26,881 results match your criteria AJR. American journal of roentgenology[Journal]


Comparison of T2-Weighted Imaging, DWI, and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI for Calculation of Prostate Cancer Index Lesion Volume: Correlation With Whole-Mount Pathology.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Dec 12:1-6. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

1 Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, 5841 S Maryland Ave, Chicago, IL 60637.

Objective: The objective of our study was to investigate the comparative effectiveness of different MRI sequences for the estimation of index lesion volume in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) compared with ground truth volume measured on whole-mount pathology.

Materials And Methods: Patients with PCa underwent multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) on a 3-T MRI scanner before radical prostatectomy. Forty PCa index lesions were identified and outlined on histology by a pathologist. Read More

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December 2018

Comparison of MRI Activity Scoring Systems and Features for the Terminal Ileum in Patients With Crohn Disease.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Dec 12:W1-W7. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

1 Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate four previously validated MRI activity scoring systems for diagnosis and grading of Crohn disease (CD) in the terminal ileum against an endoscopic and histopathologic reference standard.

Subjects And Methods: Ethics approval and written informed consent were obtained. Subjects with known or suspected CD were prospectively recruited between December 2011 and August 2014. Read More

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December 2018

Does Ipsilateral-Dependent Positioning During Percutaneous Lung Biopsy Decrease the Risk of Pneumothorax?

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Dec 12:1-6. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

1 Department of Radiology, Cochin Hospital, Descartes University, 27 rue du Faubourg Saint Jacques, 75 014 Paris, France.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine whether placing patients in an ipsilateral-dependent position during percutaneous CT-guided transthoracic biopsy reduces the pneumothorax rate.

Materials And Methods: Between July 2013 and August 2017, a total of 516 patients (317 men and 199 women; mean age, 66.4 years) underwent core needle biopsies performed using 17- and 18-gauge needles. Read More

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December 2018

The Doctor-Patient Relationship With Artificial Intelligence.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Dec 12:1-3. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

2 Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, University of California Davis, Davis, CA.

Objective: The doctor-patient relationship has been evolving from benevolent paternalism to a more patient-centered relationship in the modern era. Although artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to improve nearly every aspect of health care, many physicians are skeptical about integrating AI into their current medical practice. The purpose of this article is to explore what AI means for the doctor-patient relationship and for breast imaging radiologists. Read More

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December 2018

Prediction of Lymph Node Maximum Standardized Uptake Value in Patients With Cancer Using a 3D Convolutional Neural Network: A Proof-of-Concept Study.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Dec 12:1-7. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

1 Department of Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 W 168th St, New York, NY 10016.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine whether a convolutional neural network (CNN) can predict the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) of lymph nodes in patients with cancer using the unenhanced CT images from a PET/CT examination, thus providing a proof of concept for potentially using deep learning to diagnose nodal involvement.

Materials And Methods: Consecutive initial staging PET/CT scans obtained in 2017 for patients with pathologically proven malignancy were collected. Two blinded radiologists selected one to 10 lymph nodes from the unenhanced CT portion of each PET/CT examination. Read More

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December 2018

JOURNAL CLUB: Performance of Screening Breast MRI After Negative Full-Field Digital Mammography Versus After Negative Digital Breast Tomosynthesis in Women at Higher Than Average Risk for Breast Cancer.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Dec 12:1-9. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

5 Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.

Objective: The objective of our study was to compare the supplemental cancer yield and performance of breast MRI in women at higher-than-average risk for breast cancer after negative 2D full-field digital mammography (FFDM) or negative digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT).

Materials And Methods: Retrospective review identified 4418 screening breast MRI examinations: 2291 were performed from January 2010 through January 2012 of patients with a negative FFDM examination in the 12 months before MRI (FFDM group), and 2127 were performed from January 2013 through January 2015 of patients with a negative DBT examination in the 12 months before MRI (DBT group). Screening indications included genetic predisposition, personal history of breast cancer or high-risk lesion, prior chest irradiation, family history, or other risk factors conferring a lifetime risk of greater than 20%. Read More

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December 2018

Abbreviated Biparametric Versus Standard Multiparametric MRI for Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Dec 4:W1-W9. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

1 Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, 1095 Jiefang Rd, Wuhan 430030, China.

Objective: The objective of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of abbreviated biparametric MRI (bpMRI) versus standard multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) for prostate cancer (PCa) using guided biopsy or prostatectomy histopathology results as the reference standard.

Materials And Methods: A comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases was performed by two researchers independently and the relevant references were assessed. Original research studies comparing bpMRI with mpMRI in diagnosing PCa were included. Read More

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December 2018

Repeat CT Performed Within One Month of CT Conducted in the Emergency Department for Abdominal Pain: A Secondary Analysis of Data From a Prospective Multicenter Study.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Dec 4:1-4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

1 Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit St, Boston, MA 02114.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine both the frequency of repeat CT performed within 1 month after a patient visits the emergency department (ED) and undergoes CT evaluation for abdominal pain and the frequency of worsened or new CT-based diagnoses.

Subjects And Methods: Secondary analysis was performed on data collected during a prospective multicenter study. The parent study included patients who underwent CT in the ED for abdominal pain between 2012 and 2014, and these patients constituted the study group of the present analysis. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

The Lateral C1-C2 Puncture: Indications, Technique, and Potential Complications.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Dec 4:W1-W12. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

1 Department of Radiology, New York Presbyterian Hospital-Weill Cornell Medical Center, 525 E 68th St, Box 141, New York, NY 10065.

Objective: Lateral C1-C2 puncture can be used for CSF collection, contrast agent injection for myelography, and access for cordotomy. The objective of this article is to describe the indications, technique, and potential complications of this procedure.

Conclusion: Radiologists performing lumbar puncture or myelography should be comfortable gaining access to the subarachnoid space via the lateral C1-C2 approach when indicated. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

On the Need for a Taxonomy for Interventional Radiology: Initiating Dialogue for the Future.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Dec 4:1-4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

1 Department of Interventional Radiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1400 Pressler St, Unit 1471, Houston, TX 77030.

Objective: Interventional radiology (IR) needs comprehensive structure. The reactive structure of the past is strategically unwise for long-term growth of IR.

Conclusion: IR needs a structured approach to move forward most effectively. Read More

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December 2018

Whole-Body MRI: Comparison of Its Capability for TNM Staging of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma With That of Coregistered PET/MRI, Integrated FDG PET/CT, and Conventional Imaging.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Dec 4:1-9. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

1 Department of Radiology, Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017, Japan.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of whole-body MRI, coregistered FDG PET/MRI, integrated FDG PET/CT, and conventional imaging examination including bone scintigraphy, contrast-enhanced brain MRI, and CT for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) staging according to the new International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) system.

Subjects And Methods: The study subjects were 23 consecutively registered patients with MPM (15 men, eight women; mean age, 68 years for both sexes) who had prospectively undergone whole-body FDG PET/CT, whole-body MRI, conventional radiologic examination, surgical or conventional treatments, pathologic examination, and follow-up conventional imaging examinations between January 2011 and December 2017. TNM staging was evaluated by two independent readers. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Virtual Monochromatic Dual-Energy Aortoiliac CT Angiography With Reduced Iodine Dose: A Prospective Randomized Study.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Nov 26:1-8. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

1 Department of Radiology, Division of Abdominal Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit St, Boston, MA 02114.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of performing abdominopelvic aortoiliac CT angiography (CTA) with 16.0 g of iodine contrast medium acquired with low-energy (40 and 50 keV) virtual monochromatic (VMC) images with rapid-kilovoltage-switching dual-energy CT.

Subjects And Methods: A total of 52 adults with abdominal aortoiliac aneurysm and prior 120-kVp single-energy CTA (SECTA) with 33 g iodine (standard dose) underwent follow-up dual-energy CTA (DECTA) with a 52% reduced iodine dose. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Management of Palpable Pediatric Breast Masses With Ultrasound Characteristics of Fibroadenoma: A More Conservative Approach.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Nov 26:1-6. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

1 Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75390.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to describe our experience with pathologically proven breast masses at a tertiary care pediatric institution, review published management strategies, and propose new management recommendations for the pediatric population.

Materials And Methods: All pediatric breast ultrasound examinations performed at a dedicated pediatric facility over a 4-year period were reviewed. Maximum measurements of solid masses with features of a fibroadenoma were recorded. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Do Deauville Scores Improve the Clinical Utility of End-of-Therapy FDG PET Scans for Pediatric Hodgkin Lymphoma?

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Nov 26:1-5. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

1 Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology, Oncology and Bone Marrow Transplant, University of Michigan. Medical Professional Bldg D4202, 1500 E Medical Center Dr, SPC 5718, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of Deauville scores in interpretation of end-of-chemotherapy FDG PET scans.

Conclusion: Deauville scores improve the clinical utility of end-of-chemotherapy PET, as evidenced by an increase in positive predictive value to 72.7% from 44. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

MR Arthrogram Features That Can Be Used to Distinguish Between True Inferior Glenohumeral Ligament Complex Tears and Iatrogenic Extravasation.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Nov 26:1-7. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

1 Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, CA.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to identify features seen at shoulder MR arthrography that distinguish between iatrogenic contrast material extravasation and inferior glenohumeral ligament (IGHL) complex tears.

Materials And Methods: MR arthrograms (n = 1740) were screened for extravasation through the IGHL complex. Cases were defined on the basis of surgical findings or definitive lack of extravasation in a fully distended joint immediately after contrast agent injection. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Effect of CT Reconstruction Algorithm on the Diagnostic Performance of Radiomics Models: A Task-Based Approach for Pulmonary Subsolid Nodules.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Nov 26:1-7. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

1 Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, 101, Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 03080, Korea.

Objective: We investigated whether the diagnostic performance of machine learning-based radiomics models for the discrimination of invasive pulmonary adenocarcinomas (IPAs) among subsolid nodules (SSNs) was affected by the proportion of images reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) in datasets used for feature extraction.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective study included 60 patients (23 men and 37 women; mean age, 61.4 years) with 69 SSNs (54 part-solid and 15 pure ground-glass nodules). Read More

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November 2018
1 Read
2.731 Impact Factor

The American Board of Radiology B. Leonard Holman Research Pathway to Initial Certification: Opportunities Lost for Diagnostic Radiology.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Nov 26:1-3. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

6 Oregon Health & Science University Hospital, Portland, OR.

Objective: In 1998, the American Board of Radiology introduced the B. Leonard Holman Research Pathway (HRP) to initial certification for trainees in diagnostic radiology (DR) and radiation oncology (RO) motivated to pursue research-oriented careers in academic DR and RO.

Conclusion: The HRP Committee anticipated that there would be a relatively even distribution between DR and RO participants, but with 18 years of experience that has not been the case. Read More

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November 2018

Patient Photographs: Privacy Versus Protection.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Nov 26:1-3. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

4 Camerad Technologies, LLC, Decatur, GA.

Objective: Technologies to obtain point-of-care photographs along with medical imaging studies are now available. We discuss the protections that photographs can provide in radiology and the potential privacy and legal issues that can arise with their incorporation.

Conclusion: Point-of-care photographs that are simultaneously obtained with medical imaging studies can provide biometric identification that enables detection of wrong-patient errors. Read More

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November 2018

Utility of Attenuation Coefficient Measurement Using an Ultrasound-Guided Attenuation Parameter for Evaluation of Hepatic Steatosis: Comparison With MRI-Determined Proton Density Fat Fraction.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Nov 26:1-10. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

3 Ultrasound General Imaging, GE Healthcare, Hino, Tokyo, Japan.

Objective: Recently, a new method was developed to diagnose hepatic steatosis by measuring attenuation coefficients that are based on the ultrasound-guided attenuation parameter (UGAP). We investigated the diagnostic ability of these coefficients to detect steatosis that was identified using the proton density fat fraction (PDFF) on MRI in patients with chronic liver disease.

Materials And Methods: A total of 126 patients with chronic liver disease (non-hepatitis B, non-hepatitis C) were analyzed. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Refining Convolutional Neural Network Detection of Small-Bowel Obstruction in Conventional Radiography.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Nov 26:1-9. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

1 Department of Radiology, Keck School of Medicine of USC, 1441 Eastlake Ave, Ste 2315B, Los Angeles, CA 90033.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate improvement of convolutional neural network detection of high-grade small-bowel obstruction on conventional radiographs with increased training set size.

Materials And Methods: A set of 2210 abdominal radiographs from one institution (image set 1) had been previously classified into obstructive and nonobstructive categories by consensus judgments of three abdominal radiologists. The images were used to fine-tune an initial convolutional neural network classifier (stage 1). Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Effect of Clinical Decision Support-Generated Report Cards Versus Real-Time Alerts on Primary Care Provider Guideline Adherence for Low Back Pain Outpatient Lumbar Spine MRI Orders.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Nov 26:1-9. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

2 Center for Evidence-Based Imaging, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine whether the type of feedback on evidence-based guideline adherence influences adult primary care provider (PCP) lumbar spine (LS) MRI orders for low back pain (LBP).

Materials And Methods: Four types of guideline adherence feedback were tested on eight tertiary health care system outpatient PCP practices: no feedback during baseline (March 1, 2012-October 4, 2012), randomization by practice to either clinical decision support (CDS)-generated report cards comparing providers to peers only or real-time CDS alerts at order entry during intervention 1 (February 6, 2013-December 31, 2013), and both feedback types for all practices during intervention 2 (January 14, 2014-June 20, 2014 and September 4, 2014-January 21, 2015). International Classification of Disease codes identified LBP visits (excluding Medicare fee-for-service). Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Unexpected Abnormal Uptake in the Breasts at Dedicated Breast PET: Incidentally Detected Small Cancers or Nonmalignant Features?

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Nov 26:1-7. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

2 Department of Radiology, University of Yamanashi, Chuo City, Yamanashi, Japan.

Objective: The purposes of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic performance of dedicated breast PET (dbPET) in cases of unexpected uptake and to define parameters associated with malignancy.

Materials And Methods: There are two types of high-resolution dbPET systems. One has two platelike detectors that compress the breast. Read More

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November 2018

Authorship Revisited: Part 3, From First Decision to Final Decision.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Dec;211(6):1183

1 Editor in Chief

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December 2018

Medicolegal-Malpractice and Ethical Issues in Radiology

Authors:
Leonard Berlin

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Dec;211(6):W297

1 NorthShore University HealthSystem, Skokie Hospital, Skokie, IL.

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December 2018

Nonclassifiable Nodules in the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology TIRADS and Size Threshold for Fine-Needle Aspiration.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Dec;211(6):W303

2 University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

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December 2018

Hallway Conversations in Physics

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Dec;211(6):W298-W300

1 University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA

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December 2018

Representation of Women on Radiology Journal Editorial Boards: A 40-Year Analysis.

Acad Radiol 2018 Dec 10;25(12):1640-1645. Epub 2018 May 10.

Yale University School of Public Health, Yale University School of Management, New Haven, Connecticut; Department of Economics, Yale College, New Haven, Connecticut.

Rationale And Objectives: We examined female representation on editorial boards of four prominent radiology journals. We compared editorial board representation to female academic radiology career advancement and the proportion of female authorship in three journals over four decades.

Methods: We collected data on the gender of editorial board members as listed on mastheads of Radiology, American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR), Academic Radiology, and the Journal of the American College of Radiology in 5-year intervals plus the most recent year available (1973-2017), and the gender of their editors-in-chief for all years since each journal's inception. Read More

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December 2018

FDG PET/MRI Coregistration Helps Predict Response to Gamma Knife Radiosurgery in Patients With Brain Metastases.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Nov 13:1-6. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

8 Department of Neurology, Neuro-Oncology Center, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether relative standardized uptake value (SUV) measurements at FDG PET/MRI coregistration are predictive of local tumor control in patients with brain metastases treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS).

Materials And Methods: A retrospective review was conducted of the images and clinical characteristics of a cohort of patients with brain metastases from non-CNS neoplasms treated with gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) who underwent posttherapy FDG PET because of MRI findings concerning for progression. The PET and contrast-enhanced MR images were fused. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

How Cognitive Machines Can Augment Medical Imaging.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Nov 13:1-6. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

3 Foundational Innovations, IBM Watson Health, Yorktown Heights, NY.

Objective: Artificial intelligence (AI) neural networks rapidly convert disparate facts and data into highly predictive analytic models. Machine learning maps image-patient phenotype correlations opaque to standard statistics. Deep learning performs accurate image-derived tissue characterization and can generate virtual CT images from MRI datasets. Read More

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November 2018
7 Reads

Artificial Intelligence in Breast Imaging: Potentials and Limitations.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Nov 13:1-7. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

1 Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Lynn Sage Breast Imaging Center, Prentice Hospital-Northwestern Memorial, Suite 4-2304, 250 E Superior St, Chicago, IL 60611.

Objective: The purpose of this article is to discuss potential applications of artificial intelligence (AI) in breast imaging and limitations that may slow or prevent its adoption.

Conclusion: The algorithms of AI for workflow improvement and outcome analyses are advancing. Using imaging data of high quality and quantity, AI can support breast imagers in diagnosis and patient management, but AI cannot yet be relied on or be responsible for physicians' decisions that may affect survival. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Fetal Head and Neck Masses: MRI Prediction of Significant Morbidity.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Nov 13:1-7. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

2 Department of Radiology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine which MRI parameters of fetal head and neck masses predict high-morbidity neonatal outcomes, including ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective study (2004-2016) included parameters of polyhydramnios (based on largest vertical pocket), mass effect on the trachea, mass midline extension, and morphologic grade and size of masses. The morbid cohort included those requiring an EXIT procedure, difficult intubation at delivery, or lethal outcome. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Dual-Energy CT Urography With 50% Reduced Iodine Dose Versus Single-Energy CT Urography With Standard Iodine Dose.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Nov 13:1-7. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

1 Department of Radiology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Box 357115, 1959 NE Pacific St, Seattle, WA 98195.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare dual-energy CT (DECT) urography with a 50% reduced iodine dose to single-energy CT (SECT) urography with a standard iodine dose with respect to attenuation of renal vascular and urinary tract structures and with respect to image quality.

Subjects And Methods: The study included 62 patients undergoing evaluation of urinary tract lithiasis, tumor, or hematuria. Thirty-one patients underwent DECT urography with a 50% reduced iodine dose and reconstruction at 50 and 77 keV. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Lead Shielding in Pediatric Chest CT: Effect of Apron Placement Outside the Scan Volume on Radiation Dose Reduction.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Nov 13:1-6. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

1 Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55912.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to quantify the dose reduction resulting from the use of lead aprons for pediatric chest CT as a function of the distance between the apron and the bottom of the scan range.

Materials And Methods: Semianthropomorphic phantoms of the head, abdomen, and pelvis were placed adjacent to a chest phantom to mimic the habitus of a 5-year-old child. A chest CT scan was performed, and a point dosimeter was used to measure the radiation dose at points within and outside the scan range. Read More

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November 2018
12 Reads

A Review of the Role of Augmented Intelligence in Breast Imaging: From Automated Breast Density Assessment to Risk Stratification.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Nov 13:1-11. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

1 Elizabeth Wende Breast Care, LLC, 170 Sawgrass Dr, Rochester, NY 14620.

Objective: The goal of augmented intelligence is to increase efficiency and effectiveness in practice. To achieve this, augmented intelligence technologies are being asked to perform a range of tasks, from simple to complex and quantitative. The development of these systems is increasingly important as screening becomes more personalized. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Gender Differences in Leadership Positions Among Academic Nuclear Medicine Specialists in Canada and the United States.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Nov 13:1-5. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

2 Department of Radiology, Emergency & Trauma Radiology, Vancouver General Hospital, Jim Pattison Pavilion, Ground Fl, 899 W 12th Ave, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9, Canada.

Objective: Despite equal representation of genders among medical students, women continue to be underrepresented in the field of academic diagnostic radiology. These differences are manifest across subspecialties in academic medicine and even in diagnostic radiology. There are limited data available addressing diversity among nuclear medicine specialists. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Crohn Disease: A 5-Point MR Enterocolonography Classification Using Enteroscopic Findings.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Nov 13:1-10. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

1 Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Medical Hospital, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510, Japan.

Objective: The objectives of our study were to establish the efficacy of a 5-point MR enterocolonography classification for assessing Crohn disease (CD) activity, compare this classification with a validated MRI score (i.e., the MR index of activity [MaRIA]), and compare both with endoscopic findings, which were assessed using the Crohn disease endoscopic index of severity (CDEIS). Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Gadolinium-Based Blood Volume Mapping From MRI With Ultrashort TE Versus CT and SPECT for Predicting Postoperative Lung Function in Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Nov 13:1-10. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

1 Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017, Japan.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to directly compare the capability of gadolinium-based blood volume (BV) mapping from MRI (BV-MRI) with ultrashort TE (UTE) with that of CT and perfusion SPECT in predicting the postoperative lung function of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Subjects And Methods: Unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MRI with UTE, thin-section CT, and perfusion SPECT examinations and measurements of the percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV) before and after lung resection were performed for 29 patients with NSCLC (16 men [mean age, 66 years] and 13 women [mean age, 66 years]). BV-MRI with UTE was generated as a percentage of the signal change between un-enhanced and contrast-enhanced MRI. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

CT Colonography in Preoperative Staging of Colon Cancer: Evaluation of FOxTROT Inclusion Criteria for Neoadjuvant Therapy.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Nov 13:1-9. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

1 Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Ave, New York, NY 10065.

Objective: The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the diagnostic performance of and interreader agreement for CT colonography (CTC) in the local staging of colon cancer, with emphasis given to the FOxTROT (Fluoropyrimidine, Oxaliplatin, and Targeted-Receptor pre-Operative Therapy [Panitumumab]) trial inclusion criteria, which propose a new tailored treatment paradigm for colon cancer that uses neoadjuvant therapy for patients with a high-risk of locoregional disease as determined by imaging.

Materials And Methods: This biinstitutional retrospective study involved 89 patients (with 93 tumors) who had colon cancer and underwent presurgical CTC. Two radiologists reviewed the CTC studies for local staging, including measurement of the tumor beyond the muscularis propria on a true orthogonal plane. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Impact of a Health Information Technology-Enabled Appropriate Use Criterion on Utilization of Emergency Department CT for Renal Colic.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Nov 7:1-4. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

1 Center for Evidence-Based Imaging, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of an appropriate use criterion (AUC) for renal colic based on local best practice, implemented as electronic clinical decision support (CDS), on the emergency department (ED) use of CT for patients with suspected nephrolithiasis.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective cohort study was performed in the EDs of a level I trauma center (study site) and local comparable hospital (control site). An AUC for patients younger than 50 years with a history of uncomplicated nephrolithiasis presenting with renal colic was developed by an interdisciplinary emergency medicine, emergency radiology, and urology team and embedded as CDS. Read More

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November 2018
10 Reads

Improving Radiology Peer Learning: Comparing a Novel Electronic Peer Learning Tool and a Traditional Score-Based Peer Review System.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Nov 7:1-7. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

1 Center for Evidence-Based Imaging, Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the yields of peer learning between a radiology electronic peer learning tool (PLT) and a score-based peer review (SBPR) system.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective study was performed from May 1, 2017, through October 31, 2017, at a 776-bed academic hospital performing more than 620,000 radiology examinations annually. Use of a PLT that generates alerts facilitating closed-loop feedback was initiated on March 1, 2017. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Multiparametric MRI Features and Pathologic Outcome of Wedge-Shaped Lesions in the Peripheral Zone on T2-Weighted Images of the Prostate.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Nov 7:1-6. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

1 Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, 5841 S Maryland Ave, Chicago, IL 60637.

Objective: This study investigates the multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) characteristics and pathologic outcome of wedge-shaped lesions observed on T2-weighted images.

Materials And Methods: Seventy-six patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer underwent preoperative 3-T MRI before undergoing radical prostatectomy. Two radiologists worked in consensus to mark wedge-shaped regions of hypointensity on T2-weighted images and assess their appearance on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps (to determine the degree of hypointensity) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI (DCE-MRI) (to assess whether they showed early enhancement). Read More

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November 2018
7 Reads

Supraspinatus Myotendinous Junction Injuries: MRI Findings and Prevalence.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Nov 7:1-9. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

2 Department of Radiology, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to describe the MRI findings and evaluate the prevalence of supraspinatus myotendinous injuries.

Materials And Methods: Among 1001 consecutive shoulders that underwent either conventional MRI or MR arthrography between January and December 2016, 843 shoulders were included. All MR images were retrospectively analyzed for identification and classification into the appropriate grade of acute or chronic rotator cuff myotendinous injuries. Read More

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November 2018
8 Reads

Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine Morphology: Comparison of Symptomatic Hips With Femoroacetabular Impingement and Asymptomatic Hips.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Nov 7:1-7. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

1 Department of Radiology, New York Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University Medical Center, 622 W 168th St, MC-28, New York, NY 10032.

Objective: The objective of our study was to compare anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) morphology in symptomatic hips with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and in asymptomatic hips, determine the prevalence of impingement morphology in patients with a radiographic "crossover" sign, and identify potential risk factors for having impingement morphology.

Materials And Methods: For this retrospective study, we identified consecutive symptomatic hips with FAI (n = 54) and asymptomatic hips (n = 35) in patients who underwent CT from 2015 to 2017. Two radiologists blindly and independently evaluated 3D CT images of each hip and graded the AIIS morphology according to the Hetsroni classification scheme. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

High-Fidelity Simulation Training for the Diagnosis and Management of Adverse Contrast Media Reactions.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Nov 7:1-7. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

1 Department of Radiology, University of Chicago Medical Center, 5841 S Maryland Ave, MC2026, Chicago, IL 60637.

Objective: Adverse reactions to contrast media are potentially life-threatening events that require prompt recognition and management by radiologists who may have little experience with them. The objectives of this project were to develop and assess a simulation-based program that would equip radiology trainees with appropriate knowledge and skills to recognize and manage adverse contrast media reactions.

Materials And Methods: Fifteen adverse contrast media reaction scenarios were developed to run on high-fidelity adult and pediatric mannequins in a simulation center. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Spectrum of Voriconazole-Induced Periostitis With Review of the Differential Diagnosis.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Nov 7:1-9. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

1 Department of Radiology, University of Illinois College of Medicine, 1740 W Taylor St, Rm. 2483 (MC 931), Chicago, IL 60612.

Objective: Voriconazole is an antifungal medication used primarily for the treatment of Candida and Aspergillus infections. A fairly newly described side effect of long-term voriconazole use is periostitis. The purpose of this article is to describe the main differential consideration-hypertrophic osteoarthropathy-and other differential diagnoses, including venous stasis, thyroid acropachy, and hypervitaminosis A. Read More

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November 2018
8 Reads

What Does Deep Learning See? Insights From a Classifier Trained to Predict Contrast Enhancement Phase From CT Images.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Dec 7;211(6):1184-1193. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

1 Department of Radiology, Radiology Informatics Laboratory, Mayo Clinic, 3507 17th Ave NW, Rochester, MN 55901.

Objective: Deep learning has shown great promise for improving medical image classification tasks. However, knowing what aspects of an image the deep learning system uses or, in a manner of speaking, sees to make its prediction is difficult.

Materials And Methods: Within a radiologic imaging context, we investigated the utility of methods designed to identify features within images on which deep learning activates. Read More

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December 2018
7 Reads

Incidental Renal Lesions on Lumbar Spine MRI: Who Needs Follow-Up?

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Nov 7:1-5. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

1 Department of Radiology, San Antonio Military Medical Center, San Antonio, TX.

Objective: Incidentally discovered renal lesions on lumbar spine MRI are a common occurrence. Many follow-up recommendations are generated by radiologists encountering renal lesions to help characterize the finding as a benign cyst or a more complex, potentially malignant lesion. We hypothesized that analysis of T2-weighted imaging features of incidentally discovered renal lesions could reliably distinguish complex renal lesions from simple cysts. Read More

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November 2018
17 Reads
2.731 Impact Factor