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    26345 results match your criteria AJR. American journal of roentgenology[Journal]

    1 OF 527

    Pulmonary Mucormycosis: Radiologic Features at Presentation and Over Time.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Feb 22:1-6. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    1 Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115.
    Objective: Pulmonary mucormycosis is an aggressive opportunistic fungal infection. We set out to evaluate the CT and MRI features of pulmonary mucormycosis.

    Materials And Methods: Through a search of the electronic medical record from 2007 to 2017, we identified 30 patients with definite or probable mucormycosis. Read More

    The Child With Macrocephaly: Differential Diagnosis and Neuroimaging Findings.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Feb 22:1-12. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    3 Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Division of Pediatric Radiology and Pediatric Neuroradiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, 1800 Orleans St, Zayed Tower, Rm 4174, Baltimore, MD 21287.
    Objective: The purpose of this article is to offer a systematic approach to the imaging of children with macrocephaly and to illustrate key neuroimaging features of common and rare but important disorders.

    Conclusion: Macrocephaly is a common clinical finding in children. Increased volume of one of the intracranial compartments can enlarge the head either prenatally or postnatally while the cranial sutures are open. Read More

    Contribution of 3-T Susceptibility-Weighted MRI to Detection of Intraarticular Hemosiderin Accumulation in Patients With Hemophilia.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Feb 22:1-7. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    1 Department of Radiology, Ondokuz Mayis University Faculty of Medicine, 55139 Atakum, Samsun, Turkey.
    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of 3-T susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) for detecting intraarticular hemosiderin accumulation in patients with hemophilia.

    Subjects And Methods: Forty-one joints in 24 patients with hemophilia were imaged with conventional MRI and SWI sequences. Two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists and one general radiologist (reader 3) interpreted the images for hemosiderin accumulation. Read More

    Central Metatarsalgia and Walking on Pebbles: Beyond Morton Neuroma.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Feb 22:1-13. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    2 Department of Radiology, Royal Liverpool & Broadgreen University Hospital NHS Trust, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    Objective: Central metatarsalgia relates to abnormalities of the second, third, and fourth metatarsals and their respective metatarsophalangeal joints. A variety of disorders present with central forefoot pain; they range from traumatic lesions (acute or chronic repetitive), inflammatory and infective disorders, nonneoplastic soft-tissue lesions, and benign tumors to malignant lesions. Patients often present with symptoms of localized pain in the forefoot that worsens on weight bearing (walking or running), which can be sharp or dull and often is perceived as a lump felt inside or underneath the foot and described as walking on a marble or pebbles. Read More

    The Clinical Significance of Osteophytes in Compartments of the Knee Joint With Normal Articular Cartilage.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Feb 22:W1-W8. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    1 Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, E3/311, 600 Highland Ave, Madison, WI 53792.
    Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine whether marginal osteophytes in compartments with normal cartilage would be more frequently observed in knees with cartilage lesions and osteophytes in other compartments.

    Materials And Methods: This retrospective study reviewed 500 consecutive knee MRI examinations performed within 6 months of arthroscopic knee surgery conducted for 497 patients with symptoms (289 male patients and 208 female patients; age range, 17-74 years; median age, 43 years). The highest grade of cartilage lesion detected at MRI and arthroscopy was recorded. Read More

    Solid Small Renal Mass Without Gross Fat: CT Criteria for Achieving Excellent Positive Predictive Value for Renal Cell Carcinoma.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Feb 22:W1-W8. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    1 Department of Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-752, Republic of Korea.
    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate CT criteria for achieving high positive predictive value (PPV) for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in patients with solid small renal masses (SRMs) less than 4 cm without macroscopic fat.

    Materials And Methods: One hundred fifty consecutive patients with a solid SRM without macroscopic fat (mean size ± SD, 2.5 ± 0. Read More

    JOURNAL CLUB: Evaluation of Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging of Stroke Lesion With Hemodynamic and Metabolic MRI in a Rodent Model of Acute Stroke.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Feb 22:1-8. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    1 Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 149 13th St, Rm 2301, Charlestown, MA 02129.
    Objective: Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) has emerged as a new acute stroke imaging approach, augmenting routine DWI. Although it has been shown that a diffusion lesion without kurtosis abnormality is more likely to recover after reperfusion, whereas a kurtosis lesion shows poor response, little is known about the underlying pathophysiologic profile of the kurtosis lesion versus the kurtosis lesion-diffusion lesion mismatch.

    Materials And Methods: We performed multiparametric MRI, including arterial spin labeling, pH-sensitive amide proton transfer, and DKI, in a rodent model of acute stroke caused by embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion. Read More

    Clinical Utility of Dual-Energy CT Analysis of Bone Marrow Edema in Acute Wrist Fractures.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Feb 22:1-6. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    1 Department of Radiology, Vancouver General Hospital, 3350-950 West 10th Ave, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9, Canada.
    Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the utility of dual-energy CT (DECT) for assessing carpal fractures and to obtain an attenuation value cutoff (in Hounsfield units) to identify bone marrow edema due to an acute carpal fracture.

    Materials And Methods: In this retrospective study, 24 patients who presented with wrist fractures from September 3, 2014, through March 9, 2015, underwent imaging with DECT (80 and 140 kVp). Using the three-material decomposition algorithm specific for virtual noncalcium to construct images, two radiologists identified carpal fractures and associated bone marrow edema. Read More

    Unipedal Diagnostic Lymphangiography Followed by Sequential CT Examinations in Patients With Idiopathic Chyluria: A Retrospective Study.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Feb 22:1-7. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    1 Department of Radiology, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 10, Tieyi St, Haidian District, Beijing 100038, China.
    Objective: The objective of our study was to investigate the clinical value of diagnostic lymphangiography followed by sequential CT examinations in patients with idiopathic chyluria.

    Materials And Methods: Thirty-six patients with idiopathic chyluria underwent unipedal diagnostic lymphangiography and then underwent sequential CT examinations. The examinations were reviewed separately by two radiologists. Read More

    Structured Reporting of Multiphasic CT for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Effect on Staging and Suitability for Transplant.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Feb 22:1-9. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    1 Department of Radiology, Division of Body Imaging, Stanford University, 300 Pasteur Dr, Stanford, CA 94305-5621.
    Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether use of a standardized radiology report template would improve the ability of liver transplant surgeons to diagnose stage T2 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and determine patient suitability to undergo orthotopic liver transplant (OLT).

    Materials And Methods: In this retrospective study, a standardized template was devised, and its use was mandated for reporting of liver CT findings for patients with cirrhosis and HCC. Two surgeons analyzed 200 reports (100 before and 100 after template implementation) for descriptions of cirrhosis, portal hypertension, lesion enhancement characteristics, tumor thrombus, portal and superior mesenteric vein patency, and Organ Procurement Transplantation Network (OPTN) class. Read More

    Acute Nonhemorrhagic Adrenal Infarction in Pregnancy: 10-Year MRI Incidence and Patient Outcomes at a Single Institution.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Feb 15:1-7. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    1 Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115.
    Objective: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively investigate the MRI incidence of nonhemorrhagic adrenal infarction in pregnant women undergoing MRI evaluation of acute abdominal or flank pain, assess the MRI features quantitatively, and report patient outcomes.

    Materials And Methods: All abdominal MRI examinations of pregnant women with acute pain at one institution from May 2005 to April 2015 were reviewed. The adrenals were evaluated for abnormal morphologic and signal intensity characteristics described in the literature characterizing nonhemorrhagic adrenal infarction and were compared with the contralateral adrenal by paired t tests. Read More

    Three-Dimensional Radial VIBE Sequence for Contrast-Enhanced Brain Imaging: An Alternative for Reducing Motion Artifacts in Restless Children.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Feb 15:1-7. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    5 Siemens Healthcare, Seoul, Korea.
    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of radially sampled 3D fat-suppressed T1-weighted gradient-echo sequences (radial volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination [radial VIBE]) for contrast-enhanced brain MRI of children through comparison with a magnetization-prepared rapid-acquisition gradient-echo (MP-RAGE) sequence.

    Materials And Methods: Sixty-five consecutive contrast-enhanced brain MRI examinations performed with axial MP-RAGE and radial VIBE sequences were included. For quantitative analysis, coefficients of variation of gray matter and white matter and CSF and relative contrast between tissue types (gray matter and white matter, gray matter and CSF, and white matter and CSF) for each sequence were calculated. Read More

    Fetal Urinary Tract Anomalies: Review of Pathophysiology, Imaging, and Management.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Feb 15:1-12. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    1 Department of Radiology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Box 357115, 1959 NE Pacific St, Seattle, WA 98195.
    Objective: Common fetal anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract encompass a complex spectrum of abnormalities that can be detected prenatally by ultrasound. Common fetal anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract can affect amniotic fluid volume production with the development of oligohydramnios or anhydramnios, resulting in fetal pulmonary hypoplasia and, potentially, abnormal development of other fetal structures.

    Conclusion: We provide an overview of common fetal anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract with an emphasis on sonographic patterns as well as pathologic and postnatal correlation, along with brief recommendations for postnatal management. Read More

    Coronary CT Angiography: Use in Patients With Chest Pain Presenting to Emergency Departments.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Feb 15:1-5. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    1 Department of Radiology, Center for Research on Utilization of Imaging Services (CRUISE), Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, 132 S 10th St, Main 1090, Philadelphia, PA 19107.
    Objective: Previously published reports have shown that coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is a more efficient method of diagnosis than myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and stress echocardiography for patients presenting to emergency departments (EDs) with acute chest pain. In light of this evidence, the objective of this study was to examine recent trends in the use of these techniques in EDs.

    Materials And Methods: The nationwide Medicare Part B databases for 2006-2015 were the data source. Read More

    Initial Clinical Experience With an Inducible Magnetic Seed System for Preoperative Breast Lesion Localization.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Feb 15:W1-W5. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    2 Department of Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.
    Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate a nonradioactive inducible magnetic seed system (Magseed, Endomag) for preoperative localization of nonpalpable breast lesions.

    Conclusion: All of the 73 seeds placed in the first 4 months of clinical use were successfully placed and all were successfully retrieved intraoperatively. The mean time from seed placement to surgery was 3 days. Read More

    VIDEO: Technique to Restrict the Gore Viatorr Stent-Graft for TIPS Reduction.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Feb 15:W1. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    1 Charles T. Dotter Department of Interventional Radiology, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Rd, L605, Portland, OR 97239.
    Objective: The Viatorr stent-graft (W. L. Gore and Associates), specifically made for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation, has significantly improved TIPS patency compared with bare metal stents. Read More

    Interrater Agreement and Diagnostic Accuracy of a Novel Computer-Aided Detection Process for the Detection and Prevention of Retained Surgical Instruments.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Feb 15:1-6. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    2 Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, 1500 E Medical Center Dr, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.
    Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a process incorporating computer-aided detection (CAD) for the detection and prevention of retained surgical instruments using a novel nondeformable radiopaque μTag.

    Materials And Methods: A high-specificity CAD system was developed iteratively from a training set (n = 540 radiographs) and a validation set (n = 560 radiographs). A novel test set composed of 700 thoracoabdominal radiographs (410 with a randomly placed μTag and 290 without a μTag) was obtained from 10 cadavers embedded with confounding iatrogenic objects. Read More

    How to Integrate Cell-Free DNA Screening With Sonographic Markers for Aneuploidy: An Update.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Feb 15:1-7. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, University of Utah Health Sciences, Salt Lake City, UT.
    Objective: The sonologist detects a so-called "soft marker" during approximately 10% of routine second-trimester anatomy examinations and is often uncertain about what further management is appropriate. This article will specifically address the management of patients with sonographic markers for six common entities: choroid plexus cysts (CPCs), ventriculomegaly (VM), echogenic intracardiac focus (EIF), urinary tract dilation (UTD), fetal echogenic bowel (FEB), and femoral and humeral shortening. The use of cell-free DNA screening and its relationship to these sonographic findings will be reviewed. Read More

    Advanced DWI Methods for the Assessment of Ischemic Stroke.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Feb 15:1-3. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    1 Department of Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Basic Science Bldg, MSC 510, 173 Ashley Ave, Ste 403, Charleston, SC 29425.
    Objective: This commentary discusses recent preclinical research on the potential feasibility and benefits of applying advanced DWI methods for the assessment of acute stroke.

    Conclusion: A DWI parameter known as kurtosis shows promise in helping to identify tissue that is likely salvageable at reperfusion. Read More

    Colorectal Liver Metastasis: Overview of Treatment Paradigm Highlighting the Role of Ablation.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Feb 15:1-8. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    2 Miami Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, FL.
    Objective: The objective of this article is to discuss the current treatment options for colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases and the role of ablation.

    Conclusion: A randomized control trial of ablation combined with chemotherapy showed improved overall survival compared with chemotherapy alone. Local recurrence rates are comparable to those associated with resection when ablative margins of more than 5 mm are achieved and target lesions are smaller than 3 cm. Read More

    Intravoxel Incoherent Motion MRI of Rectal Cancer: Correlation of Diffusion and Perfusion Characteristics With Prognostic Tumor Markers.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Feb 15:W1-W9. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    1 Department of Radiology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, No. 2 Yinghua E St, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100029, China.
    Objective: The objective of our study was to evaluate the intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM)-DWI derived parameters and their relationships with tumor prognostic markers using 3-T MRI in patients with rectal cancer.

    Subjects And Methods: Fifty-two patients with histopathologically proven rectal cancer who underwent preoperative pelvic MRI were prospectively enrolled in this study. Diffusion and perfusion parameters including the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), pure diffusion coefficient, perfusion fraction, and pseudodiffusion coefficient derived from IVIMDWI were independently measured by two radiologists. Read More

    A Systematic Review of Fatigue in Radiology: Is It a Problem?
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Feb 15:1-8. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    1 Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, 263 McCaul St, 4th Fl, Rm 401F, Toronto, ON M5T 1W7, Canada.
    Objective: The purpose of this study was to review current literature regarding radiologist fatigue.

    Materials And Methods: A literature search was performed using PubMed. Key words and Medical Subject Heading terms were used to generate refined queries with inclusion and exclusion criteria, focusing on fatigue and error. Read More

    Choledochal Malformations: Surgical Implications of Radiologic Findings.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Feb 15:W1-W13. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    1 Department of Radiology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Jackson Memorial Hospital, 1611 NW 12th Ave, WW 279, Miami, FL 33136-1015.
    Objective: The purpose of this article is to review the relevant pathophysiologic features, appearances, and surgical implications of choledochal malformations.

    Conclusion: Choledochal malformations, colloquially called choledochal cysts, initially described in 1723, have been recategorized multiple times, the most widely accepted being the Todani classification based on morphologic features and location. Although readily applied to imaging findings, this classification system does not correlate well with clinical and surgical management. Read More

    Unenhanced MRI as an Alternative toTc-Labeled Dimercaptosuccinic Acid Scintigraphy in the Detection of Pediatric Renal Scarring.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Feb 15:1-7. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    2 Department of Radiology, University of Missouri Health System, One Hospital Drive, Columbia, MO 65212.
    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether unenhanced MRI without sedation is a feasible substitute for dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy in the detection of renal scars in pediatric patients.

    Subjects And Methods: Patients scheduled for 99mTc-labeled DMSA scintigraphy for assessment of possible renal scars were recruited to undergo unenhanced MRI (free-breathing fat-suppressed T2-weighted single-shot turbo spin-echo and T1-weighted gradient-echo imaging, 13 minutes' total imaging time). Scintigraphic and MRI studies were evaluated by two independent blinded specialty-based radiologists. Read More

    Diagnostic Performance of Margin Features in Thyroid Nodules in Prediction of Malignancy.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Feb 15:1-6. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    3 Department of Radiology, Stanford University Medical Center, 300 Pasteur Dr, H1307, Stanford, CA 94305.
    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate thyroid nodule margins for specific morphologic features and determine the diagnostic performance of these features in differentiating papillary carcinoma from benign thyroid nodules.

    Materials And Methods: Nodules measuring 1-3 cm in largest diameter that had been evaluated with high-resolution ultrasound (12-18 MHz) and ultrasound-guided biopsy with definitive pathologic diagnosis were analyzed. Three blinded board-certified readers evaluated high-resolution images of each nodule for jagged edges, lobulated borders, and curved borders along their margins. Read More

    Segmental Arterial Mediolysis: Abdominal Imaging of and Disease Course in 111 Patients.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Feb 15:1-7. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    4 Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.
    Objective: The purpose of this study is to identify the imaging characteristics of segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) at presentation and establish the longitudinal course of disease.

    Materials And Methods: We retrospectively identified patients with SAM at a single institution from 2000 through 2015. Diagnosis was based on published guidelines with multidisciplinary consensus. Read More

    Improved Opacification of a Suboptimally Enhanced Pulmonary Artery in Chest CT: Experience Using a Dual-Layer Detector Spectral CT.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Feb 15:1-8. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    2 Department of Radiology, Gyeongsang National University Changwon Hospital, Changwon, Korea.
    Objective: The objective of our study was to evaluate the quality of virtual monoenergetic imaging (VMI) from dual-layer detector spectral CT and the effect of virtual monoenergetic images obtained at low energies on the detection of pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with a suboptimally enhanced pulmonary artery on chest CT.

    Materials And Methods: Of 1552 consecutive chest CT examinations performed with dual-layer detector spectral CT using a routine protocol with a tube voltage of 120 kVp, 79 examinations with suboptimal enhancement of the pulmonary artery (i.e. Read More

    Safety of Administering Furosemide During Nuclear Diuretic Renography in Patients With Sulfonamide Allergies.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Feb 15:1-3. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    1 Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit St, Wht 4-427, Boston, MA 02114.
    Objective: We reviewed the safety of nuclear diuretic renography with furosemide in patients with sulfonamide allergies. The electronic health record was used to uncover any drug effects reported within 30 days of diuretic renograms performed between January 2009 and December 2015.

    Conclusion: Eighty-three of 1103 (7. Read More

    Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast: Ultrasound-Pathology Correlation.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Feb 7:W1-W7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    1 Department of Radiology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Unit 1350, Houston, TX 77030.
    Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the sonographic and histopathologic features distinguishing benign from borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors.

    Materials And Methods: The ultrasound examinations of women with pathologically proven phyllodes tumors from 2004 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. The sonographic features of benign, borderline, and malignant phyllodes tumors were compared and analyzed using the American College of Radiology's BI-RADS ultrasound lexicon. Read More

    Improving Performance of Mammographic Breast Positioning in an Academic Radiology Practice.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Feb 7:1-9. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    1 Department of Radiology, Stanford University, 300 Pasteur Dr, Stanford, CA 94305-5105.
    Objective: The purpose of this project was to achieve sustained improvement in mammographic breast positioning in our department.

    Materials And Methods: Between June 2013 and December 2016, we conducted a team-based performance improvement initiative with the goal of improving mammographic positioning. The team of technologists and radiologists established quantitative measures of positioning performance based on American College of Radiology (ACR) criteria, audited at least 35 mammograms per week for positioning quality, displayed performance in dashboards, provided technologists with positioning training, developed a supportive environment fostering technologist and radiologist communication surrounding mammographic positioning, and employed a mammography positioning coach to develop, improve, and maintain technologist positioning performance. Read More

    Single-Contrast CT for Detecting Bowel Injuries in Penetrating Abdominopelvic Trauma.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Feb 7:1-5. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    1 Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Barnes-Jewish Hospital/Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, 510 S Kingshighway Blvd, St. Louis, MO 63110.
    Objective: Many centers advocate use of triple-contrast (IV, oral, and rectal) CT for assessing hemodynamically stable patients with penetrating abdominopelvic trauma. Enteric contrast material has several disadvantages, leading our practice to pursue use of single-contrast (IV) CT. We conducted a retrospective review of electronic medical records at our institution to assess the accuracy of single-contrast CT for diagnosing bowel injuries in cases of penetrating abdominopelvic trauma. Read More

    Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization With or Without Radiofrequency Ablation: Outcomes in Patients With Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Stage B Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Feb 7:1-8. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    1 Department of Gastroenterology and Metabology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Shitsukawa 454, Toon, Ehime 791-0295, Japan.
    Objective: The objective of our study was to clarify the indications for transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) of the hepatic artery combined with radiofrequency ablation (RFA), which we refer to as "TACE-RFA," for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) beyond the Milan criteria. This study assessed the prognoses of patients with intermediate-stage HCC, which we defined as Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage B (hereafter referred to as BCLC-B), according to the BCLC-B substages through treatment in a multicenter study.

    Materials And Methods: Two-hundred thirty patients with intermediate-stage HCC who were treated from January 2000 to December 2015 were enrolled. Read More

    Reactions to Both Nonionic Iodinated and Gadolinium-Based Contrast Media: Incidence and Clinical Characteristics.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Feb 7:1-5. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    1 Department of Radiology, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Northwestern University-Feinberg School of Medicine, 676 N Saint Clair St, Ste 800, Chicago, IL 60611.
    Objective: The objective or our study was to assess the incidence rate and clinical characteristics of allergiclike reactions in patients who received both nonionic iodinated contrast medium (ICM) and gadolinium-based contrast medium (GBCM).

    Materials And Methods: Acute allergiclike reactions in patients who received both ICM and GBCM to nonionic ICM or GBCM injections during a 5-year period were analyzed. Allergy preparation was not administered when patients received a different type of contrast material. Read More

    Differentiation of Malignant and Benign Adrenal Lesions With Delayed CT: Multivariate Analysis and Predictive Models.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Feb 7:W1-W8. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    2 Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.
    Objective: The purpose of this study is to identify imaging and patient parameters that affect the diagnostic performance of delayed contrast-enhanced CT for distinguishing malignant from benign adrenal lesions larger than 1 cm in adult patients and to derive predictive models.

    Materials And Methods: This retrospective study assessed 97 pathologically proven adrenal lesions that had undergone unenhanced, portal venous, and 15-minute delayed CT. Quantitatively, single-parameter evaluations of lesion attenuation (in Hounsfield units) and absolute percentage enhancement washout (APEW) and relative percentage enhancement washout (RPEW) were performed. Read More

    Grading System to Categorize Breast MRI in BI-RADS 5th Edition: A Multivariate Study of Breast Mass Descriptors in Terms of Probability of Malignancy.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Mar 30;210(3):W118-W127. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    1 Department of Radiology, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, 2-16-1, Sugao, Miyamae-ku Kawasaki, Kanagawa, 216-8511, Japan.
    Objective: The purpose of this study is to analyze the association between the probability of malignancy and breast mass descriptors in the BI-RADS 5th edition and to devise criteria for grading mass lesions, including subcategorization of category 4 lesions with or without apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values.

    Materials And Methods: A total of 519 breast masses in 499 patients were selected. Breast MRI was performed with a 1. Read More

    Axillary Ultrasound Identifies Residual Nodal Disease After Chemotherapy: Results From the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z1071 Trial (Alliance).
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Mar 30;210(3):669-676. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    7 Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.
    Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine lymph node features on axillary ultrasound (US) images obtained after neoadjuvant chemotherapy that are associated with residual nodal disease in patients with initial biopsy-proven node-positive breast cancer.

    Subjects And Methods: All patients had axillary US performed after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Axillary US images were centrally reviewed for lymph node size, cortical thickness, and cortical morphologic findings (type I indicated no visible cortex; type II, a hypoechoic cortex ≤ 3 mm; type III, a hypoechoic cortex > 3 mm; type IV, a generalized lobulated hypoechoic cortex; type V, focal hypoechoic cortical lobulation; and type VI, a totally hypoechoic node with no hilum). Read More

    The Diagnostic Performance of MRI for Detection of Lymph Node Metastasis in Bladder and Prostate Cancer: An Updated Systematic Review and Diagnostic Meta-Analysis.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Mar 30;210(3):W95-W109. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    1 Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744, Republic of Korea.
    Objective: The purpose of this article is to review the diagnostic performance of MRI for the detection of pelvic lymph node (LN) metastasis in patients with bladder and prostate cancer.

    Materials And Methods: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched up to January 13, 2017. We included diagnostic accuracy studies that used MRI for pelvic LN detection in patients with bladder or prostate cancer, using histopathologic analyses published since 2000 as the reference standard. Read More

    Comparing Dose-Length Product-Based and Monte Carlo Simulation Organ-Based Calculations of Effective Dose in 16- and 64-MDCT Examinations Using Automatic Tube Current Modulation.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Mar 30;210(3):583-592. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    1 George Washington University Hospital, 900 23rd St NW, Washington, DC 20037.
    Objective: The purpose of this study is to compare dose-length product (DLP)-based calculation of effective dose (ED) with Monte Carlo simulation organ-based calculation of effective dose (ED) in 16- and 64-MDCT examinations, with the use of clinical examinations with automatic tube current modulation.

    Materials And Methods: Dose data were obtained from 50 consecutive unenhanced head CT examinations, unenhanced chest CT examinations, and unenhanced and contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT examinations performed using 16- and 64-MDCT scanners, as well as from 50 pulmonary CT angiography (CTA) examinations performed using a 64-MDCT scanner and 31 pulmonary CTA examinations performed using a 16-MDCT scanner. The EDand the mean patient effective diameter were calculated using commercially available software. Read More

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