137 results match your criteria AJOB empirical bioethics[Journal]


Differences in Conceptual Understanding of the "Actionability" of Incidental Findings and the Resultant Difference in Ethical Responsibility: An Empirical Study in Japan.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2020 Jul 2:1-8. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Noda-shi, Japan.

: The issue of incidental findings encountered in medical researches and in clinical practices becomes controversial in recent years. In what situations should researchers and clinicians disclose incidental findings to study participants or patients? According to previous studies, the concept of "actionability" is one of most important notions in determining the management of incidental findings, however, the understanding of this concept is also inconsistent among people and the inconsistency can affect the management of incidental findings. That is why we surveyed the difference in conceptual understanding of "actionability" for incidental findings with genomic researches in Japan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2020.1784308DOI Listing

"I Want to Do It, But I Want to Make Sure That I Do It Right." Views of Patients with Parkinson's Disease Regarding Early Stem Cell Clinical Trial Participation.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2020 Jun 9:1-12. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Psychology, The New School for Social Research, New York, New York, USA.

: First-in-human clinical trials with stem cells for Parkinson's disease (PD) are on the horizon. Their epistemic success depends on ensuring the participation of a sufficient number and appropriately diverse group of patients with PD. Their ethical soundness requires that the research community ensures that subjects' decisions about whether to participate or not are consistent with participants' values, motivations, and goals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2020.1775721DOI Listing

"We're Not Ready, But I Don't Think You're Ever Ready." Clinician Perspectives on Implementation of Crisis Standards of Care.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2020 May 5:1-12. Epub 2020 May 5.

Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York, USA.

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted health care systems' vulnerabilities. Hospitals face increasing risk of periods of scarcity of life-sustaining resources such as ventilators for mechanical respiratory support, as has been the case in Italy as of March, 2020. The National Academy of Medicine has provided guidance on crisis standards of care, which call for the reallocation of scarce medical resources to those who will benefit most during extreme situations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2020.1759731DOI Listing

Research Use of Electronic Health Records: Patients' Views on Alternative Approaches to Permission.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2020 Apr 27:1-15. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Center for Biomedical Ethics and Society, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

: The increased use of electronic health records (EHRs) has resulted in new opportunities for research, but also raises concerns regarding privacy, confidentiality, and patient awareness. Because public trust is essential to the success of the research enterprise, patient perspectives are essential to the development and implementation of ethical approaches to the research use of EHRs. Yet, little is known about patients' views and expectations regarding various approaches to seeking permission for research use of their EHR data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2020.1755383DOI Listing

When Do Pediatricians Call the Ethics Consultation Service? Impact of Clinical Experience and Formal Ethics Training.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2020 Apr-Jun;11(2):83-90. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Previous research shows that pediatricians inconsistently utilize the ethics consultation service (ECS). Pediatricians in two suburban, Midwestern academic hospitals were asked to reflect on their ethics training and utilization of ECS via an anonymous, electronic survey distributed in 2017 and 2018, and analyzed in 2018. Participants reported their clinical experience, exposure to formal and informal ethics training, use of formal and informal ethics consultations, and potential barriers to formal consultation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2020.1737983DOI Listing

Informed Consent in Two Alzheimer's Disease Research Centers: Insights From Research Coordinators.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2020 Apr-Jun;11(2):114-124. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

University of Wisconsin-Madison Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, Madison, WI, USA.

: Informed consent (IC) is critical to performing ethical research. Unfortunately, the IC process and supporting IC forms are frequently burdensome and do not necessarily meet the informational needs of participants. The intersecting legal and ethical challenges of obtaining IC from individuals with memory or cognitive deficits further exacerbate existing IC shortcomings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2020.1737982DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7266429PMC

First Do No Harm: Ethical Concerns of Health Researchers That Discourage the Sharing of Results With Research Participants.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2020 Apr-Jun;11(2):104-113. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Northwest, Fayetteville, Arkansas, USA.

Health researchers and health research participants support the sharing of research results; however, results are typically only shared through peer-reviewed publications. Few studies have investigated researchers' ethical concerns related to sharing results with research participants. An explanatory approach was used to explore the ethical concerns researchers may have with returning aggregate results to research participants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2020.1737980DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7263438PMC

Incorporating Ethically Relevant Empirical Data From Systematic Review of Reasons: A Case Study of .

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2020 Apr-Jun;11(2):91-103. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

In this report we use a case study of risk of (SUDEP) to illustrate the contribution of systematic literature reviews of disease-specific ethical issues (DSEI). In particular, we show how ethically-relevant empirical data from such reviews can be used in the examination of the reasons for and against a particular normative approach to our DSEI. That is, we have attempted to offer a normative recommendation in response to the question of whether or not the risk of SUDEP should be disclosed to all patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2020.1737981DOI Listing

From x-phi to bioxphi: Lessons in Conceptual Analysis 2.0.

Authors:
Jonathan Lewis

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2020 Jan-Mar;11(1):34-36

Institute of Ethics, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1705430DOI Listing
February 2020

Interdisciplinary Collaborative Auditing as a Method to Facilitate Teamwork/Teams in Empirical Ethics Projects.

Authors:
Veerle Provoost

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2020 Jan-Mar;11(1):14-16

Department of Philosophy and Moral Science, Bioethics Institute Ghent (BIG), Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1705431DOI Listing
February 2020

The Empirical and the Philosophical in Empirical Bioethics: Time for a Conceptual Turn.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2020 Jan-Mar;11(1):11-13

Department of Cultural Studies, School of Humanities, Tilburg University, Tilburg, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1708515DOI Listing
February 2020

Keeping Bioethics Concrete: How Social Scientific Research Generates Values.

Authors:
Justin T Clapp

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2020 Jan-Mar;11(1):8-10

Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1706208DOI Listing
February 2020

Overcoming Biases Together: Normative Stakes of Interdisciplinarity in Bioethics.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2020 Jan-Mar;11(1):20-23

Centre of Genomics and Policy, McGill University.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1706209DOI Listing
February 2020

AI Methods in Bioethics.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2020 Jan-Mar;11(1):37-39

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1706206DOI Listing
February 2020

The Ought and is of Conscience: The Value of Empirical Bioethics for Reframing Normative Analysis.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2020 Jan-Mar;11(1):27-29

Department of Learning Health Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1706207DOI Listing
February 2020

Incommensurable Processes of Reasoning and Implications for Empirical and Normative Bioethics.

Authors:
Kristine Bærøe

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2020 Jan-Mar;11(1):2-4

Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Norway.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1707726DOI Listing
February 2020

The False Dichotomy Between Empirical and Normative Bioethics.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2020 Jan-Mar;11(1):5-7

College of Medicine, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, Michigan, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1705429DOI Listing
February 2020

When Moral Intuitions and Empirical Findings Collide: A Case for Revisiting Protectionist Tendencies in Bioethics.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2020 Jan-Mar;11(1):24-26

Biomedical Ethics Research Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2020.1713245DOI Listing
February 2020

Editorial.

Authors:
Holly A Taylor

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2020 Jan-Mar;11(1)

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2020.1718949DOI Listing
February 2020

Beyond Binaries: Dissolving the Empirical/Normative Divide.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2020 Jan-Mar;11(1):17-19

Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Uehiro Research Division for iPS Cell Ethics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2020.1722290DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7048068PMC
February 2020

Ethics Review in Anti-Doping Research: Experiences of Stakeholders.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2020 Apr-Jun;11(2):125-133. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Centre for Biomedical Ethics and Law, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

The World Anti-Doping Agency is the international body coordinating anti-doping efforts, with the mandate of harmonizing anti-doping policy worldwide. With novel performance-enhancing compounds continuously entering the market, research is necessary to develop appropriate methods for their detection. WADA-accredited laboratories are required to spend 7% of their annual budget on this research and need to obtain ethics approval for studies involving human participants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2020.1722767DOI Listing
February 2020

Is Real-Time ELSI Realistic?

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2020 Apr-Jun;11(2):134-144. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Baylor College of Medicine, Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy.

A growing literature has raised-skeptically-the question of whether cutting-edge scientific research can identify and address broader ethical and policy considerations in real time. In genomics, the question is: Can ELSI contribute to genomics in real time, or will it be relegated to its historical role of after-the-fact outsider critique? We address this question against the background of a genomic screening project where we participated as embedded, real-time ELSI researchers and observers, from its initial design through its conclusion. As part of the ELSI study design, the project included an ongoing reflexive ethnography in which the authors studied the process of its design and implementation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2020.1722289DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7220841PMC
February 2020

From Expectations to Experiences: Consumer Autonomy and Choice in Personal Genomic Testing.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2020 Jan-Mar;11(1):63-76. Epub 2019 Dec 30.

Faculty of Medicine and Health, Sydney School of Public Health, Sydney Health Ethics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

: Personal genomic testing (PGT) offers individuals genetic information about relationships, wellness, sporting ability, and health. PGT is increasingly accessible online, including in emerging markets such as Australia. Little is known about what consumers expect from these tests and whether their reflections on testing resonate with bioethics concepts such as autonomy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1701583DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7048070PMC
December 2019

Clinicians' Perspectives on the Duty to Inform Patients About Medical Aid-in-Dying.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2020 Jan-Mar;11(1):53-62. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Center for Bioethics, Department of Social Medicine, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

As of 2019, ten jurisdictions in the United States have authorized physicians to prescribe a lethal dose of medication to a terminally ill patient for the purpose of hastening death. Relatively little bioethics scholarship has addressed the question of whether physicians have an obligation to inform qualifying patients about aid-in-dying (AID) in permissive jurisdictions and little is known about providers' actual communication practices with respect to this issue. One hundred and forty-four in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted and analyzed using an inductive analytic approach as part of the Vermont Study on Aid-in-Dying. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1695016DOI Listing
December 2019

The Impact of Physician Social Media Behavior on Patient Trust.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2020 Apr-Jun;11(2):77-82. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

George Washington University School of Medicine.

Institutions have developed professionalism policies to help guide physician social media behavior in light of professionalism lapses that have resulted in serious consequences. Prior research has gathered perspectives on online professionalism; however, the public's views remain poorly understood. Importantly, the impact of physician social media behavior on patient trust is unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1678533DOI Listing
October 2019

Breaking a Vital Trust: Posting Photos of Patients on Facebook Among a Sample of Peruvian Medical Students.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2019 Oct-Dec;10(4):241-249. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Escuela de Medicina, Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas , Lima , Peru.

The doctor-patient relationship may be affected by the indiscriminate use of social media platforms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of the photos posted on medical students' Facebook accounts to determine whether they have posted private patient information and compare this to their self-reported behavior of posting such photos. We performed a cross-sectional study of medical students from a Peruvian private university. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1672826DOI Listing
July 2020
1 Read

Operational Characteristics of Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) in the United States.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2019 Oct-Dec;10(4):276-286. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Psychiatry, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania , Philadelphia , Pennsylvania , USA.

Federal Law requires approval from an Institutional Review Board prior to conducting human subjects research to ensure ethical distribution of benefits and harms. Notwithstanding this role and almost no prescriptive requirements about design or operation, there is little systematic research describing the key attributes of IRBs, as reported by IRB personnel themselves. Here, 55 IRB directors completed a survey of 77 questions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1670276DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6905034PMC

Patient's Perspectives of Experimental HCV-Positive to HCV-Negative Renal Transplantation: Report from a Single Site.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2020 Jan-Mar;11(1):40-52. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

With growing transplant wait times, clinical trials are evaluating the safety and efficacy of transplanting HCV-infected donor (HCV+) organs into HCV-noninfected recipients (HCV D+/R-). Such transplants raise ethical questions about safety, consent, and access to organs. We interviewed eight of the ten total HCV D+/R- transplant recipients enrolled in a pilot clinical trial examining the safety and feasibility of these novel transplants regarding their experiences in the trial, including their decision-making and perceptions of the informed consent process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1670277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044044PMC
October 2019
1 Read

Media Coverage of Ethical Issues in Predictive Genetic Testing: A Qualitative Analysis.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2019 Oct-Dec;10(4):250-264. Epub 2019 Oct 9.

Institute for Biomedical Ethics, University of Basel , Basel , Switzerland.

Predictive genetic testing (PGT) raises many ethical issues and is of increasing interest to the general population. Mass media, especially newspapers, are the public's main source of information on this topic. We conducted a content analysis of British newspaper reporting, assessing which ethical issues were mentioned. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1670275DOI Listing

A Content Analysis of Patient Advocacy Organization Policies Addressing Institutional Conflicts of Interest.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2019 Oct-Dec;10(4):215-221. Epub 2019 Oct 8.

Department of Medical Ethics and Health Policy, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania.

Patient advocacy organizations (PAOs) provide patient education, raise public awareness, and influence health policy for a wide range of diseases. These organizations frequently receive financial support form from drug, device, and biotechnology companies. Though PAOs often develop policies to address institutional conflicts of interest arising from industry relations, little is known about the substance of these policies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1670278DOI Listing

Return of Value in the New Era of Biomedical Research-One Size Will Not Fit All.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2019 Oct-Dec;10(4):265-275. Epub 2019 Oct 3.

RAND Corporation.

There is a growing interest in creating large-scale repositories that store genetic, behavioral, and environmental data for future, unspecified uses. The All of Us Research Program is one example of such a repository. Its participants will get access to their personal data and the results of the studies that used them. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1666175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6803105PMC

Ethical Awareness Scale: Replication Testing, Invariance Analysis, and Implications.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2019 Oct-Dec;10(4):231-240. Epub 2019 Oct 3.

William F. Connell School of Nursing, Boston College, Associate Professor of Nursing and Ethics.

Ethical awareness (EA) enables nurses to recognize the ethical implications of all practice actions and is an important component of safe and quality nursing care. Evidence suggests that nurses may sometimes feel underprepared to recognize and address ethical issues as they arise in practice. The Ethical Awareness Scale (EAS) presented strong evidence as a psychometrically sound measure of EA in critical care nurses in pilot testing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1666176DOI Listing

Examining Physician Interactions with Disease Advocacy Organizations.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2019 Oct-Dec;10(4):222-230. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

Biomedical Ethics Research Program, Center for Individualized Medicine, Mayo Clinic , Rochester , Minnesota , USA.

Disease advocacy organizations (DAOs) have traditionally focused on raising awareness of rare diseases, providing educational resources to patients, and supporting patients and families. Previous research has described how scientists collaborate with DAOs, but few empirical data are available regarding the extent to which physicians interact with DAOs and how those interactions impact patient care. We conducted a national survey of 230 board-certified pediatric neurologists to assess their engagement with DAOs and their beliefs about the impact of DAOs on patient care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1652213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7259376PMC

Exploring the Role of Shared Decision Making in the Consent Process for Pediatric Genomics Research in Cameroon, Tanzania, and Ghana.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2019 Jul-Sep;10(3):182-189. Epub 2019 Aug 5.

i Division of Human Genetics, Department of Pathology, University of Cape Town , Cape Town , South Africa.

It is customarily perceived that in Africa, decisions around research participation may be based not only on individual reflection but also on discussions with others. Some authors have argued that such decision making is reflective of a more traditional communitarian African worldview; one critique of such a perspective is that it is lacking an empirical grounding. In this study, we explore decision making around enrollment in sickle cell genomics research in three countries in Africa, namely, Ghana, Cameroon, and Tanzania. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1645759DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7255821PMC

Ethical Leadership and Employees' Perceptions About Raising Ethical Concerns to Managers in the Veterans Health Administration.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2019 Jul-Sep;10(3):155-163. Epub 2019 Jul 17.

b National Center for Ethics in Health Care, Department of Veterans Affairs, Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington School of Public Health , Seattle , Washington , USA.

The willingness of employees to proactively give voice to their concerns, including ethical concerns (ethics voice), is critical to improving organizational performance and integrity. In health care, speaking up is vital to ensuring a delivery system centered on patient safety and quality, including ethics quality. In this study, we explored whether ethical leadership practices contribute to employees' willingness to raise ethical concerns to those in the organization who have the authority to take corrective action. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1634654DOI Listing

What Is the Minimal Competency for a Clinical Ethics Consult Simulation? Setting a Standard for Use of the Assessing Clinical Ethics Skills (ACES) Tool.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2019 Jul-Sep;10(3):164-172. Epub 2019 Jul 11.

j Law & Health Care Program, Maryland Carey Law, Maryland Health Care Ethics Committee Network (MHECN) , Baltimore , Maryland , USA.

The field of clinical ethics is examining ways of determining competency. The Assessing Clinical Ethics Skills (ACES) tool offers a new approach that identifies a range of skills necessary in the conduct of clinical ethics consultation and provides a consistent framework for evaluating these skills. Through a training website, users learn to apply the ACES tool to clinical ethics consultants (CECs) in simulated ethics consultation videos. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1634653DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6921700PMC
May 2020
3 Reads

Cancer Clinical Trial Patient-Participants' Perceptions about Provider Communication and Dropout Intentions.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2019 Jul-Sep;10(3):190-200. Epub 2019 Jun 10.

d Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania , Philadelphia , Pennsylvania , USA.

To study the relationship between cancer patient/research participants' perceptions of communication with their research nurse and doctor and (1) participants' thoughts of dropping out from their cancer clinical trials (CCTs), (2) how informed they felt before and during their clinical trial participation, and (3) trust in their researchers. We surveyed 110 adult cancer patients who were enrolled in cancer clinical trials by using 15 modified items from the Medical Communication Competence Scale measuring information exchange and relational communication. Retention was measured by two items: ever thought about dropping out (yes/no) and likelihood of remaining enrolled in the clinical trial (5-point Likert item). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1618417DOI Listing
May 2020
3 Reads

Trust and Expectations of Researchers and Public Health Departments for the Use of HIV Molecular Epidemiology.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2019 Jul-Sep;10(3):201-213. Epub 2019 May 3.

b Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego , La Jolla , California , USA.

Molecular epidemiology (ME) is a technique used to study the dynamics of pathogen transmission through a population. When used to study HIV infections, ME generates powerful information about how HIV is transmitted, including epidemiologic patterns of linkage and, potentially, transmission direction. Thus, ME raises challenging questions about the most responsible way to protect individual privacy while acquiring and using these data to advance public health and inform HIV intervention strategies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1601648DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7233550PMC
May 2020
2 Reads

Addiction, Identity, Morality.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2019 Apr-Jun;10(2):136-153. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

c Uehiro Centre for Practical Ethics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Background: Recent literature on addiction and judgments about the characteristics of agents has focused on the implications of adopting a "brain disease" versus "moral weakness" model of addiction. Typically, such judgments have to do with what capacities an agent has (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1590480DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6506907PMC
March 2020
3 Reads

Enhancing Understanding of Moral Distress: The Measure of Moral Distress for Health Care Professionals.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2019 Apr-Jun;10(2):113-124. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

e School of Nursing , Virginia Commonwealth University , Richmond , Virginia , USA.

Background: As ongoing research explores the impact of moral distress on health care professionals (HCPs) and organizations and seeks to develop effective interventions, valid and reliable instruments to measure moral distress are needed. This article describes the development and testing of a revision of the widely used Moral Distress Scale-Revised (MDS-R) to measure moral distress.

Methods: We revised the MDS-R by evaluating the combined data from 22 previous studies, assessing 301 write-in items and 209 root causes identified through moral distress consultation, and reviewing 14 recent publications from various professions in which root causes were described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1586008DOI Listing
March 2020
21 Reads

Preventive Misconception and Risk Behaviors in a Multinational HIV Prevention Trial.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2019 Apr-Jun;10(2):79-87. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

b Department of Population Health Sciences , Duke University School of Medicine , Durham , North Carolina , USA.

Background: Some HIV prevention research participants may hold a "preventive misconception" (PM), an overestimate of the probability or level of personal protection afforded by trial participation. However, these reports typically rely upon small, retrospective qualitative assessments that did not use a standardized approach.

Methods: We administered a measure of PM called PREMIS, during Microbicide Trials Network 020-A Study to Prevent Infection with a Ring for Extended Use, a large, multicenter, placebo-controlled, phase III trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of a dapivirine vaginal ring among women at risk for HIV infection in Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23294515.2019.1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1593257DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6612263PMC
March 2020
24 Reads

Older Teens' Understanding and Perceptions of Risks in Studies With Genetic Testing: A Pilot Study.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2019 Jul-Sep;10(3):173-181. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

d Academic and Regulatory Monitoring Services, LLC , Cincinnati , Ohio , USA.

The consent process used in clinical research today falls markedly short of the ideal process envisioned nearly 30 years ago. Critics have suggested that the informed consent process has become challenging, formalistic, and incompletely understood by researchers and participants alike. Hence, the purpose of this pilot study was to identify and characterize important aspects of the informed consent process that teens believe impact their understanding of risks of participation in studies with genetic testing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1577313DOI Listing
May 2020
5 Reads

Bedside Rationing Under Resource Constraints-A National Survey of Ethiopian Physicians' Use of Criteria for Priority Setting.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2019 Apr-Jun;10(2):125-135. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

a Research Group in Global Health Priorities, Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care , University of Bergen , Norway.

In low-income settings resource constraints force clinicians to make harsh choices. We examine the criteria Ethiopian physicians use in their bedside rationing decisions through a national survey at 49 public hospitals in Ethiopia. Substantial variation in weight given to different criteria were reported by the 587 participating physicians (response rate 91. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1583691DOI Listing
March 2020
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Broadening the Debate About Post-trial Access to Medical Interventions: A Qualitative Study of Participant Experiences at the End of a Trial Investigating a Medical Device to Support Type 1 Diabetes Self-Management.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2019 Apr-Jun;10(2):100-112. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

e Wellcome Centre for Ethics and Humanities and the Ethox Centre, Nuffield Department of Population Health, Big Data Institute , University of Oxford , Oxford , United Kingdom.

Increasing ethical attention and debate is focusing on whether individuals who take part in clinical trials should be given access to post-trial care. However, the main focus of this debate has been upon drug trials undertaken in low-income settings. To broaden this debate, we report findings from interviews with individuals (n = 24) who participated in a clinical trial of a closed-loop system, which is a medical device under development for people with type 1 diabetes that automatically adjusts blood glucose to help keep it within clinically recommended ranges. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23294515.2019.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1592264DOI Listing
March 2020
31 Reads

Single-Patient Expanded Access Requests: IRB Professionals' Experiences and Perspectives.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2019 Apr-Jun;10(2):88-99. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

a Division of Medical Ethics, Department of Population Health , NYU School of Medicine, NYU Langone Health , New York , New York , USA.

Background: U.S. physicians may treat a patient with an investigational drug outside of a clinical trial by using the expanded access (EA) pathway or the recently created federal right to try (RTT) pathway. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1577192DOI Listing
March 2020
6 Reads

Impartiality and infectious disease: Prioritizing individuals versus the collective in antibiotic prescription.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2019 Jan-Mar;10(1):63-69. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

b Oxford Uehiro Centre for Practical Ethics, Faculty of Philosophy , University of Oxford , Oxford , United Kingdom.

Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global public health disaster driven largely by antibiotic use in human health care. Doctors considering whether to prescribe antibiotics face an ethical conflict between upholding individual patient health and advancing public health aims. Existing literature mainly examines whether patients awaiting consultations desire or expect to receive antibiotic prescriptions, but does not report views of the wider public regarding conditions under which doctors should prescribe antibiotics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1576799DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6446247PMC
February 2020
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Developing clinical ethics support for an Australian Health Service: A survey of clinician's experiences and views.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2019 Jan-Mar;10(1):44-54. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

a Research Directorate , University Hospital Geelong, Barwon Health , Geelong , Australia.

Background: International developments suggest that providing clinical ethics services to help clinicians negotiate ethical issues that arise in clinical practice is beneficial and reflects best practice in promoting high ethical standards and patient-centered care. The aim of this study was to explore the needs and experiences of clinical staff members to inform the development of future clinical ethics support.

Methods: Health professionals at a large regional health service completed an online survey containing questions about the frequency of ethical and legal issues encountered in clinical practice, the type of situations that gave rise to the ethical and/or legal uncertainty or concern, how clinicians currently address these issues, and what support would be welcome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1576800DOI Listing
February 2020
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Framing the diagnosis and treatment of absolute uterine factor infertility: Insights from in-depth interviews with uterus transplant trial participants.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2019 Jan-Mar;10(1):23-35. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

a Department of Ob/Gyn & Women's Health Institute , Cleveland Clinic , Cleveland , Ohio.

Background: Despite procedural innovations and increasing numbers of uterus transplant attempts worldwide, the perspectives of uterus transplant (UTx) trial participants are lacking.

Methods: We conducted a mixed-methods study with women with absolute uterine factor infertility (AUFI). Participants included women who had previously contacted the Cleveland Clinic regarding the Uterine Transplant Trial and met the initial eligibility criteria for participation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1572672DOI Listing
February 2020
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Cameras on beds: The ethics of surveillance in nursing home rooms.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2019 Jan-Mar;10(1):55-62. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

c Cornell University , Information Science , Ithaca , New York , USA.

Surveillance cameras are increasingly being deployed in nursing homes and assisted living facilities, with insufficient attention to what is ethically fraught about this way of assuaging concerns about abuse and other personnel challenges. With seven state laws now regulating camera monitoring and more on the way, it is urgent for us to consider the ethical implications of how we use technology to keep older adults safe. Drawing on findings from the first facility survey on this topic, we address three ethical issues: the risk that in-room cameras pose to residents' privacy and dignity, the risk of undermining care workers' sense of being fiduciaries for residents, and the probable extension of camera use by facilities to monitor staff and residents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2019.1568320DOI Listing
February 2020
2 Reads