110 results match your criteria AJAR-African Journal of AIDS Research[Journal]


AIDS-related benign lymphadenopathy and malignant lymphoma: clinical aspects and virologic interactions.

AIDS Res 1986 Dec;2 Suppl 1:S131-40

Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) leads to selective depletion of the helper/inducer lymphocyte subset and a subsequent state of acquired cellular immunodeficiency. Simultaneously, evidence of B-cell hyper-activity may exist. A subset of patients infected with HIV demonstrates a syndrome of persistent generalized lymphadenopathy (PGL). Read More

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December 1986

The global epidemic of AIDS.

Authors:
P Ebbesen

AIDS Res 1986 Dec;2 Suppl 1:S23-8

Recent changes in sexual habits have likely contributed to the emergence of a new sexually transmissible agent, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) virus. This virus may have been present in central Africa as early as 1959; however, frequent infection did not produce an epidemic until the late 1970's. Migration of Africans from rural to urban areas may have contributed to the transmission of AIDS virus. Read More

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December 1986

Surface marker expression of human B-cell lymphomas.

AIDS Res 1986 Dec;2 Suppl 1:S87-93

We have generated a battery of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that distinguish different antigen molecules present in human B cells. Two antigen systems, termed L26 and L27, respectively, were expressed in most surface immunoglobulin-positive B cells and thus showed pan-B cell specificity. Two other antigens (L22 and L30) appeared to be expressed mainly on small resting B cells but not on large activated B cells. Read More

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December 1986

Prevalence of antibodies to AIDS-associated retrovirus in in- and out-patients in Japan.

Authors:
N Ikegami

AIDS Res 1986 Dec;2 Suppl 1:S29-34

Serum specimens from 252 recipients of factor VIII and/or factor IX (237 hemophiliacs and 15 nonhemophiliacs), 99 blood transfusion recipients, 269 chronic diseases, and 366 healthy subjects (included blood donors, hospital personnel and family members of hemophiliacs) were tested for reactivity to lymphadenopathy-associated virus/T-lymphotropic retrovirus type III (LAV/HTLV-III) by ELISA test kit (Abbott), and the presence of the antibodies to LAV/HTLV-III was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Seropositivity rates were 38.4% (91 of 237) in hemophiliacs, 13. Read More

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December 1986

Prevalence and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in Japan.

AIDS Res 1986 Dec;2 Suppl 1:S163-6

The routes of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be divided into two categories, 1. sexual transmission (male-to-male, male-to-female and female-to-male) and 2. parenteral transmission by blood or blood products. Read More

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December 1986

Detection of antibody to LAV/HTLV-III in sera from hemophiliacs in China.

AIDS Res 1986 Dec;2 Suppl 1:S147-9

Using ELISA, Western blots and immunofluorescence techniques, we identified seropositivity for lymphadenopathy-associated virus/human lymphotropic virus-III (LAV/HTLV-III) in 4 of 18 hemophiliacs and 1 AIDS patient. The four seropositive patients had received factor VIII prepared by Armour Company. The hemophiliacs are all asymptomatic. Read More

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December 1986

Clinical, immunological, and virological aspects in Japanese hemophiliacs and AIDS patients.

Authors:
T Abe

AIDS Res 1986 Dec;2 Suppl 1:S141-6

To date, 16 cases of AIDS have been officially reported in Japan: 8 of them were hemophiliacs and the others were male homosexuals. We had two hemophiliacs with AIDS, and describe these cases in this paper. One was a 48-year-old man with hemophilia B and the other was a 62-year-old man with hemophilia A. Read More

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December 1986

Genomic expressions of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-I).

AIDS Res 1986 Dec;2 Suppl 1:S79-85

Human T-lymphocyte cell line termed MT-2 is producing persistently HTLV-I virion and has a strong potential to transform human T-lymphocytes when cocultivated. The virion of HTLV-I (MT-2) was isolated and its RNA was extracted to analyze the gene and gene products of HTLV-I. HTLV (MT-2) virion RNA was translated in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system in vitro in which a gag precursor polyprotein (p53) and a putative gag-prt fusion protein (p76) were synthesized from a full length 35S RNA. Read More

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December 1986

Mechanism of the gene expression of HTLV-I and its association with ATL.

AIDS Res 1986 Dec;2 Suppl 1:S71-8

Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and a trans-acting viral function was proposed to be involved in ATL development because of the non-specific provirus integration in leukemic cells and the frequent immortalization of helper T-cells by in vitro infection. An extra sequence "pX" in the HTLV-1 genome codes for three proteins, p40x-, p27x- and p21x-, and the p40x- is trans-activator of transcription from the viral LTR. A sequence of 21 bp repeats in the LTR was found to be an enhancer and respond to the trans-activation by p40x-. Read More

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December 1986

Epstein-Barr virus seroepidemiology in China.

AIDS Res 1986 Dec;2 Suppl 1:S7-15

Since 1978 more than 300,000 sera from normal individuals were screened serologically in NPC high risk areas and prospective studies were carried out. Many patients were diagnosed in early stage. For example, in Wuzhou city, 20,726 persons over 40 years of age were screened; 1,138 persons were found to have IgA VCA antibody. Read More

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December 1986

Epstein-Barr virus-specific cytoskeletal early antigen in EBV-transformed cell lines.

AIDS Res 1986 Dec;2 Suppl 1:S57-60

An Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific determinant of early antigen (EA) character was found to be associated with intermediate filaments of EBV genome-activated cells. This determinant was defined with a murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) and with human MAb derived from lymphoblastoid cell lines of patients with acute infectious mononucleosis (IM). Such patients' antibodies either recognized intermediate filament determinants in general, or were restricted to the intermediate filament determinant of EBV genome-activated cells, as also recognized with the 1B6 murine MAb. Read More

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December 1986

The Epstein-Barr virus genome and phenotypic expression during lytic cycle.

Authors:
G R Pearson

AIDS Res 1986 Dec;2 Suppl 1:S49-56

The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) has been studied extensively as a human cancer virus. Until recently, however, little was known about the viral genes encoding for different proteins involved in the virus immortalization and replication cycles. Most of the efforts have been directed at those genes expressed in immortalized cells. Read More

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December 1986

Substances affecting the infection and replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

AIDS Res 1986 Dec;2 Suppl 1:S183-9

The effects of various compounds were studied quantitatively on the growth of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). For this we used a human T-cell leukemia virus type I carrying cell line, MT-4 which is most permissive for HIV infection. The results are summarized as follows: 1) Prostaglandin E2 and 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate enhanced the production of HIV significantly in MT-4 cells as well as a continuous HIV producer Molt-4/HTLV-III cells. Read More

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December 1986

Constitutive activation of oncogenes by chromosomal translocations in B-cell derived tumors.

Authors:
G Klein

AIDS Res 1986 Dec;2 Suppl 1:S167-76

The mechanisms of chromosomal translocations and its role in Burkitt lymphoma (BL), mouse plasmacytoma (MPC) and rat immunocytoma (RIC) are discussed with particular emphasis on the following questions: 1) Does the cis-relationship between the c-myc oncogene and one of the 3 Ig-loci play a causative role in the genesis of these tumors? 2) How does the juxtaposition activate the myc-gene? 3) What is the functional role of the translocation in the tumorigenic process? Question 1) can be answered with some certainty. In BL, the translocation has been found in 100% of cases so far, with no difference between endemic or nonendemic, EBV-carrying or EBV-negative cases. One exceptional line, BJAB, can be disregarded, since it is not a typical BL. Read More

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December 1986

Epstein-Barr virus-enhancing plant promoters in east Africa.

AIDS Res 1986 Dec;2 Suppl 1:S151-5

The extracts of a certain African plant species, Euphorbia tirucalli, were found to have markedly enhancing effects on the activation of latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genomes in the EBV carrying lymphoblastoid cells and also on EBV-induced transformation of human lymphocytes. The Euphorbia tirucalli was especially noticeable in highly endemic areas of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), an EBV-associated malignancy, in Kenya and Tanzania. The activation of the latent EBV genome and the EBV-induced transformation enhancement were also observed with the soil and drinking water taken around the plants, strongly indicating that the people living in BL endemic areas are frequently exposed to such an EBV-enhancing plant promoter substance. Read More

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December 1986

Impairment of T-cell control of Epstein-Barr virus infected B-cells in patients with adult T-cell leukemia.

AIDS Res 1986 Dec;2 Suppl 1:S125-30

The abilities of peripheral blood lymphocytes from 9 patients with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and 14 healthy control adults to cause regression of proliferating B-cell foci induced by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were examined. Marked regression of EBV-transformed B-cell foci was observed in lymphocytes from all 10 EBV-seropositive donors but with none of those of the 4 EBV-seronegative donors in the control group. The lymphocyte of all 9 patients with ATL, who were EBV-seropositive, caused little or no regression of B-cell foci like those of EBV-negative healthy donors. Read More

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December 1986

Unusual lymphoproliferation associated with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection.

AIDS Res 1986 Dec;2 Suppl 1:S121-3

A chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection with no significant underlying diseases was evidenced in 7 Japanese children and adolescents. In these patients, massive EBV-positive polyclonal lymphoproliferation occurred with extremely high EBV antibody titers. Read More

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December 1986

Epstein-Barr virus infection and oncogenesis in primary immunodeficiency.

AIDS Res 1986 Dec;2 Suppl 1:S115-9

Lymphomas occurred in 3 of 16 Japanese patients with ataxia telangiectasia (AT) and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS). The patients had a persistently reactivated Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection with a remarkable decrease in virus-specific cellular immunity. In these patients, the B lymphocytes were more sensitive to EBV-induced events and to cellular proto-oncogene activation than seen in the healthy counterparts. Read More

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December 1986

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP).

AIDS Res 1986 Dec;2 Suppl 1:S109-13

XLP was first described in 1975, when EBV was still focused on as an immediate oncogenic agent, but with some uncertainties raised by the absence of EBV in most non-endemic Burkitt lymphoma. The discovery of XLP refreshingly evidenced and popularized the concept, "EBV pathogenicity (oncogenicity) in immunocompromised hosts", which was later vastly substantiated by EBV-carrying lymphomas in organ-transplanted and AIDS patients. Fatal (or severe) IM, acquired hypogammaglobulinemia (AH) and malignant lymphoma (MH) are 3 major phenotypes in XLP. Read More

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December 1986

Structure of HTLV and its biological function in leukemogenesis of adult T-cell leukemia.

AIDS Res 1986 Dec;2 Suppl 1:S61-70

There is a high homology of nucleotide sequence between 3' two-thirds of the X (or pX) regions of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV)-I, and of HTLV-II. Monoclonal antibody against p41 coded from X-IV, an open reading frame of X region of HTLV-I, was established. Two proteins coded by Xb, one of the open reading frames in X region of HTLV-II, were newly identified as p24 and p26. Read More

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December 1986

Retroviral etiology of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

AIDS Res 1986 Dec;2 Suppl 1:S35-48

The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is characterized by severe immunological defects resulting in opportunistic infections and malignancies. A novel human retrovirus, known under the terms of LAV, HTLV-III, ARV or as a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), has been defined as the infectious agent responsible for the induction of the immunologic disorders in AIDS. However, two recent lines of evidence, reviewed in this article, complicate the etiological picture of AIDS: the HIV family appears to consist of a great number of diverse, and perhaps diversifying in vivo, members that exhibit different molecular and biological properties; the human retrovirus family may contain yet another distinct class of member viruses that resemble HIV morphologically and structurally but may differ in their pathogenicity. Read More

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December 1986

Seroepidemiology of adult T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-I/ATLV): origin of virus carriers in Japan.

Authors:
Y Hinuma

AIDS Res 1986 Dec;2 Suppl 1:S17-22

There are two large clusters of HTLV-I/ATLV carriers in the world. One large endemic area could be Africa, but available information is not yet sufficient to prove this. The other definitely large endemic area is Japan. Read More

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December 1986

Transmission of adult T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-I) through blood transfusion and its prevention.

Authors:
K Okochi H Sato

AIDS Res 1986 Dec;2 Suppl 1:S157-61

Cell-associated transmission of adult T-cell leukemia virus (ATLV/HTLV-I) suggested early in a follow-up study on recipients of blood has been supported with the latest results of an extended follow-up. Approximately 10(8) lymphocytes of blood donors carrying the antibodies against ATLV seemed to be necessary for the infection through blood transfusion. The infection transmitted by transfusion is now almost completely prevented by eliminating blood units that have been derived from blood donors having antibodies to ATLV/HTLV-I. Read More

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December 1986

Process of immortalization by Epstein-Barr virus and oncogenic conversion of the immortalized cells.

AIDS Res 1986 Dec;2 Suppl 1:S103-8

Transcription of Epstein Barr virus (EBV) genome during immortalization of tonsil lymphocytes was studied. Cytoplasmic poly(A) RNA was Northern blot hybridized with 32P-labeled cloned EBV fragments. A 5. Read More

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December 1986

Lymphotropic viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human T-cell lymphotropic virus-I (HTLV-I)/adult T-cell leukemia virus (ATLV), and HTLV-III/human immune deficiency virus (HIV) as etiological agents of malignant lymphoma and immune deficiency.

Authors:
D T Purtilo

AIDS Res 1986 Dec;2 Suppl 1:S1-6

The ubiquitous, DNA herpesvirus, EBV, has B cell tropism and the geographically restricted RNA retrovirus, ATLV/HTLV-I has T cell tropism. Clinical descriptions by Burkitt and Takatsuki led to discovery of these viruses which infect silently early in life; however, ATLV is also transmitted to a spouse or by blood transfusion. In normal seropositive persons both viruses infect only 1 in about 10,000 B or T cells, respectively. Read More

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December 1986

Gamma globulin therapy for chronic mononucleosis syndrome.

Authors:
R E DuBois

AIDS Res 1986 Dec;2 Suppl 1:S191-5

Antibodies against Epstein-Barr virus, associated with antibody dependent cytotoxic cell activity, were found to be present in diminished titer in 20 of 22 patients tested with chronic mononucleosis syndrome (CMS). Gamma globulin was shown to improve symptoms in 53% of the patients treated, compared with 32% of placebo injections. 89. Read More

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December 1986

Prevention and treatment of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoproliferative diseases in immune deficient patients.

Authors:
D T Purtilo

AIDS Res 1986 Dec;2 Suppl 1:S177-81

Prevention of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative diseases in immune deficient individuals is preferred; however, standard therapy for the B cell lymphomas has been successful. Chemotherapy must be given cautiously lest further immune compromise result in opportunistic infections. Recently, Acyclovir has decreased morbidity of patients with acute infectious mononucleosis in immune competent persons. Read More

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December 1986

Bedside bronchoalveolar lavage for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

AIDS Res 1986 Feb;2(1):31-41

We studied the utility of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) as the primary diagnostic procedure in 46 separate episodes of suspected Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in 42 patients with AIDS. 35 procedures were performed at the bedside. A separate group of 40 historical controls with AIDS and suspected PCP had transbronchial biopsy (TBB) as the primary procedure. Read More

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February 1986