34 patients with malignant melanoma. Twenty-three patients received immunotherapy as first-line therapy, and 11 patients received it as second-line therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.19796DOI Listing

Using Cine-Averaged CT With the Shallow Breathing Pattern to Reduce Respiration-Induced Artifacts for Thoracic Cavity PET/CT Scans.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 1:1-7. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

3 Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Section 2, Linong St, Taipei 112, Taiwan.

Objective: PET/CT provides a fusion of both anatomic and functional information. However, because of the temporal difference of both modalities and respiratory motion of lungs, misregistration of lesions is frequently observed on thoracic PET/CT scans. The effect of cine-averaged CT (CACT) acquisition incorporated with the shallow breathing pattern of patients on the improvement of registration and quantification of lesions was investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20606DOI Listing
April 2019
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State-Level Variation in Inferior Vena Cava Filter Utilization Across Medicare and Commercially Insured Populations.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 1:1-8. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

1 Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, 1364 Clifton Road NE, Ste D112, Atlanta, GA 30322.

Objective: Recent research on inferior vena cava (IVC) filter utilization in the United States has largely focused on national aggregate Medicare datasets, showing recent declines. Whether these national Medicare trends are generalizable across regions and payer populations is unknown. We studied recent state-level variation in IVC filter utilization across both Medicare and private insurance populations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20673DOI Listing

Diagnostic Accuracy of Postmortem CT of Children: A Retrospective Single-Center Study.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Mar 27:1-13. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

1 Department of Clinical Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, NHS Foundation Trust, London WC1N 3JH, UK.

Objective: The objective of our study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of postmortem CT in children compared with standard autopsy.

Materials And Methods: This single-center retrospective study reviewed un-enhanced whole-body postmortem CT examinations of children less than 16 years old with corresponding autopsy reports irrespective of the clinical indication for referral for postmortem CT. Perinatal deaths were excluded. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20534DOI Listing

Accuracy of Synthetic 2D Mammography Compared With Conventional 2D Digital Mammography Obtained With 3D Tomosynthesis.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Mar 27:1-6. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

1 All authors: Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medicine, 525 E 68th St, New York, NY 10065.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of synthetic 2D imaging generated from 3D tomosynthesis (DBT) with traditional 2D full-field digital mammography (FFDM) by use of the most up-to-date software algorithm in an urban academic radiology practice.

Materials And Methods: The records of patients undergoing screening mammography with DBT, synthetic 2D imaging, and FFDM between August 13, 2014, and January 31, 2016, were retrospectively collected. The cohort included all biopsy-proven breast cancers detected with screening mammography during the study period (n = 89) and 100 cases of negative or benign (BI-RADS category 1 or 2) findings after 365 days of follow-up. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20520DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read