12,769 results match your criteria AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology[Journal]


Pointwise Encoding Time Reduction with Radial Acquisition with Subtraction-Based MRA during the Follow-Up of Stent-Assisted Coil Embolization of Anterior Circulation Aneurysms.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Neurosurgery (S.-C.J.), Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan, Korea.

Background And Purpose: Time-of-flight MR angiography, though widely used after coil embolization, is associated with limitations owing to magnetic susceptibility and radiofrequency shielding following stent-assisted coil embolization. We evaluated the pointwise encoding time reduction with radial acquisition (PRETRA) sequence in subtraction-based MRA (qMRA) using an ultrashort TE relative to TOF-MRA during the follow-up of stent-assisted coil embolization for anterior circulation aneurysms.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-five patients (3 men and 22 women; mean age, 59. Read More

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http://www.ajnr.org/lookup/doi/10.3174/ajnr.A6035
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6035DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Radiogenomics in Medulloblastoma: Can the Human Brain Compete with Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning?

Authors:
A Dasgupta T Gupta

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Radiation Oncology Tata Memorial Centre Mumbai, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6040DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Increased Water Content in Periventricular Caps in Patients without Acute Hydrocephalus.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

From the Departments of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology (T.S., J.K.F., S.D., G.G., M.W., O.N.).

Background And Purpose: Periventricular caps are a common finding on MR imaging and are believed to reflect focally increased interstitial water content due to dysfunctional transependymal transportation rather than ischemic-gliotic changes. We compared the quantitative water content of periventricular caps and microvascular white matter lesions, hypothesizing that periventricular caps associated with increased interstitial fluid content display higher water content than white matter lesions and are therefore differentiable from microvascular white matter lesions by measurement of the water content.

Materials And Methods: In a prospective study, we compared the water content of periventricular caps and white matter lesions in 50 patients using a quantitative multiple-echo, gradient-echo MR imaging water-mapping sequence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6033DOI Listing

Comparison of Iterative Model Reconstruction versus Filtered Back-Projection in Pediatric Emergency Head CT: Dose, Image Quality and Image-Reconstruction Times.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

From the Departments of Medical Imaging (R.N.S., D.M.E.B., M.A.T., R.A.A., C.A.M.).

Background And Purpose: Noncontrast CT of the head is the initial imaging test for traumatic brain injury, stroke, or suspected nonaccidental trauma. Low-dose head CT protocols using filtered back-projection are susceptible to increased noise and decreased image quality. Iterative reconstruction noise suppression allows the use of lower-dose techniques with maintained image quality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6034DOI Listing

Across the Pons and to the Milky Way: Where Are the Neuroradiology Publications?

Authors:
V T Lehman

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Radiology Mayo Clinic College of Graduate Medical Education Rochester, Minnesota.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6039DOI Listing

Differences in Cerebral Aneurysm Rupture Rate According to Arterial Anatomies Depend on the Hemodynamic Environment.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Biostatistics (N.Y.), Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Background And Purpose: Cerebral aneurysms have significantly different rupture rates depending on their size and location. The mechanisms underlying these differences are unclear. We examined whether anatomic rupture risks are dependent on the hemodynamic environment on the aneurysmal surface. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6030DOI Listing

Treatment of Wide-Neck Intracranial Aneurysms with the Woven EndoBridge Device Associated with Stenting: A Single-Center Experience.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

From the Neuroradiology Department, University Hospital Gui De Chauliac, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Background And Purpose: The intrasaccular flow disruptor, the Woven EndoBridge device, is increasingly used for the treatment of wide-neck intracranial aneurysms. Due to unfavorable anatomy, additional stent placement is sometimes required to avoid Woven EndoBridge protrusion into bifurcation branches. We report our experience with the Woven EndoBridge associated with stent placement for the treatment of complex intracranial aneurysms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6032DOI Listing

Celebrating 35 Years of the AJNR: March 1983 edition.

Authors:

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 03;39(3):604

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.P0059DOI Listing

Morphologic Change of Flow-Related Aneurysms in Brain Arteriovenous Malformations after Stereotactic Radiosurgery.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr;40(4):675-680

Departments of Radiology (C.-B.L., W.-Y.G., H.-M.W., M.M.H.T.).

Background And Purpose: The natural history of flow-related aneurysms after obliteration of brain arteriovenous malformations is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the angioarchitecture and morphologic change in flow-related aneurysms after gamma knife surgery of brain arteriovenous malformations.

Materials And Methods: During a 12-year period, 823 patients with brain arteriovenous malformations underwent gamma knife surgery at our institution with complete peritherapeutic angiographic evaluation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6018DOI Listing

Image Quality of Low-Dose Cerebral Angiography and Effectiveness of Clinical Implementation on Diagnostic and Neurointerventional Procedures for Intracranial Aneurysms.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Radiology (B.K., Y.C., N.Y.S., J.J., H.S.C., S.L.J., K.J.A.), Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background And Purpose: Awareness of the potential for exposure to high doses of radiation from interventional radiologic procedures has increased. The purpose of this study was to evaluate image quality and dose reduction of low-dose cerebral angiography during diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for intracranial aneurysms.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective review of 1137 prospectively collected patients between January 2012 and June 2014 was performed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6029DOI Listing

Image Processing to Improve Detection of Mesial Temporal Sclerosis in Adults.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (M.S.P., H.L.P.O., A.Sharma).

In this retrospective case-control study, we investigated whether an image-processing algorithm designed to exaggerate the intensity of diseased hippocampi on FLAIR images can improve the diagnostic accuracy and interobserver reliability of radiologists in detecting mesial temporal sclerosis-related hippocampal signal alteration. Herein, we share the results of this study that showed that the image processing improved the confidence of radiologists in detecting mesial temporal sclerosis-related signal alteration, allowing an improved sensitivity, specificity, and interobserver reliability. Read More

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http://www.ajnr.org/lookup/doi/10.3174/ajnr.A6022
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6022DOI Listing
April 2019
8 Reads

Neuroimaging Findings in Moebius Sequence.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Radiology (M.C.), University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Background And Purpose: Moebius sequence comprises a spectrum of brain congenital malformations predominantly affecting the function of multiple cranial nerves. Reported neuroimaging findings are heterogeneous and based on case reports or small case series. Our goal was to describe the neuroimaging findings of Moebius sequence in a large population of patients scanned with MR imaging. Read More

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http://www.ajnr.org/lookup/doi/10.3174/ajnr.A6028
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6028DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Assessing Vascularity of Osseous Spinal Metastases with Dual-Energy CT-DSA: A Pilot Study Compared with Catheter Angiography.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

From the Department of Medical Imaging (Y.-C.H., C.-W.L., Y.-H.L.)

Background And Purpose: Spine debulking surgery in patients with hypervascular spinal metastasis is associated with massive intraoperative blood loss, but currently, the vascularity of tumor is determined by invasive conventional angiography or dynamic contrast MR imaging. We aimed to investigate the usefulness of noninvasive dual-energy CT-DSA, comparing it with conventional angiography in evaluating the vascularity of spinal metastasis.

Materials And Methods: We conducted a retrospective study from January to December 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6023DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

It Is Not Necessary to Discontinue Seizure Threshold-Lowering Medications Prior to Myelography.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

From the Department of Radiology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia.

Background And Purpose: There is no consensus on whether patients undergoing myelography should discontinue medications that could lower their seizure threshold. The purpose of this study was to document the most commonly prescribed seizure threshold-lowering medications in patients undergoing myelography and determine whether withholding such medications decreases the incidence of seizures.

Materials And Methods: We performed a retrospective observational study of all the myelograms obtained in 2016 at 2 affiliated hospitals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6027DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Pediatric Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumors of the Brain: Identification of Metabolic Subgroups Using In Vivo H-MR Spectroscopy.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

From the Departments of Radiology (B.T., M.N., S.B.).

Background And Purpose: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors are rare, aggressive central nervous system tumors that are predominantly encountered in very young children. Our aim was to determine whether in vivo metabolic profiles correlate with molecular features of central nervous system pediatric atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors.

Materials And Methods: Twenty confirmed patients with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors who underwent MR spectroscopy were included in this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6024DOI Listing

Impact of Balloon-Guiding Catheter Location on Recanalization in Patients with Acute Stroke Treated by Mechanical Thrombectomy.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

From the Department of Radiology (D.E.J., J.W.K., B.M.K., D.J.K.), Yonsei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital, Seoul, South Korea

Background And Purpose: Mechanical thrombectomy with proximal flow control and forced aspiration may improve the outcome of endovascular revascularization therapy for patients with acute stroke. The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of balloon-guiding catheter locations in patients treated for anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke using mechanical thrombectomy.

Materials And Methods: The influence of the balloon-guiding catheter location (proximal, balloon-guiding catheter tip proximal to C1 vertebral body; distal, between the skull base and the C1 vertebral body) was analyzed in patients with acute anterior circulation stroke treated with stent-retriever thrombectomy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6031DOI Listing

Non-Contrast-Enhancing Tumor: A New Frontier in Glioblastoma Research.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Radiology (F.G.), University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

There is a growing understanding of the prognostic importance of non-contrast-enhancing tumor in glioblastoma, and recent attempts at more aggressive management of this component using neurosurgical resection and radiosurgery have been shown to prolong survival. Optimizing these therapeutic strategies requires an understanding of the features that can distinguish non-contrast-enhancing tumor from other processes, in particular vasogenic edema; however, the limited and heterogeneous manner in which it has been defined in the literature limits clinical translation. This review covers pertinent literature on our growing understanding of non-contrast-enhancing tumor and focuses on key conventional MR imaging features for improving its delineation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6025DOI Listing

Visualization of Aneurysmal Neck and Dome after Coiling with 3D Multifusion Imaging of Silent MRA and FSE-MR Cisternography.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Neurological Surgery (T.H., M.H., K.S., I.D.), Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Okayama, Okayama, Japan.

Background And Purpose: Our aim was to visualize the precise configuration of the aneurysmal neck and dome with/without remnants combined with a coiled dome after coiling treatment for cerebral aneurysms. We developed 3D multifusion imaging of silent MRA and FSE-MR cisternography.

Materials And Methods: We examined 12 patients with 3D multifusion imaging by composing 3D images reconstructed from TOF-MRA, silent MRA, and FSE-MR cisternography. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6026DOI Listing

Moving Toward a Consensus DSC-MRI Protocol: Validation of a Low-Flip Angle Single-Dose Option as a Reference Standard for Brain Tumors.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 28;40(4):626-633. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Diagnostic Imaging (J.L.B., G.B.), Rhode Island Hospital and Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.

Background And Purpose: DSC-MR imaging using preload, intermediate (60°) flip angle and postprocessing leakage correction has gained traction as a standard methodology. Simulations suggest that DSC-MR imaging with flip angle = 30° and no preload yields relative CBV practically equivalent to the reference standard. This study tested this hypothesis in vivo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461489PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Brain and CSF Volumes in Fetuses and Neonates with Antenatal Diagnosis of Critical Congenital Heart Disease: A Longitudinal MRI Study.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

From the Departments of Neonatology (N.H.P.C., E.T., L.S.d.V., M.J.N.L.B.).

Background And Purpose: Fetuses and neonates with critical congenital heart disease are at risk of delayed brain development and neurodevelopmental impairments. Our aim was to investigate the association between fetal and neonatal brain volumes and neonatal brain injury in a longitudinally scanned cohort with an antenatal diagnosis of critical congenital heart disease and to relate fetal and neonatal brain volumes to postmenstrual age and type of congenital heart disease.

Materials And Methods: This was a prospective, longitudinal study including 61 neonates with critical congenital heart disease undergoing surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass <30 days after birth and MR imaging of the brain; antenatally (33 weeks postmenstrual age), neonatal preoperatively (first week), and postoperatively (7 days postoperatively). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6021DOI Listing

Convolutional Neural Network-Based Automated Segmentation of the Spinal Cord and Contusion Injury: Deep Learning Biomarker Correlates of Motor Impairment in Acute Spinal Cord Injury.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 28;40(4):737-744. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

From the Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging (D.B.M., S.M.D., J.N., J.F.T.)

Background And Purpose: Our aim was to use 2D convolutional neural networks for automatic segmentation of the spinal cord and traumatic contusion injury from axial T2-weighted MR imaging in a cohort of patients with acute spinal cord injury.

Materials And Methods: Forty-seven patients who underwent 3T MR imaging within 24 hours of spinal cord injury were included. We developed an image-analysis pipeline integrating 2D convolutional neural networks for whole spinal cord and intramedullary spinal cord lesion segmentation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6020DOI Listing

Morphologic Features on MR Imaging Classify Multifocal Glioblastomas in Different Prognostic Groups.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 28;40(4):634-640. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

From the Department of Mathematics (J.P.-B., D.M.-G., V.M.P.-G.), Mathematical Oncology Laboratory, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real, Spain.

Background And Purpose: Multifocal glioblastomas (ie, glioblastomas with multiple foci, unconnected in postcontrast pretreatment T1-weighted images) represent a challenge in clinical practice due to their poor prognosis. We wished to obtain imaging biomarkers with prognostic value that have not been found previously.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective review of 1155 patients with glioblastomas from 10 local institutions during 2006-2017 provided 97 patients satisfying the inclusion criteria of the study and classified as having multifocal glioblastomas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6019DOI Listing

Behavioral and Structural Effects of Single and Repeat Closed-Head Injury.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 28;40(4):601-608. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

From the Neuroscience Research Center (Y.-C.J.K., C.-Y.C.)

Background And Purpose: The effects of multiple head impacts, even without detectable primary injury, on subsequent behavioral impairment and structural abnormality is yet well explored. Our aim was to uncover the dynamic changes and long-term effects of single and repetitive head injury without focal contusion on tissue microstructure and macrostructure.

Materials And Methods: We introduced a repetitive closed-head injury rodent model ( = 70) without parenchymal lesions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6014DOI Listing

Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension: A Systematic Imaging Approach for CSF Leak Localization and Management Based on MRI and Digital Subtraction Myelography.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 28;40(4):745-753. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

From the Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Neuroradiology (R.I.F., P.J.N., T.K., K.G.t.B.).

Background And Purpose: Localization of the culprit CSF leak in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension can be difficult and is inconsistently achieved. We present a high yield systematic imaging strategy using brain and spine MRI combined with digital subtraction myelography for CSF leak localization.

Materials And Methods: During a 2-year period, patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension at our institution underwent MR imaging to determine the presence or absence of a spinal longitudinal extradural collection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6016DOI Listing

Curing Low-Grade Brain AVMs with Embolization?

Authors:
J L Brisman

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 20;40(4):673-674. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Lake Success, NY.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6017DOI Listing

On Flow Diversion: The Changing Landscape of Intracerebral Aneurysm Management.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 20;40(4):591-600. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Neurosurgical Service (A.A.D., K.P., J.M.M., A.J.T.), Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Uptake of flow-diverting technology is rapidly outpacing the availability of clinical evidence. Most current usage is off-label, and the endovascular community is nearer the beginning than the end of the learning curve, given the number of devices in development. A comprehensive overview of technical specifications alongside key outcome data is essential both for clinical decision-making and to direct further investigations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6006DOI Listing

Morphologic Evolution and Coordinated Development of the Fetal Lateral Ventricles in the Second and Third Trimesters.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 20;40(4):718-725. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

From the Research Center for Sectional and Imaging Anatomy (Z.L., F.X., Z.Z., X.L., S.L.), Institute of Brain and Brain-Inspired Science, Shandong University Cheeloo Medical College, Shandong, China

Background And Purpose: Few investigators have studied the lateral ventricle formation related to the development of the calcarine sulcus. Our purpose was to establish the relationship between the lateral ventricles and the calcarine sulcus in the second and third trimesters.

Materials And Methods: Fetal brain MR imaging (3T and 7T) was performed in 84 fetuses at 14-35 gestational weeks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6013DOI Listing

Determinants of Radiation Dose in Selective Ophthalmic Artery Chemosurgery for Retinoblastoma.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 14;40(4):713-717. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

From the Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, National Health Service Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Background And Purpose: Retinoblastoma is the most common pediatric ocular neoplasm. Multimodality treatment approaches are commonplace, and selective ophthalmic artery chemosurgery has emerged as a safe and effective treatment in selected patients. Minimizing radiation dose in this highly radiosensitive patient cohort is critical. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6000DOI Listing

Flow Patterns in Carotid Webs: A Patient-Based Computational Fluid Dynamics Study.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 14;40(4):703-708. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Biomedical Engineering (K.D., E.J.P., J.J.W., F.J.H.G.), Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands

Background And Purpose: Carotid webs are increasingly recognized as an important cause of (recurrent) ischemic stroke in patients without other cardiovascular risk factors. Hemodynamic flow patterns induced by these lesions might be associated with thrombus formation. The aim of our study was to evaluate flow patterns of carotid webs using computational fluid dynamics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6012DOI Listing

Periventricular White Matter Abnormalities on Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Postural Instability Gait Disorder Parkinsonism.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 14;40(4):609-613. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

From the Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Singhealth (S.Y.Z.T., N.C.H.K., H.L., E.K.T., L.L.C.), Singapore

Background And Purpose: Postural instability gait disorder is a motor subtype of Parkinson disease associated with predominant gait dysfunction. We investigated the periventricular white matter comprising longitudinal, thalamic, and callosal fibers using diffusion tensor MR Imaging and examined clinical correlates in a cohort of patients with Parkinson disease and postural instability gait disorder and healthy controls.

Materials And Methods: All subjects underwent the Tinetti Gait and Balance Assessment and brain MR imaging. Read More

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http://www.ajnr.org/lookup/doi/10.3174/ajnr.A5993
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5993DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Leptomeningeal Contrast Enhancement Is Related to Focal Cortical Thinning in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A Cross-Sectional MRI Study.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 14;40(4):620-625. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

From the Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center (N.B., D.R., E.T., R.Z.).

Background And Purpose: Leptomeningeal inflammation is associated with the development of global cortical gray matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis. However, its association with localized loss of tissue remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between leptomeningeal contrast enhancement, a putative marker of leptomeningeal inflammation, and focal cortical thinning in MS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461483PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Comparison of Prasugrel and Clopidogrel Used as Antiplatelet Medication for Endovascular Treatment of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms: A Meta-Analysis.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 14;40(4):681-686. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

From the Neuroradiology Department (F.C., P.-H.L., G.G., C.D., C.R., I.D., A.B., V.C.), University Hospital Güi de Chauliac, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Background: Clopidogrel is routinely used to decrease ischemic complications during neurointerventional procedures. However, the efficacy may be limited by antiplatelet resistance.

Purpose: Our aim was to analyze the efficacy of prasugrel compared with clopidogrel in the cerebrovascular field. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6004DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Treatment of Unruptured Distal Anterior Circulation Aneurysms with Flow-Diverter Stents: A Meta-Analysis.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 14;40(4):687-693. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

From the Neuroradiology Department (F.C., C.D., P.-H.L., G.G., I.D., C.R., A.B., V.C.), University Hospital Güi-de-Chauliac, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Background: The safety and efficacy of flow diversion among distal anterior circulation aneurysms must be proved.

Purpose: Our aim was to analyze the outcomes after flow diversion among MCA, anterior communicating artery, and distal anterior cerebral artery aneurysms.

Data Sources: A systematic search of 3 databases was performed for studies published from 2005 to 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6002DOI Listing

Effects of Acute Alcohol Consumption on the Human Brain: Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging and Arterial Spin-Labeling Study.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 14;40(4):641-647. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

From the Department of Radiology (L.M.K., J.Y.Z., W.B.Z., Z.W.S., R.H.W.), the Second Affiliated Hospital, Medical College of Shantou University, Shantou, China

Background And Purpose: Brain function and microstructure are affected by alcohol consumption. Until recently, the effect of alcohol on neural mechanisms has not been fully elucidated. Our aim was to explore the acute effects of alcohol on healthy human brains by diffusional kurtosis imaging and 3D arterial spin-labeling and elucidate structural and functional changes in the brain on acute alcohol intake. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5992DOI Listing

Clot Burden Score and Early Ischemia Predict Intracranial Hemorrhage following Endovascular Therapy.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 14;40(4):655-660. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

From the Department of Medicine (Neurology) (V.Y., D.D.), University of Ottawa and Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Canada.

Background And Purpose: Intracranial hemorrhage is a known complication following endovascular thrombectomy. The radiologic characteristics of a CT scan may assist with hemorrhage risk stratification. We assessed the radiologic predictors of intracranial hemorrhage following endovascular therapy using data from the INTERRSeCT (Identifying New Approaches to Optimize Thrombus Characterization for Predicting Early Recanalization and Reperfusion With IV Alteplase and Other Treatments Using Serial CT Angiography) study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6009DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Robert H. Ackerman, MD, MPH (1935-2018).

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Mar;40(3):E12-E13

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5989DOI Listing

Celebrating 35 Years of the AJNR: March 1984 edition.

Authors:

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Mar;40(3):582

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.P0080DOI Listing

Perspectives.

Authors:
Bejoy Thomas

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Mar;40(3):387

Trivandrum, Kerala, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.P0055DOI Listing

Metallic Hyperdensity Sign on Noncontrast CT Immediately after Mechanical Thrombectomy Predicts Parenchymal Hemorrhage in Patients with Acute Large-Artery Occlusion.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 7;40(4):661-667. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

From the Departments of Neurology (C.X., Y.Z., R.Z., Z.C., W.Z, X.G., M.L.)

Background And Purpose: Parenchymal hemorrhage is a severe complication following mechanical recanalization in patients with acute ischemic stroke with large-vessel occlusion. This study aimed to assess whether the metallic hyperdensity sign on noncontrast CT performed immediately after mechanical thrombectomy can predict parenchymal hemorrhage at 24 hours.

Materials And Methods: We included consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke with large-vessel occlusion who underwent noncontrast CT immediately after mechanical thrombectomy between January 2014 and September 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6008DOI Listing

Persisting Embryonal Infundibular Recess in Morning Glory Syndrome: Clinical Report of a Novel Association.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Mar 7. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

From the Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences (A.D., L.U., R.C.), University of Naples "Federico II," Naples, Italy.

Morning glory syndrome is characterized by a congenital optic disc defect that resembles the eponymous flower. We present the MR imaging findings of 2 pediatric patients with morning glory disc anomaly and persisting embryonal infundibular recess, another rare malformative finding, a previously unreported association. Neuroradiologists should be aware of the possible presence of a persisting embryonal infundibular recess in patients with morning glory syndrome, to aid in the differential diagnosis including other pituitary malformations such as pituitary stalk duplication. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6005DOI Listing

CT and Multimodal MR Imaging Features of Embryonal Tumors with Multilayered Rosettes in Children.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 7;40(4):732-736. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

From the Departments of Pediatric Radiology (V.D.-R., C.-J.R., R.L., D.G., F.B., N.B.).

Background And Purpose: Embryonal tumors with multilayered rosettes, C19MC-altered, are brain tumors occurring in young children, which were clearly defined in the 2016 World Health Organization classification of central nervous system neoplasms. Our objective was to describe the multimodal imaging characteristics of this new entity.

Materials And Methods: We performed a retrospective monocentric review of embryonal brain tumors and looked for embryonal tumors with multilayered rosettes with confirmed C19MC alteration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6001DOI Listing

Brain MRI Findings in Pediatric-Onset Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder: Challenges in Differentiation from Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 7;40(4):726-731. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Section of Pediatric Neuroradiology (I.I.), Division of Neuroradiology, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background And Purpose: Differentiating pediatric-onset neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder from acute disseminated encephalomyelitis could be challenging, especially in cases presenting with only brain manifestations. Our purpose was to investigate brain MR imaging features that may help distinguish these 2 entities.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively examined initial brain MR imaging studies of 10 patients with pediatric-onset neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (female/male ratio, 7:3) and 10 patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (female/male ratio, 2:8). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6003DOI Listing

Gadolinium-Enhanced Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis: Optimizing the Recognition of Active Plaques for Different MR Imaging Sequences.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 7;40(4):614-619. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

From the Division of Neuroradiology (L.L.F.A, D.C.F., R.H.N., I.A.L., A.J.R.), Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Santa Casa de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background And Purpose: Gadolinium SWI is MR imaging that has recently been reported to be effective in the evaluation of several neurologic disorders, including demyelinating diseases. Our aim was to analyze the accuracy of gadolinium SWI for detecting the imaging evidence of active inflammation on MS plaques when a BBB dysfunction is demonstrated by a focal gadolinium-enhanced lesion and to compare this technique with gadolinium-enhanced T1 spin-echo and T1 spin-echo with magnetization transfer contrast.

Materials And Methods: MR imaging studies of 103 patients (170 examinations) were performed using a 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5997DOI Listing
April 2019
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Imaging-Guided Superior Ophthalmic Vein Access for Embolization of Dural Carotid Cavernous Fistulas: Report of 20 Cases and Review of the Literature.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 7;40(4):699-702. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

From the Department of Radiology (M.K.S.H., D.V., J.R.S.), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Dural carotid cavernous fistulas are usually treated via a transvenous approach through the inferior petrosal sinus. Surgical exposure and direct access to the superior ophthalmic vein have been previously described in situations in which conventional transvenous access, including the inferior petrosal sinus, is not possible. In this retrospective study of 20 patients, we report our results of imaging-guided percutaneous superior ophthalmic vein access in dural carotid cavernous fistula treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5994DOI Listing

Aneurysm Remnants after Flow Diversion: Clinical and Angiographic Outcomes.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 7;40(4):694-698. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

From the Departments of Neurointerventional Radiology and Neurosurgery (T.P.M., J.A.G., B.M.H., C.M.C., F.C.T.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background And Purpose: Flow diversion is an established method to treat complex intracranial aneurysms. The natural history of flow-diversion treatment failure resulting in aneurysm remnants is not well-defined. We aimed to delineate the clinical and angiographic features of this entity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6010DOI Listing

Preoperative MR Imaging to Differentiate Chordoid Meningiomas from Other Meningioma Histologic Subtypes.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Mar 28;40(3):433-439. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

From the Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging (J.D.B., J.E.V.-M.)

Background And Purpose: Chordoid meningiomas are uncommon WHO grade II primary intracranial neoplasms that possess unique chordoid histology and follow an aggressive clinical course. Our aim was to assess the utility of qualitative MR imaging features and quantitative apparent diffusion coefficient values as distinguishing preoperative MR imaging metrics to identify and differentiate chordoid histology from other meningioma histologic subtypes.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-one patients with meningiomas with chordoid histology, which included both chordoid meningiomas (>50% chordoid histology) and meningiomas with focal chordoid histology (<50% chordoid histology) with available preoperative MR imaging examinations, including diffusion-weighted imaging, were identified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6420369PMC
March 2019
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Decubitus CT Myelography for Detecting Subtle CSF Leaks in Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 28;40(4):754-756. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

From the Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is caused by spinal CSF leaks, but the site of the leak is not always detected on spinal imaging. We report on the additional value of decubitus positioning during CT myelography in enhancing the detection of subtle leaks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5995DOI Listing

Accurate Patient-Specific Machine Learning Models of Glioblastoma Invasion Using Transfer Learning.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Mar 28;40(3):418-425. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

From the Department of Radiology (L.S.H., J.M.H., J.R.M., T.W., J.L.).

Background And Purpose: MR imaging-based modeling of tumor cell density can substantially improve targeted treatment of glioblastoma. Unfortunately, interpatient variability limits the predictive ability of many modeling approaches. We present a transfer learning method that generates individualized patient models, grounded in the wealth of population data, while also detecting and adjusting for interpatient variabilities based on each patient's own histologic data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5981DOI Listing

Prevalence of Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence on High-Resolution CT Imaging in Patients without Vestibular or Auditory Abnormalities.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Apr 28;40(4):709-712. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Departments of Radiology (K.A., B.F.B.).

Background And Purpose: Prior studies of radiologic superior semicircular canal dehiscence have suggested that CT may overcall dehiscence. However, many of those studies were performed before the advent of multichannel helical CT. Furthermore, there are limited data investigating the prevalence of radiologic superior semicircular canal dehiscence in asymptomatic individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5999DOI Listing
April 2019
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Aneurysm Characteristics, Study Population, and Endovascular Techniques for the Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms in a Large, Prospective, Multicenter Cohort: Results of the Analysis of Recanalization after Endovascular Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysm Study.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Mar 28;40(3):517-523. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

From the Department of Neuroradiology (M.G., S.S., L.P.), Hôpital Maison-Blanche, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Reims, Reims, France

Background And Purpose: The Analysis of Recanalization after Endovascular Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysm (ARETA) prospective study aims to determine factors predicting recurrence after endovascular treatment for intracranial aneurysms. In this publication, we review endovascular techniques and present the study population. Characteristics of treated and untreated unruptured aneurysms were analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5991DOI Listing