17,978 results match your criteria AIDS policy & law[Journal]


Predictors of high HIV+ prevalence in Mozambique: A complex samples logistic regression modeling and spatial mapping approaches.

PLoS One 2020 4;15(6):e0234034. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

College of Nursing, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States of America.

Introduction: The burden of HIV infection in southern Africa is a public health concern with an increasing number of new infections. This study sought to investigate the predictors of HIV prevalence in Mozambique through a complex samples logistic regression and spatial mapping approach using nationally representative data.

Methods: We conducted a secondary data analysis using the 2015 Mozambique Demographic and Health Survey and AIDS Indicator Survey. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234034PLOS

Willingness to Distribute HIV Self-Testing Kits to Recent Sex Partners Among HIV-Negative Gay and Bisexual Men and an Examination of Free-Response Data from Young Men Participating in the Nationwide Cohort.

Arch Sex Behav 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Community Health and Social Sciences, CUNY Graduate School of Public Health and Health Policy, The CUNY Institute for Implementation Science in Population Health, 55 West 125th Street, New York, NY, 10027, USA.

Sexual minority men (SMM)-and young SMM in particular-are disproportionately affected by HIV. Secondary distribution of HIV self-testing (HIVST) kits-wherein patients deliver kits to partners-is a novel strategy to increase HIV testing access. Using quantitative data, we assessed willingness to distribute HIVST kits to recent sex partners among a U. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10508-020-01752-5DOI Listing

Syndemic theory, structural violence and HIV among African-Americans.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2020 Jul;15(4):250-255

University of North Carolina School of Medicine.

Purpose Of Review: This paper will review recent use of syndemic frameworks in HIV research among African-Americans.

Recent Findings: Researchers have used syndemic theory in diverse African-American study populations, including MSM, cis-women, trans-women, heterosexual men and adolescents. These studies have evaluated the associations between syndemic conditions and a variety of outcomes, such as sexual behaviours, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, HIV testing, adherence to antiretroviral therapy, HIV suppression and preexposure prophylaxis use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000634DOI Listing

The Impact of Different Screening Model Structures on Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality Predictions: The Maximum Clinical Incidence Reduction (MCLIR) Methodology.

Med Decis Making 2020 Jun 3:272989X20924007. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC-University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Zuid-Holland, The Netherlands.

. To interpret cervical cancer screening model results, we need to understand the influence of model structure and assumptions on cancer incidence and mortality predictions. Cervical cancer cases and deaths following screening can be attributed to 1) (precancerous or cancerous) disease that occurred after screening, 2) disease that was present but not screen detected, or 3) disease that was screen detected but not successfully treated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0272989X20924007DOI Listing

Impact of migration from an illicit drug scene on hospital outcomes among people who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada.

Drug Alcohol Rev 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

British Columbia Centre on Substance Use, Vancouver, Canada.

Introduction And Aims: People who use illicit drugs (PWUD) are vulnerable to an array of negative health outcomes, and increased hospital services utilisation. PWUD are also a transient population which poses challenges to the provision of optimal health care. The objective of this study was to identify out-migration patterns from Vancouver's Downtown Eastside (DTES), a neighbourhood where services for PWUD are concentrated, and to estimate the impact of these patterns on hospitalisation events among PWUD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dar.13095DOI Listing

Unlocking HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Delivery: Examining the Role of HIV Providers in Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Care.

AIDS Patient Care STDS 2020 Jun;34(6):251-258

Department of Internal Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

Despite being a promising prevention strategy for populations at risk for HIV acquisition, there has not been rapid uptake of HIV antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Yet, HIV clinics within the Mount Sinai Health System in New York City have successfully incorporated PrEP. HIV care providers ( = 18), who practice in these clinics and were early PrEP adopters, participated in a survey and semistructured interview. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/apc.2019.0288DOI Listing

HIV Stigma, Depressive Symptoms, and Substance Use.

AIDS Patient Care STDS 2020 Jun;34(6):275-280

Institute for Collaboration on Health, Intervention, and Policy, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, USA.

Substance use problems undermine HIV treatment and secondary prevention efforts. Research is needed to better understand predictors of substance use among people living with HIV (PLWH). We examined whether internalized stigma and enacted HIV stigma are associated with three indicators of substance use among PLWH, including numbers of (1) substances used, (2) substances used at moderate to high risk, and (3) times substances were used before sex, through the mediator of depressive symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/apc.2020.0021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7262648PMC

Assessing Tobacco Cessation Needs Among Persons Living With HIV in Brazil: Results From a Qualitative Interview Study.

J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

With regard to tobacco cessation, persons living with HIV (PLWH) are an underserved population, given the high prevalence of use and lack of evidence-based cessation programs tailored to this population. This study examined barriers and facilitators to tobacco use and cessation among PLWH in southern Brazil. We interviewed a total of 36 PLWH: 26 current smokers, of whom eight had a previous diagnosis of pulmonary TB, and 10 former smokers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JNC.0000000000000181DOI Listing

The syndemic effects of food insecurity, water insecurity, and HIV on depressive symptomatology among Kenyan women.

Soc Sci Med 2020 May 15:113043. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Anthropology & Global Health, Faculty Fellow, Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, 60208, USA. Electronic address:

Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide and a major contributor to the overall global burden of disease, especially for women of childbearing age. Social science scholarship has demonstrated significant relationships between mental health, food insecurity (FI), water insecurity (WI), and HIV. Little is known, however, about the temporal relationships between food and water insecurity or the mechanisms through which these multiple stressors may operate or interact to impact depression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113043DOI Listing

Sleep Patterns and Quality Among Inpatients Recovering From Elective Surgery: A Mixed-Method Study.

J Surg Res 2020 May 29;254:268-274. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan; Center for Healthcare Outcomes and Policy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Electronic address:

Background: Sleep is necessary for recovery from physiological insults such as surgery. Although previous research has focused on sleep in the intensive care unit and medical setting, little is known about sleep quality among inpatients recovering from elective surgery. Therefore, we examined sleep quality and barriers to sleep among postsurgical inpatients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2020.04.032DOI Listing

The right to health must guide responses to COVID-19.

Lancet 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Public Policy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31255-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7259895PMC

Implications of HIV treatment policies on the health workforce in rural Malawi and Tanzania between 2013 and 2017: Evidence from the SHAPE-UTT study.

Glob Public Health 2020 Jun 1:1-18. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, UK.

Effective implementation of policies for expanding antiretroviral therapy (ART) requires a well-trained and adequately staffed workforce. Changes in national HIV workforce policies, health facility practices, and provider experiences were examined in rural Malawi and Tanzania between 2013 and 2017.In both countries, task-shifting and task-sharing policies were explicit by 2013. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17441692.2020.1771395DOI Listing

Development and validation of the shared governance feasibility instrument in nursing schools in Iran.

BMC Nurs 2020 20;19:42. Epub 2020 May 20.

Center of Excellence for Nursing Scholarship OPI Rome, Rome, Italy.

Abstract: To develop and validate a shared governance feasibility instrument in schools of nursing in Iran with respect to the nature of the profession and the sociocultural context of the Iranian community.

Background: Nursing schools are liable to the application of shared governance due to the presence of various expert educational groups within the school that necessitates reciprocal cooperation. Since the concept of shared governance is culture-based and given that no full-fledged study has been conducted on shared governance in Iran, the development of a suitable shared governance feasibility instrument is rendered as mandatory. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12912-020-00433-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238626PMC

Predictors of Emergency Preparedness Among Older Adults in the United States.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2020 Jun 1:1-7. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Institute for Healthcare Policy and Innovation, Ann ArborMichigan.

Objectives: Emergency preparedness becomes more important with increased age, as older adults are at heightened risk for harm from disasters. In this study, predictors of preparedness actions and confidence in preparedness among older adults in the United States were assessed.

Methods: This nationally representative survey polled community-dwelling older adults ages 50-80 y (n = 2256) about emergency preparedness and confidence in addressing different types of emergencies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2020.80DOI Listing

Getting to 90-90-90: Experiences from the MaxART Early Access to ART for All (EAAA) Trial in Eswatini.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2020 May 30. Epub 2020 May 30.

Department of Biostatistics, Center on Methods for Implementation and Prevention Science, Yale School of Public Health, 60 College Street, New Haven, CT, 06510, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The MaxART Consortium-led by the Eswatini Ministry of Health-implemented multiple interventions between 2012 and 2017 to achieve UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets. We summarize key findings from community outreach strategies in support of the first 90 goal, and from the Early Access to ART for All (EAAA) trial on the implementation of a "Treat All" strategy to achieve the second and third 90 goals within a government-managed public health system.

Recent Findings: The MaxART Consortium demonstrated that "Fast Track," a problem-solving approach, was effective at increasing testing coverage in the community. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-020-00501-6DOI Listing

Association Between Seroclearance of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen and Long-term Clinical Outcomes of Patients With Chronic HBV Infection: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Senior Biostatistician, Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Seroclearance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is the desired endpoint of treatment for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, according to guidelines. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the strength of association between HBsAg seroclearance and long-term clinical outcomes.

Methods: We performed a systematic review of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases for articles that assessed HBsAg status and reported the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), liver decompensation, liver transplantation, and/or all-cause mortality during follow up. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2020.05.041DOI Listing

Low program access despite high burden of sexual, structural, and reproductive health vulnerabilities among young women who sell sex in Mombasa, Kenya.

BMC Public Health 2020 May 29;20(1):806. Epub 2020 May 29.

MAP Centre for Urban Health Solutions, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Background: Across Sub-Saharan Africa, young women who sell sex (YSW) face institutional barriers in accessing sexual health and HIV prevention programs designed for female sex workers. In 2018, Kenya developed a national framework to guide service provision for YSW aged 14-24 years. To help inform the implementation of the framework, we estimated the burden of vulnerabilities related to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs related to health and gender equality) and program contact among YSW. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08872-6DOI Listing

Inflammation Adjustment by Two Methods Decreases the Estimated Prevalence of Zinc Deficiency in Malawi.

Nutrients 2020 May 27;12(6). Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Public Health, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Malawi, Private Bag 360, Chichiri, Blantyre 3, Malawi.

Serum zinc concentration (SZC) is used widely to assess population-level zinc status. Its concentration decreases during inflammatory responses, which can affect the interpretation of the results. This study aimed to re-estimate the prevalence of zinc deficiency in Malawi based on the 2015-2016 Malawi Micronutrient Survey (MNS) data, by adjusting SZC measures with markers of inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12061563DOI Listing

Evaluation of the Xpert HCV VL Fingerstick point-of-care assay and dried blood spot HCV-RNA testing as simplified diagnostic strategies among people who inject drugs in Catalonia, Spain.

Int J Drug Policy 2020 May 26;80:102734. Epub 2020 May 26.

Microbiology Department, Laboratori Clínic Metropolitana Nord, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Spain; Genetics and Microbiology Department, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Badalona, Spain; Germans Trias i Pujol Research Institute (IGTP), Badalona, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: Catalonia requires decentralized and simplified strategies for the diagnosis of viremic HCV infection among people who inject drugs (PWID). We aimed to perform a direct comparison of the diagnostic performance between two, single-step strategies for the screening and diagnosis of viremic HCV infection in PWID attending a drug consumption room (DCR) in Barcelona: i) on-site HCV-RNA testing using the point-of-care test (PoCT) Xpert HCV VL Fingerstick; and ii) on-site dried blood spots (DBS) collection for HCV-RNA testing at the laboratory (in-house assay). Additionally, we aimed to assess participants' preferences in receiving HCV-RNA testing results and feasibility of same-day delivery of PoCT results. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2020.102734DOI Listing

Investigating the potentially important role of psychological flexibility in adherence to antiretroviral therapy in people living with HIV.

AIDS Care 2020 May 29:1-10. Epub 2020 May 29.

Leeds and York Partnership National Health Service Foundation Trust, Leeds, UK.

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has significantly improved immune health and survival rates in HIV, but these outcomes rely on near perfect adherence. While many psychosocial factors are related to sub-optimal adherence, effectiveness of associated interventions are modest or inconsistent. The Psychological Flexibility (PF) model underlying Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) identifies a core set of broadly applicable transdiagnostic processes that may be useful to explain and improve non-adherence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2020.1771263DOI Listing

Are different motivations and social capital score associated with return behaviour among Brazilian voluntary non-remunerated blood donors?

Transfus Med 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Disciplina de Ciências Médicas, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: We examined the association between social capital score, motivator factors and demographic and donation characteristics and donor return at three Brazilian blood centres in Recife, São Paulo and Belo Horizonte.

Material And Methods: A total of 5974 donors were interviewed about motivation factors to donate and cognitive and structural social capital just before an effective donation in three Brazilians blood centres in 2009. We assessed the return to a new donation within 2 years for each of these donors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tme.12684DOI Listing

Understanding the Anemic Global Response to COVID-19.

Authors:
Joshua W Busby

J Health Polit Policy Law 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

University of Texas at Austin.

The COVID-19 outbreak is the most serious test of the international system since the 2008 global financial crisis. Rather than cooperate to contain and respond to a common threat, the world's leading powers, the United States and China, increasingly blamed each other through wildly speculative theories about the origins of the virus. The World Health Organization (WHO) sought to coordinate a global response but it has been hamstrung and come under attack. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/03616878-8641542DOI Listing

HIV-related outcome disparities between transgender women living with HIV and cisgender people living with HIV served by the Health Resources and Services Administration's Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program: A retrospective study.

PLoS Med 2020 May 28;17(5):e1003125. Epub 2020 May 28.

Health Resources and Services Administration, HIV/AIDS Bureau, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America.

Background: In the United States, approximately one-fifth of transgender women are living with HIV-nearly one-half of Black/African American (Black) transgender women are living with HIV. Limited data are available on HIV-related clinical indicators among transgender women. This is because of a lack of robust transgender data collection and research, especially within demographic subgroups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003125DOI Listing

We're Not All in This Together: On COVID-19, Intersectionality, and Structural Inequality.

Authors:
Lisa Bowleg

Am J Public Health 2020 May 28:e1. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences Intersectionality Training Institute The George Washington University Washington, DC.

We are not all in this together. My 32-year history with the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States-initially as an HIV/AIDS policy analyst and now as an HIV-prevention researcher-has provided the dubitable opportunity to witness how adroitly deadly viruses spotlight fissures of structural inequality. In the late 1980s, "changing face" was the term often used to describe the epidemic's transition from one that affected predominantly White and class-privileged gay and bisexual men to one that exacted a disproportionate toll on people at the most marginalized demographic intersections: Black and Latinx gay and bisexual men, cisgender and transgender women, injection drug users, and poor people. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2020.305766DOI Listing

Views among Malawian women about joining HIV prevention clinical trials when pregnant.

AIDS Res Ther 2020 May 27;17(1):27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Center for Bioethics and Department of Social Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 333 S. Columbia Street, Campus Box 7240, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA.

Background: The pressing need to expand the biomedical HIV prevention evidence base during pregnancy is now increasingly recognized. Women's views regarding participation in such trials and initiating PrEP while pregnant are critical to inform evolving policy and best practices aimed at responsibly expanding evidence-based access for this population.

Methods: We conducted 35 semi-structured interviews with reproductive-aged women in Malawi in the local language, Chichewa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-020-00271-6DOI Listing

Assessing Bias in Population Size Estimates Among Hidden Populations When Using the Service Multiplier Method Combined With Respondent-Driven Sampling Surveys: Survey Study.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2020 Mar 2. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Centre for Sexual Health and HIV/AIDS Research (CeSHHAR) Zimbabwe, 4 Bath RoadBelgravia, Harare, ZW.

Background: Population size estimates (PSEs) for hidden populations at increased risk of HIV, including female sex workers (FSWs), are important to inform public health policy and resource allocation. The service multiplier method (SMM) is commonly used to estimate the sizes of hidden populations. We used this method to obtain PSEs for FSWs at 9 sites in Zimbabwe and explored methods for assessing potential biases that could arise in using this approach. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/15044DOI Listing

Impact of communication on first treatment decisions in people with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

Patient Educ Couns 2020 May 13. Epub 2020 May 13.

School of Dentistry, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.

Objective: Disease-Modifying Treatments (DMTs) have contributed to a new clinical landscape for people with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (pwRRMS). A challenge for services is how to support DMT decisions with changing clinical evidence, and differing treatment goals. This article investigates how pwRRMS weigh up the pros and cons of DMTs by examining how communication at the point of diagnosis is related to DMT decisions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2020.05.014DOI Listing

The moral and social narratives of sexual and reproductive health in Kenya: a case of adolescents and young people pre- and within the MDG era.

Reprod Health 2020 May 26;17(1):75. Epub 2020 May 26.

United Nations Children's Fund Office of Research, Florence, Italy.

Background: The role of global initiatives in catalyzing change within national contexts is complex and less understood. Addressing adolescent sexual and reproductive health in Kenya requires concerted efforts of both state and non-state actors and more importantly, a supportive environment. This paper deconstructs the moral and social narratives of adolescents' and young people's sexual and reproductive health (AYSRH) in Kenya as driven by the powerful discourse and ideologies pre- and within the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) era. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12978-020-00930-xDOI Listing

Birth Testing for Infant HIV Diagnosis in Eswatini: Implementation Experience and Uptake Among Women Living With HIV in Manzini Region.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

ICAP at Columbia University.

Introduction: HIV testing at birth of HIV-exposed infants (HEIs) may improve the identification of infants infected with HIV in utero and accelerate antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation.

Methods: ICAP at Columbia University supported implementation of a national pilot of HIV testing at birth (0-7 days) in Eswatini at 2 maternity facilities. Dried blood spot (DBS) samples from neonates of women living with HIV (WLHIV) were collected and processed at the National Molecular Reference Laboratory using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002734DOI Listing

Covid-19 and Gender in LMICs: Potential Lessons from HIV Pandemic.

AIDS Behav 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Medical University of Varna, 55 Marin Drinov Street, Varna, 9000, Bulgaria.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-020-02932-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246961PMC

Use and awareness of and willingness to self-test for HIV: an analysis of cross-sectional population-based surveys in Malawi and Zimbabwe.

BMC Public Health 2020 May 25;20(1):779. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Clinical Research and Infection Disease, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: Many southern African countries are nearing the global goal of diagnosing 90% of people with HIV by 2020. In 2016, 84 and 86% of people with HIV knew their status in Malawi and Zimbabwe, respectively. However, gaps remain, particularly among men. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08855-7DOI Listing

A gendered analysis of living with HIV/AIDS in the Eastern Region of Ghana.

Authors:
Adobea Yaa Owusu

BMC Public Health 2020 May 24;20(1):751. Epub 2020 May 24.

Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research, University of Ghana - Legon, P. O. Box LG 74, Legon, Ghana.

Background: A gender gap exists in knowledge regarding persons living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana. Women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHIV) greatly outnumber males living with HIV/AIDS (MLHIV) in Ghana and Sub-Saharan Africa generally. This necessitates more gender-nuanced evidence-based information on HIV/AIDS to guide individuals, healthcare workers, and other stakeholders in Ghana particularly. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08702-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7245734PMC

[Cost-effectiveness of HIV self-testing strategy in men who have sex with men].

Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2020 May;41(5):753-757

Department of AIDS Control and Prevention, Zhuhai City Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Zhuhai 519060, China.

To analyze the cost-effectiveness and willingness-to-pay of HIV self-testing (HIVST) strategy and facility-based HIV rapid testing (HIV-RDT) strategy in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Zhuhai, and provide scientific evidence for making health policy. From the perspective of health service providers, the data of the costs and effectiveness of two HIV testing strategies in MSM in Zhuhai during January-September 2019 were collected, and a decision-tree model of cohort of 10 000 MSM was constructed by using software TreeAge Pro 2019 to measure the cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). One-way and probability sensitivity analysis was performed for the uncertainty of the parameters in the model, and the cost-effectiveness and affordability curve was introduced to estimate the affordability of two strategies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20191231-00926DOI Listing

Arts-based approaches to promoting health in sub-Saharan Africa: a scoping review.

BMJ Glob Health 2020 May;5(5)

College of Social Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Introduction: Arts-based approaches to health promotion have been used widely across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), particularly in public health responses to HIV/AIDS. Such approaches draw on deep-rooted historical traditions of indigenous groups in combination with imported traditions which emerged from colonial engagement. To date, no review has sought to map the locations, health issues, art forms and methods documented by researchers using arts-based approaches in SSA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2019-001987DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7247409PMC

User-Centered Design and Evaluation of a Web-Based Decision Aid for Older Adults Living With Mild Cognitive Impairment and Their Health Care Providers: A Mixed Methods Study.

J Med Internet Res 2020 Apr 15. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Laval University Research Centre on Community-Based Primary Health Care, Pavillon Landry-Poulin, Door #A-1-2, Office #24162525 Chemin de la Canardière, Quebec, CA.

Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is often considered a transitional state between normal and pathologic (eg, dementia) cognitive aging. Although its prognosis varies largely, the diagnosis carries the risk of causing uncertainty and overtreatment of older adults with MCI who may never progress to dementia. Decision aids help people become better informed and more involved in decision making by providing evidence-based information about options and possible outcomes and by assisting them in clarifying their personal values in relation to the decision to be made. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/17406DOI Listing

Trends in Wheelchair Recommendations in a Dedicated Seating Department.

Authors:
Cara E Masselink

Assist Technol 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Western Michigan University.

Introduction: . In the early 2000s, investigators at the federal government noted growing Medicare expenditures for power mobility devices, which were related to high profit margins and fraudulent activity. Medicare responded with policy and program changes, and stakeholders in wheelchair service delivery have noticed an impact on their services and changes in wheelchair user access to needed equipment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10400435.2020.1772899DOI Listing

Anemia and Micronutrient Status during Pregnancy, and Their Associations with Obstetric and Infant Outcomes among HIV-Infected Ugandan Women Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy.

Curr Dev Nutr 2020 May 25;4(5):nzaa075. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Anthropology and Global Health Studies, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA.

Background: Women living with HIV (WLHIV) are at higher risk of micronutrient deficiencies and adverse health outcomes. There are limited data on the burden or sequelae of micronutrient deficiencies among pregnant WLHIV receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART).

Objectives: We aimed to examine anemia and vitamin B-12, folate, and vitamin D deficiencies, and their associations with obstetric and infant outcomes, among pregnant WLHIV initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in rural Uganda. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cdn/nzaa075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7229869PMC

Using Nudges to Enhance Clinicians' Implementation of Shared Decision Making With Patient Decision Aids.

MDM Policy Pract 2020 Jan-Jun;5(1):2381468320915906. Epub 2020 Apr 26.

Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

Although effective interventions for shared decision making (SDM) exist, there is a lack of uptake of these tools into clinical practice. "Nudges," which draw on behavioral economics and target automatic thinking processes, are used by policy makers to influence population-level behavior change. Nudges have not been applied in the context of SDM interventions but have potential to influence clinician motivation, a primary barrier to long-term adoption of SDM tools. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2381468320915906DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227151PMC

Trends over time in HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs in 89 large US metropolitan statistical areas, 1992-2013.

Ann Epidemiol 2020 May 3;45:12-23. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Institute for Infectious Disease Research, National Development and Research Institutes, New York, NY; Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York.

Purpose: After years of stable or declining HIV prevalence and declining incidence among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the United States, some rapidly emerging outbreaks have recently occurred in new areas (e.g., Scott County, Indiana). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2020.03.011DOI Listing

Multiple forms of discrimination and internalized stigma compromise retention in HIV care among adolescents: findings from a South African cohort.

J Int AIDS Soc 2020 May;23(5):e25488

University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College, School of Nursing and Public Health, Durban, South Africa.

Introduction: Efficacious antiretroviral treatment (ART) enables people to live long and healthy lives with HIV but young people are dying from AIDS-related causes more than ever before. Qualitative evidence suggest that various forms of HIV-related discrimination and resulting shame act as profound barriers to young people's engagement with HIV services. However, the impact of these risks on adolescent retention in HIV care has not been quantified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jia2.25488DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7242009PMC

Adolescent Opioid Misuse Attributable to Adverse Childhood Experiences.

J Pediatr 2020 May 10. Epub 2020 May 10.

Division of Violence Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, CDC.

Objectives: To estimate the proportion of opioid misuse attributable to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) among adolescents.

Study Design: A cross-sectional survey was administered to 10,546 7th‒12th grade students in northeastern Ohio in Spring 2018. Study measures included self-reported lifetime exposure to 10 ACEs and past 30 day use of nonmedical prescription opioid or heroin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.05.001DOI Listing

Women from afar: an observational study of demographic characteristics and mortality among foreign-born women living with HIV in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) in the United States 1994-2016.

J Int AIDS Soc 2020 May;23(5):e25486

Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.

Introduction: Foreign-born persons comprise ~13% of the US population. Immigrants, especially women, often face a complex set of social and structural factors that negatively impact health outcomes including greater risk of HIV infection. We described socio-demographic, clinical and immunological characteristics and AIDs and non-AIDS death among foreign-born women living with HIV (FBWLWH) participating in the US Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) in the US from 1994 to 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jia2.25486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7241263PMC

Treatment as insurance: HIV antiretroviral therapy offers financial risk protection in Malawi.

Health Policy Plan 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Applied Research and Evaluation, Ideas42, 80 Broad St., New York, NY 10004, USA.

Many countries have expanded insurance programmes in an effort to achieve universal health coverage (UHC). We assess a complementary path toward financial risk protection: increased access to technologies that improve health and reduce the risk of large health expenditures. Malawi has provided free HIV treatment since 2004 with significant US Government support. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapol/czaa023DOI Listing

Determinants of Home Delivery among Women Aged 15-24 Years in Tanzania.

Int J MCH AIDS 2020 23;9(2):191-199. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Ifakara Health Institute, Department of Health System and Impact Evaluation and Policy, P.O. Box 78373 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Background: The United Nation's Sustainable Development Goal number 3 aims at reducing the maternal mortality rate by less than 70/100,000 live births globally and 216/100,000 live births in developing regions by 2030. Despite several interventions in Tanzania, maternal mortality has increased from 454/100,000 live births in 2010 to 556/100,000 live births in 2015. Home delivery and maternal young age contribute to maternal deaths. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21106/ijma.361DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7226705PMC

Global Ranking of COVID-19-Related Mortality by Country using a Novel Pandemic Efficiency Index (PEI).

Int J MCH AIDS 2020 23;9(2):182-185. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

The Center for Global Health and Health Policy, Global Health and Education Projects, Inc., Riverdale, MD 20738, USA.

The world is currently witnessing a dramatic disruption of everyday life owing to the rapid progression of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. As the pandemic evolves, there is an urgent need to better understand its epidemiology, characterize its potential impact, and identify mitigatory strategies to avert pandemic-related mortality. There is a need for a tool or algorithm to evaluate the extent to which public health policy and/or economic preparedness measures are effectively averting COVID-19 related mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21106/ijma.378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7226706PMC

Research priorities for rehabilitation and aging with HIV: a framework from the Canada-International HIV and Rehabilitation Research Collaborative (CIHRRC).

AIDS Res Ther 2020 May 19;17(1):21. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Physical Therapy, University of Toronto, 500 University Avenue, Room 160, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: People living with HIV are living longer, and can experience physical, mental and social health challenges associated with aging and multimorbidity. Rehabilitation is well positioned to address disability and maximize healthy aging. An international collaborative network, called the Canada-International HIV and Rehabilitation Research Collaborative (CIHRRC), works to guide this emerging field. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-020-00280-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236512PMC

The Real-World Impact of Dosing of Methadone and Buprenorphine on Retention on Opioid Agonist Therapies in Ukraine.

Addiction 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

APT Foundation, New Haven, CT, USA.

Background And Aims: Ukraine's HIV epidemic remains concentrated in opioid dependent people who inject drugs (PWID) where opioid agonist therapies (OAT) like methadone (MMT) and buprenorphine (BMT) maintenance treatments are the most cost-effective HIV prevention strategy, but remain under-scaled. This study aimed to measure the association between dose and type of OAT prescribed and treatment retention.

Design: Observational longitudinal cohort study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.15115DOI Listing

Low coverage of HIV testing among adolescents and young adults in Nigeria: Implication for achieving the UNAIDS first 95.

PLoS One 2020 19;15(5):e0233368. Epub 2020 May 19.

Population Dynamics and Reproductive Health and Rights Unit, African Population and Health Research Center, Kitisuru, Nairobi, Kenya.

Background: Most studies on HIV testing among young people in Nigeria are not nationally representative. As such, recent nationally representative data, such as the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), could help assess the current level of HIV testing among young people, a key target population for HIV prevention in the country. In this study, we examined the coverage and factors associated with HIV testing among adolescents and young adults (AYA). Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233368PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7237011PMC

What does the COVID-19 pandemic mean for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria control?

Trop Med Health 2020 13;48:32. Epub 2020 May 13.

4Human Research Protection Program, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, San Diego, CA USA.

Despite its current relatively low global share of cases and deaths in Africa compared to other regions, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has the potential to trigger other larger crises in the region. This is due to the vulnerability of health and economic systems, coupled with the high burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis (TB), and malaria. Here we examine the potential implications of COVID-19 on the control of these major epidemic diseases in Africa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41182-020-00219-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218555PMC