280,846 results match your criteria AIDS education and prevention : official publication of the International Society for AIDS Education[Journal]


Understanding the Anemic Global Response to COVID-19.

Authors:
Joshua W Busby

J Health Polit Policy Law 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

University of Texas at Austin.

The COVID-19 outbreak is the most serious test of the international system since the 2008 global financial crisis. Rather than cooperate to contain and respond to a common threat, the world's leading powers, the United States and China, increasingly blamed each other through wildly speculative theories about the origins of the virus. The World Health Organization (WHO) sought to coordinate a global response but it has been hamstrung and come under attack. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/03616878-8641542DOI Listing

In vitro susceptibility to fostemsavir is not affected by long-term exposure to antiviral therapy in MDR HIV-1-infected patients.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

Objectives: Fostemsavir is the prodrug of the HIV-1 attachment inhibitor temsavir and is currently under clinical assessment in heavily treatment-experienced patients with limited therapeutic options. We evaluated the genotypic and phenotypic susceptibility to temsavir in a panel of samples collected from patients harbouring MDR strains enrolled in the Italian PRESTIGIO Registry.

Methods: Plasma samples from 24 patients were used for HIV-1 gp120 sequencing, while viral tropism and susceptibility to temsavir were assessed through a homemade phenotypic assay with pseudotyped viruses expressing patient-derived Env protein. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkaa178DOI Listing

Oral HPV prevalence assessment by Linear Array vs. SPF PCR-DEIA-LiPA system in the human papillomavirus Infection in Men (HIM) study.

Papillomavirus Res 2020 May 25:100199. Epub 2020 May 25.

Center for Immunization and Infection Research in Cancer (CIIRC), H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL, 33612, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) attributable oropharyngeal cancers are on the rise in many countries. Oral HPV infections among healthy individuals are commonly detected using oral gargle samples. However, the optimal method for HPV genotyping oral gargle specimens in research studies has not been previously evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pvr.2020.100199DOI Listing

Characterization of occult hepatitis B in high-risk populations in Kenya.

PLoS One 2020 28;15(5):e0233727. Epub 2020 May 28.

National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is defined as the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in the liver or serum in the absence of detectable HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). OBI poses a risk for the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The prevalence of OBI in Kenya is unknown, thus a study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and molecular characterization of OBI in Kenyan populations at high risk of HBV infection. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233727PLOS

HIV-related outcome disparities between transgender women living with HIV and cisgender people living with HIV served by the Health Resources and Services Administration's Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program: A retrospective study.

PLoS Med 2020 May 28;17(5):e1003125. Epub 2020 May 28.

Health Resources and Services Administration, HIV/AIDS Bureau, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America.

Background: In the United States, approximately one-fifth of transgender women are living with HIV-nearly one-half of Black/African American (Black) transgender women are living with HIV. Limited data are available on HIV-related clinical indicators among transgender women. This is because of a lack of robust transgender data collection and research, especially within demographic subgroups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003125DOI Listing

We're Not All in This Together: On COVID-19, Intersectionality, and Structural Inequality.

Authors:
Lisa Bowleg

Am J Public Health 2020 May 28:e1. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences Intersectionality Training Institute The George Washington University Washington, DC.

We are not all in this together. My 32-year history with the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States-initially as an HIV/AIDS policy analyst and now as an HIV-prevention researcher-has provided the dubitable opportunity to witness how adroitly deadly viruses spotlight fissures of structural inequality. In the late 1980s, "changing face" was the term often used to describe the epidemic's transition from one that affected predominantly White and class-privileged gay and bisexual men to one that exacted a disproportionate toll on people at the most marginalized demographic intersections: Black and Latinx gay and bisexual men, cisgender and transgender women, injection drug users, and poor people. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2020.305766DOI Listing

Prevalence and Factors Associated With Virological Treatment Failure Among Children and Adolescents on Antiretroviral Therapy Attending HIV/AIDS Care and Treatment Clinics in Dodoma Municipality, Central Tanzania.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Paediatrics & Child Health, University of Dodoma, Dodoma, Tanzania.

Background: As the World Health Organization (WHO) and its joint partners such as USAIDS target achieving 90% sustained virological suppression among children and adolescents living with Human Immunodeficience Virus (HIV)/AIDS, it is imperative to elucidate the current prevalence and factors associated with virological treatment failure for formulation of appropriate strategies. This study was conducted determine the prevalence and factors associated with virological treatment failure among children and adolescents with HIV/AIDS on antiretroviral therapy (ART) attending HIV/AIDS care clinics in Dodoma, Central Tanzania.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of children aged 1-19 years attending 3 HIV/AIDS care clinics in Dodoma (central Tanzania) from November 2018 to February 2019. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piaa030DOI Listing

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Prevalence and Associated Factors in a Setting of Well-Controlled HIV, A Cross-Sectional Study.

COPD 2020 May 28:1-9. Epub 2020 May 28.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

In Sub-Saharan Africa, COPD remains prevalent but its association with HIV is not well characterized especially in rural settings. We assessed for COPD prevalence, associated factors and lung function profile among HIV-infected individuals attending ART clinics in rural Nakaseke district of Uganda. We enrolled HIV-positive participants from four HIV treatment centers in rural Uganda. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15412555.2020.1769583DOI Listing

Dyspnea in an HIV Patient: A Not so Typical Presentation of Lung Adenocarcinoma.

J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2020 Jan-Dec;8:2324709620927872

White River Health System, Batesville, AR, USA.

Dyspnea in a HIV patient often warrants an extensive workup. The most common etiology of this presentation is likely due to an infectious etiology. However, with the introduction of antiretroviral treatment, non-AIDS-defining illness including malignancies are increasingly being reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2324709620927872DOI Listing

The effect of follower load on the range of motion, facet joint force, and intradiscal pressure of the cervical spine: a finite element study.

Med Biol Eng Comput 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Rehabilitation Technical Aids for Old-Age Disability, Key Laboratory of Rehabilitation Technical Aids Technology and System of the Ministry of Civil Affairs, National Research Centre for Rehabilitation Technical Aids, Beijing,, 100176, China.

Follower loads are used to simulate physiological compressive loads on the human spine. These compressive loads represent the load-carrying capacity of the human cervical spine and play an important role in maintaining its stability. However, under different follower loads the biomechanical response of the cervical spine is unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11517-020-02189-7DOI Listing

Volunteer programs supporting people with dementia/delirium in hospital: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Gerontologist 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Monash University Faculty of Medicine Nursing and Health Sciences, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Melbourne, Australia.

Background And Objectives: Volunteer delivered programs to assist people with dementia and/or delirium in-hospital, can provide person-centred one-on-one support additional to usual care. These programs could mitigate hospital resource demands, however, their effectiveness is unknown. This review evaluated literature of volunteer programs in acute hospital settings for people living with dementia and/or delirium. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnaa058DOI Listing

Preclinical Development and Clinical-Scale Manufacturing of HIV Gag-Specific, LentivirusModified CD4 T Cells for HIV Functional Cure.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2020 Jun 3;17:1048-1060. Epub 2020 May 3.

American Gene Technologies International, Rockville, MD, USA.

Activation, infection, and eventual depletion of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) T cells are the crucial pathogenetic events in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We developed a cell and gene therapy to reconstitute HIV-specific CD4 T cells and prevent their destruction by HIV. Antigen-specific CD4 T cells will provide helper functions to support antiviral cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) function and the production of virus-specific antibodies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtm.2020.04.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7240062PMC

Abnormal Levels of Liver Enzymes and Hepatotoxicity in HIV-Positive, TB, and HIV/TB-Coinfected Patients on Treatment in Fako Division, Southwest Region of Cameroon.

Biomed Res Int 2020 12;2020:9631731. Epub 2020 May 12.

Infectious Disease Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, P.O. Box 63, Buea, Cameroon.

Hepatotoxicity is historically the 3 most common reason for drug withdrawal and toxicity-related discontinuation of treatment. This study was aimed at determining the incidence and the onset of hepatotoxicity and at evaluating the relationship of some risk factors for hepatotoxicity among Human Immunodeficiency Virus- (HIV-) positive, tuberculosis (TB), and HIV/TB patients on treatment. This was a prospective follow-up study involving 125 participants from the HIV/AIDS and TB treatment centres in three hospitals in Fako Division of Cameroon. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/9631731DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243024PMC

Improving Physician-patient and Physician-nurse Communication and Overall Satisfaction Rates: A Quality Improvement Project.

Cureus 2020 Apr 22;12(4):e7776. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Internal Medicine, Cleveland Clinic - Fairview Hospital, Cleveland, USA.

Introduction Communication between healthcare providers and patients is a key component associated with the quality of healthcare and patient satisfaction. Often, simple communication skills may be insufficient to sustain a successful provider-patient relationship. The aim of this project was to assess and improve patient and nurse satisfaction with physicians via improvement in physician-patient and physician-nurse communication to a level greater than 90%. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7776DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243623PMC

Atypical Obstructive Pseudotumors in AIDS as the Initial Manifestation of Gastrointestinal Histoplasmosis.

Cureus 2020 Apr 22;12(4):e7775. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Internal Medicine, Hospital de Especialidades Eugenio Espejo, Quito, ECU.

Histoplasma capsulatum is a dysmorphic fungus distributed worldwide commonly associated with pulmonary histoplasmosis. We report the case of an unusual presentation of gastrointestinal histoplasmosis leading to the obstruction of the intestinal lumen in a 30-year-old female, HIV positive, admitted to the hospital due to chronic abdominal pain and constipation. An initial abdominal CT revealed a mass in the sigmoid colon. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7775DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243627PMC

COVID-19 Pandemic: Marked Global Disparities in Fatalities According to Geographic Location and Universal Health Care.

Int J MCH AIDS 2020 15;9(2):213-216. Epub 2020 May 15.

Center of Excellence in Health Equity, Training, and Research, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Since its outbreak, COVID-19 pandemic has been the biggest global concern with exponentially increasing number of cases and associated deaths across all habitable continents. Various countries around the world with their diverse health care systems, have responded to the pandemic in very distinctive ways. In this paper, we: compared COVID-19 mortality rates across global geographic regions; and assessed differences in COVID-19-related case fatality rate (CFR) based on presence or absence of Universal Health Coverage (UHC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21106/ijma.389DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7248683PMC

A modified technique for intraluminal stenting of glaucoma drainage devices: The guide-wire technique.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2020 Jun;68(6):1151-1153

Department of Ophthalmology, Flinders University, Bedford Park, South Australia, Australia.

Glaucoma drainage tubes have become increasingly popular in the surgical management of uncontrolled glaucoma. Flow restriction is essential to prevent early postoperative hypotony with non-flow restrictive glaucoma drainage devices. Herein, we describe a new way of using a 3-0 Supramid suture as an intraluminal stent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijo.IJO_1570_19DOI Listing

Genotype analysis of ofloxacin-resistant multidrug-resistant isolates in a multicentered study from India.

Indian J Med Res 2020 Apr;151(4):361-370

Division of Molecular Biology, ICMR-National AIDS Research Institute, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Background & Objectives: Drug resistance surveillance offers useful information on trends of drug resistance and the efficacy of control measures. Studies and reports of drug-resistant mutations and phenotypic assays thus become important. This study was conducted to investigate the molecular characteristics of ofloxacin (OFX)-resistant, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) isolates from different geographical regions of India and their association with strains of different genotypes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_493_18DOI Listing

Seroprevalence & seroincidence of infection in Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India: A community-based serosurvey during lean (April-May) & epidemic (October-November) periods for acute encephalitis syndrome.

Indian J Med Res 2020 Apr;151(4):350-360

ICMR-National AIDS Research Institute, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Background & Objectives: In India, acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) cases are frequently reported from Gorakhpur district in Uttar Pradesh. Scrub typhus is one of the predominant aetiological agents for these cases. In order to delineate the extent of the background of scrub typhus seroprevalence and the associated risk factors at community level, serosurveys during both lean and epidemic periods (phase 1 and phase 2, respectively) of AES outbreaks were conducted in this region. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1330_18DOI Listing

Better viral control despite higher CD4 T cell activation during acute HIV-1 infection in Zambian women is linked to the sex hormone estradiol.

J Virol 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329

The influence of biological sex on disease progression in HIV-1 infected individuals has been focused on the chronic stage of infection, but little is known about how sex differences influence acute HIV-1 infection. We observed profound differences in viral load and CD4 T cell activation from the earliest time-points in men and women in a Zambian heterosexual acute infection cohort. Women exhibited a more than two-fold higher rate of CD4 T cell loss despite significantly lower viral loads (VL) than men. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00758-20DOI Listing

Evaluation of a Novel Semi-quantitative Cryptococcal Antigen Lateral Flow Assay in Patients with Advanced HIV Disease.

J Clin Microbiol 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Botswana National Health Laboratory, Gaborone, Botswana.

Higher cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) titers are strongly associated with mortality risk in individuals with HIV-associated cryptococcal disease. Rapid tests to quantify CrAg level may provide important prognostic information and enable treatment stratification. We performed a laboratory-based validation of the semi-quantitative IMMY CrAgSQ assay against the current gold-standard CrAg tests. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00441-20DOI Listing

Risk factors associated with seropositivity for Toxoplasma gondii in population-based studies among immunocompromised patients (pregnant women, HIV patients and children) in West African countries, Cameroon and Gabon: a meta-analysis.

Acta Trop 2020 May 24:105544. Epub 2020 May 24.

Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Electronic address:

Toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised individuals can be life threatening. The information needed for proper control and management strategies in endemic West African countries is lacking, hence a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii among pregnant women, HIV/AIDs and children in West Africa, Cameroon and Gabon. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2020.105544DOI Listing

Autoimmune disease in CMML-the chicken or the egg?

Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 2020 Jun 17;33(2):101136. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1650 Orleans Street, CRBI Room 186, 21287, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a clonal disorder that is associated with a wide range of systemic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases (SIADs). Approximately 20% of patients with CMML will have an associated SIAD and recognizing this association is critical to the evaluation, prognostication and management of patients with CMML. In this paper, we review the evidence supporting a causative link between these two entities as well as the direction of this relationship. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beha.2019.101136DOI Listing

Views among Malawian women about joining HIV prevention clinical trials when pregnant.

AIDS Res Ther 2020 May 27;17(1):27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Center for Bioethics and Department of Social Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 333 S. Columbia Street, Campus Box 7240, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA.

Background: The pressing need to expand the biomedical HIV prevention evidence base during pregnancy is now increasingly recognized. Women's views regarding participation in such trials and initiating PrEP while pregnant are critical to inform evolving policy and best practices aimed at responsibly expanding evidence-based access for this population.

Methods: We conducted 35 semi-structured interviews with reproductive-aged women in Malawi in the local language, Chichewa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-020-00271-6DOI Listing

A prospective cohort study of outcomes for isoniazid prevention therapy: a nested study from a national QI collaborative in Uganda.

AIDS Res Ther 2020 May 27;17(1):28. Epub 2020 May 27.

United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Kampala, Uganda.

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection constitute a deadly infectious disease synergy disease and major public health problem throughout the world. The risk of developing active TB in people living with HIV (PLHIV) is 21 times higher than the rest of the world population. The overlap of latent TB infection and HIV infection has resulted in marked increases in TB incidence in countries with dual epidemics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-020-00285-0DOI Listing

Parent - adolescent communication on sexual and reproductive health: the qualitative evidences from parents and students of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Reprod Health 2020 May 27;17(1):78. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Dares Salaam, Mbeya College of Health and Allied Sciences UDSM-MCHAS, PO Box 608, Mbeya, Tanzania.

Background: Repeatedly adolescents in Africa have been experiencing early pregnancy by more than 50%, early parenthood by 30% and new HIV infections by more than 80%. Parent - Adolescent communication as an effective strategy on sexual and reproductive health has not been taken up in most of African countries including Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to assess the challenges of Parent - Adolescent communication on sexual and reproductive health practices in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12978-020-00927-6DOI Listing

Integrating childhood TB: applying the care delivery value chain to improve pediatric HIV/TB services in Togo, West Africa.

AIDS Care 2020 May 28:1-6. Epub 2020 May 28.

Division of General Academic Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.

The World Health Organization has prioritized integrating tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services. Diagnosis of HIV/TB coinfection in children remains a challenge worldwide for numerous reasons. The care delivery value chain (CDVC) is an effective tool that can be applied as a systemic framework for assessing health care delivery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2020.1770672DOI Listing

Changes in body mass index among people living with HIV who are new on highly active antiretroviral therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

AIDS Care 2020 May 28:1-11. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV, USA.

In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), obesity is increasingly being reported among people living with HIV (PLHIV). In this study, we reviewed published literature on body mass index (BMI) changes among treatment-naïve adult PLHIV who started HAART and remained on treatment for at least six months. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline, four databases were searched, and results of included studies were synthesized to describe the BMI trend among PLHIV on treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2020.1770181DOI Listing

Identifying patterns of retention in care and viral suppression using latent class analysis among women living with HIV in Florida 2015-2017.

AIDS Care 2020 May 28:1-5. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Epidemiology, Robert Stempel College of Public Health and Social Work, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA.

The study objective was to classify women with newly diagnosed HIV into patterns of retention in care (≥2 HIV care visits ≥3 months apart) and viral suppression over time and identify factors associated with class membership. Florida HIV/AIDS surveillance data were used to conduct Latent Class Analysis to classify women into patterns, and multinomial regression was used to compare the prevalence of class membership by demographic and clinical factors. Four classes were selected based on model fit parameters: (Class 1) consistently retained and suppressed (>90% probability of being retained and suppressed), (Class 2) not consistently retained or suppressed (≤10% probability of being retained and suppressed), (Class 3) increasingly retained and suppressed, and (Class 4) decreasingly retained and suppressed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2020.1771264DOI Listing

Implied Motion From Form Shows Motion Aids the Perception of Global Form in Amblyopia.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2020 May;61(5):58

,.

Purpose: Global motion and global form perception have been found to be abnormal in the presence of amblyopia. How such deficits manifest in visual function reliant on the interactions between these two visual processing mechanisms has not been adequately explored. In the current study, we use dynamic Glass patterns (dGlass) to measure implied motion thresholds in variable external noise to investigate the local and global limitations of processing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.61.5.58DOI Listing

Remdesivir - An Important First Step.

N Engl J Med 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

From the Department of Medicine, Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (R.D.); and Massachusetts General Hospital, Partners AIDS Research Center (M.S.H.) - both in Boston.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMe2018715DOI Listing

Just-in-Time Simulation to Guide Workflow Design for Coronavirus Disease 2019 Difficult Airway Management.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, The University of Pennsylvania Perlman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA.

Objectives: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has required that hospitals rapidly adapt workflows and processes to limit disease spread and optimize the care of critically ill children.

Design And Setting: As part of our institution's coronavirus disease 2019 critical care workflow design process, we developed and conducted a number of simulation exercises, increasing in complexity, progressing to intubation wearing personal protective equipment, and culminating in activation of our difficult airway team for an airway emergency.

Patients And Interventions: In situ simulations were used to identify and rework potential failure points to generate guidance for optimal airway management in coronavirus disease 2019 suspected or positive children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PCC.0000000000002435DOI Listing

Assessing Bias in Population Size Estimates Among Hidden Populations When Using the Service Multiplier Method Combined With Respondent-Driven Sampling Surveys: Survey Study.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2020 Mar 2. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Centre for Sexual Health and HIV/AIDS Research (CeSHHAR) Zimbabwe, 4 Bath RoadBelgravia, Harare, ZW.

Background: Population size estimates (PSEs) for hidden populations at increased risk of HIV, including female sex workers (FSWs), are important to inform public health policy and resource allocation. The service multiplier method (SMM) is commonly used to estimate the sizes of hidden populations. We used this method to obtain PSEs for FSWs at 9 sites in Zimbabwe and explored methods for assessing potential biases that could arise in using this approach. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/15044DOI Listing

Darunavir inhibits / species complex growth and increases the susceptibility of biofilms to antifungal drugs.

J Med Microbiol 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Specialized Medical Mycology Center, Postgraduate Program in Medical Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Legal Medicine, Federal University of Ceará. Rua Cel. Nunes de Melo, 1315 - Rodolfo Teófilo - CEP: 60430-275, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil.

species are pathogens commonly associated with cases of meningoencephalitis in individuals who are immunosuppressed due to AIDS. The aim was to evaluate the effects of the antiretroviral darunavir alone or associated with fluconazole, 5-flucytosine and amphotericin B against planktonic cells and biofilms of species. Susceptibility testing of darunavir and the common antifungals against 12 members of the / species complex was evaluated by broth microdilution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.001194DOI Listing

Emergence of azole resistant- infections during STAT3-deficiency.

J Med Microbiol 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Université de Paris, Centre d'Infectiologie Necker Pasteur, IHU Imagine, Hôpital Universitaire Necker-Enfants Malades, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Paris, France.

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) deficiency is a rare primary immunodeficiency associated with increased susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections, notably pulmonary aspergillosis. We describe the emergence of azole-resistant infections in STAT3-deficient patients. During a retrospective study of 13 pulmonary aspergillosis cases in STAT3-deficient patients conducted in France, we identified patients infected with azole-resistant isolates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.001200DOI Listing

Inulin as a delivery vehicle for targeting colon-specific cancer.

Curr Drug Deliv 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Chitkara College of Pharmacy, Chitkara University, Punjab. India.

Natural polysaccharides as well as biopolymers are now days widely developed for targeting colon cancer using various drug delivery systems. Currently, healing conformations are being explored that can efficiently play multipurpose role. Owing to the capability of extravagance colonic diseases with least adverse effects, biopolymers for site specific colon delivery has developed an increased curiosity over the past decades. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1567201817666200527133719DOI Listing

The effects of COVID-19 on the health and socio-economic security of sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya: Emerging intersections with HIV.

Glob Public Health 2020 May 27:1-10. Epub 2020 May 27.

Institute for Global Public Health (IGPH), University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.

The COVID-19 pandemic, and its attendant responses, has led to massive health, social, and economic challenges on a global scale. While, so far, having a relatively low burden of COVID-19 infection, it is the response in lower- and middle- income countries that has had particularly dire consequences for impoverished populations such as sex workers, many of whom rely on regular income in the informal economic sector to survive. This commentary captures the challenges in Kenya posed by daily curfews and lost economic income, coupled with further changes to sex work that increase potential exposure to infection, stigmatisation, violence, and various health concerns. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17441692.2020.1770831DOI Listing

CUDC-907, a novel dual PI3K and HDAC inhibitor, in prostate cancer: Antitumour activity and molecular mechanism of action.

J Cell Mol Med 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA.

Targeting the androgen receptor (AR) signalling pathway remains the main therapeutic option for advanced prostate cancer. However, resistance to AR-targeting inhibitors represents a great challenge, highlighting the need for new therapies. Activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway and increased expression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) are common aberrations in prostate cancer, suggesting that inhibition of such targets may be a viable therapeutic strategy for this patient population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.15281DOI Listing

Identification of SARS-CoV RBD-targeting monoclonal antibodies with cross-reactive or neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2.

Antiviral Res 2020 May 13;179:104820. Epub 2020 May 13.

Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, New York, NY, 10065, USA. Electronic address:

SARS-CoV-2-caused COVID-19 cases are growing globally, calling for developing effective therapeutics to control the current pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV recognize angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor via the receptor-binding domain (RBD). Here, we identified six SARS-CoV RBD-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nAbs) that cross-reacted with SARS-CoV-2 RBD, two of which, 18F3 and 7B11, neutralized SARS-CoV-2 infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104820DOI Listing

Perceived Deterrence Towards Colonoscopy for Colorectal Cancer Screening among Northern Malaysia Population: A Qualitative Study.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2020 May 1;21(5):1253-1258. Epub 2020 May 1.

Clinical Research Center, Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Alor Setar, Kedah, Malaysia.

Background: Patients with positive immunochemical faecal occult blood test results were found to have poor compliance for a subsequent colonoscopy procedure. This study was conducted to explore patients' perceived deterrence for colonoscopy following a positive stool test.

Methods: Using qualitative study method, a phone interview was conducted with 16 patients to elicit their views on the reasons for failure to attend the colonoscopy procedure following a positive stool test. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2020.21.5.1253DOI Listing

Mortality under early access to antiretroviral therapy vs. Eswatini's national standard of care: the MaxART clustered randomized stepped-wedge trial.

HIV Med 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Directorate Office, Ministry of Health, Mbabane, Eswatini.

Objectives: Current WHO guidelines recommend the treatment of all HIV-infected individuals with antiretroviral therapy (ART) to improve survival and quality of life, and decrease infection of others. MaxART is the first implementation trial of this strategy embedded within a government-managed health system, and assesses mortality as a secondary outcome. Because primary findings strongly supported scale-up of the 'treat all' strategy (hereafter Treat All), this analysis examines mortality as an additional indicator of its impact. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hiv.12876DOI Listing

Influence of provider recommendations to restart vaccines after childhood cancer on caregiver intention to vaccinate.

J Cancer Surviv 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Cancer Control and Population Sciences, Huntsman Cancer Institute, 2000 Circle of Hope, Salt Lake City, Utah, 84112, USA.

Purpose: We studied the influence of oncology and primary care provider (PCP) recommendations on caregiver intentions to restart vaccines (e.g., catch-up or boosters) after cancer treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11764-020-00890-yDOI Listing

The Impact of COVID-19 on Plastic Surgery Residency Training.

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Clinic of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Medical Area (DAME), Academic Hospital of Udine, University of Udine, Udine, Italy.

Nowadays didactic and surgical activities for residents in the surgery field are less and less due to an increasing burden of documentation and "non-educational work." Considering the current lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic, it has never been so important to find different ways to allow residents to improve their knowledge. We asked all plastic and esthetic surgery residents in our country to fill out a questionnaire to investigate changes in their didactical activity and analyze problems about their professional growth in the last few months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00266-020-01789-wDOI Listing

Use of Humanized Mouse Models for Studying HIV-1 Infection, Pathogenesis and Persistence.

J AIDS HIV Treat 2020 ;2(1):23-29

Institute of Human Virology, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, United States.

Despite decades of intensive basic and clinical research efforts, there is still no successful vaccine candidate against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). Standard combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) has been successfully developed and has given remarkable results suppressing HIV-1 infection and transmission. However, cART cannot fully clear the virus from the infected patients. Read More

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January 2020

Pattern Recognition Receptor Ligands as an Emerging Therapeutic Agent for Latent HIV-1 Infection.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 8;10:216. Epub 2020 May 8.

Laboratory of Immunosenescence, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Osaka, Japan.

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were first identified as molecular sensors that transduce signals from specific structural patterns derived from pathogens; their underlying molecular mechanisms of recognition and signal transduction are well-understood. To date, more than 20 pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) have been reported in humans, some of which are membrane-bound, similar to TLRs, whereas others are cytosolic, including retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), and stimulator of interferon genes (STING). Clinically, PRR ligands have been developed as vaccine adjuvants to activate innate immunity and enhance subsequent antigen-specific immune responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2020.00216DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7225283PMC

Herpes Simplex Virus: The Hostile Guest That Takes Over Your Home.

Front Microbiol 2020 7;11:733. Epub 2020 May 7.

Division of Virology, Indian Council of Medical Research-National AIDS Research Institute, Pune, India.

Alpha (α)-herpesviruses (HSV-1 and HSV-2), like other viruses, are obligate intracellular parasites. They hijack the cellular machinery to survive and replicate through evading the defensive responses by the host. The viral genome of herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) contains viral genes, the products of which are destined to exploit the host apparatus for their own existence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7221137PMC

Pre-treatment Ongoing Cortical Oscillatory Activity Predicts Improvement of Tinnitus After Partial Peripheral Reafferentation With Hearing Aids.

Front Neurosci 2020 7;14:410. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.

Although hearing aids (HAs) are sometimes efficacious in abating tinnitus, the precise mechanism underlying their effect is unclear and predictors of symptom improvement have not been determined. Here, we examined the correlation between the amount of tinnitus improvement and pre-HA quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) findings to investigate cortical predictors of improvement after wearing HAs. QEEG data of thirty-three patients with debilitating tinnitus were retrospectively correlated with the percentage improvements in tinnitus handicap inventory and the numerical rating scale scores of tinnitus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.00410DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7221249PMC