266,539 results match your criteria AIDS education and prevention : official publication of the International Society for AIDS Education[Journal]


Data triangulation to estimate age-specific coverage of voluntary medical male circumcision for HIV prevention in four Kenyan counties.

PLoS One 2018 18;13(12):e0209385. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

USAID, Mbabane, Swaziland.

Background: Kenya is 1 of 14 priority countries in Africa scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for HIV prevention following the recommendations of the World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. To inform VMMC target setting, we modeled the impact of circumcising specific client age groups across several Kenyan geographic areas.

Methods: The Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool, Version 2 (DMPPT 2) was applied in Kisumu, Siaya, Homa Bay, and Migori counties. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0209385PLOS
December 2018

Factors associated with non-AIDS-defining cancers and non HCV-liver related cancers in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients- ANRS-CO13 HEPAVIH cohort.

PLoS One 2018 18;13(12):e0208657. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Reims, Unité des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Hôpital Robert Debré, Reims, France.

Compared to the general population, HIV-infected patients are at higher risk of developing non-AIDS-defining cancers. Chronic HCV infection has also been associated with a higher risk than that of the general population of developing cancers other than hepatocarcinoma. Evaluation of the impact of HCV-related factors on non-AIDS-defining and non HCV-liver (NANL) related cancers among HIV/HCV co-infected patients are scarce. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0208657PLOS
December 2018

HIV-1 subtype diversity, transmission networks and transmitted drug resistance amongst acute and early infected MSM populations from Coastal Kenya.

PLoS One 2018 18;13(12):e0206177. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

KEMRI/Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kilifi, Kenya.

Background: HIV-1 molecular epidemiology amongst men who have sex with men (MSM) in sub-Saharan Africa remains not well characterized. We aimed to determine HIV-1 subtype distribution, transmission clusters and transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in acute and early infected MSM from Coastal Kenya.

Methods: Analysis of HIV-1 partial pol sequences from MSM recruited 2005-2017 and sampled within six months of the estimated date of infection. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0206177PLOS
December 2018

Current and future priorities for the development of optimal HIV drugs.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of HIV and Global Hepatitis Programme, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Purpose Of Review: To summarize global efforts to accelerate access to simpler, safer and more affordable antiretroviral drugs and how this has shaped HIV treatment policy over the last decade, and outline future priorities. Several expert consultations aimed at aligning opportunities for optimization of antiretroviral drugs have been convened by WHO in partnership with academic institutions, international agencies, innovators and manufacturers. The increased access to lifelong treatment for people living with HIV also brings about new challenges in the long-term use of antiretrovirals (ARVs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000527DOI Listing
December 2018

Human cytomegalovirus-vectored vaccines against HIV.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

UNC HIV Cure Center.

Purpose Of Review: CMV-vectored vaccines expressing SIV antigens have mediated unprecedented levels of virus control following SIV challenge in rhesus macaques. Remarkably, protection was dependent on nonclassically restricted CD8 T cells. Here, we review the latest research in CMV-vectored vaccines in both humans and nonhuman primates as well as recent advances in the understanding nonclassically restricted T cells, particularly MHC-E-restricted CD8 T cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000524DOI Listing
December 2018

Integrative biomarkers of biologic aging in HIV.

AIDS 2019 Feb;33(2):345-347

Geriatrics Unit, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002064DOI Listing
February 2019

Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbones and pregnancy outcomes.

Authors:

AIDS 2019 Feb;33(2):295-304

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether specific nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbones are associated with risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes among pregnant women starting antiretroviral therapy (ART).

Design: Seven observational studies across eight European countries of pregnancies in HIV-positive women.

Methods: Individual-level data were pooled on singleton pregnancies conceived off-ART in which a single combination ART regimen was initiated at least 2 weeks before delivery, and ending in a live birth in 2008-2014. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002039DOI Listing
February 2019

HIV latency can be established in proliferating and nonproliferating resting CD4+ T cells in vitro: implications for latency reversal.

AIDS 2019 Feb;33(2):199-209

The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, University of Melbourne and Royal Melbourne Hospital.

Objective: To determine whether latency can be established and reversed in both proliferating and nonproliferating CD4 T cells in the same model in vitro.

Methods: Activated CD4 T cells were infected with either a nonreplication competent, luciferase reporter virus or wild-type full-length enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter virus and cultured for 12 days. The cells were then sorted by flow cytometry to obtain two distinct T-cell populations that did not express the T-cell activation markers, CD69, CD25 and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR: CD69CD25HLA-DR small cells (nonblasts) that had not proliferated in vitro following mitogen stimulation and CD69CD25HLA-DR large cells (which we here call transitional blasts) that had proliferated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002075DOI Listing
February 2019

Uptake and virological outcomes of single- versus multi-tablet antiretroviral regimens among treatment-naïve youth in the HIV Research Network.

HIV Med 2018 Dec 18. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Objectives: Several single-tablet regimens (STRs) are now available and are recommended for first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART); however, STR use for youth with HIV (YHIV) has not been systematically studied. We examined the characteristics associated with initiation of STRs versus multi-tablet regimens (MTRs) and the virological outcomes for youth with nonperinatally acquired HIV (nPHIV).

Methods: A retrospective cohort study of nPHIV youth aged 13-24 years initiating ART between 2006 and 2014 at 18 US HIV clinical sites in the HIV Research Network was performed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hiv.12695DOI Listing
December 2018

Role of western blot assay for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis in AIDS patients from a National Institute of Infectious Diseases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Mycoses 2018 Dec 18. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Instituto Nacional de Infectologia Evandro Chagas, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, 21045-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Background: Histoplasmosis is a frequent fungal infection in HIV/AIDS patients, with high morbimortality rates when diagnosis and treatment are delayed. Antibody detection, which is faster than the gold standard culture test, hasten the laboratory investigation.

Objectives: To evaluate the role of WB for antibody detection in the diagnosis of histoplasmosis among HIV/AIDS patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/myc.12877DOI Listing
December 2018

HIV-1 RNA Detected in the CNS after Years of Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy Can Originate from a Replicating CNS Reservoir or Clonally Expanded Cells.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Dec 18. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

UNC Center for AIDS Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Background: HIV-1 populations are detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of some people on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). Detailed analysis of these populations may reveal whether they are produced by central nervous system (CNS) reservoirs.

Methods: We performed a study of 101 asymptomatic participants on stable ART. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy1066DOI Listing
December 2018

Seminal Tenofovir Concentrations, Viral Suppression, and Semen Quality With Tenofovir Alafenamide Compared with Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (Spanish HIV/AIDS Research Network, PreEC/RIS 40).

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Dec 18. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

HIV and STI Unit, Department of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge-IDIBELL, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: This study assessed the penetration and efficacy of tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) in the male genital tract (MGT) and semen quality in HIV-1 infected individuals treated with a TAF-containing regimen.

Methods: Prospective, open-label, single-arm study including 14 virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected men on stable antiretroviral therapy with elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (E/C/F/TDF) switched to E/C/F/TAF). At baseline (pre-switch) and 12 weeks post-switch, we measured HIV-1 RNA in seminal plasma (SP) and blood plasma (BP), tenofovir (TFV) in SP and BP, and TFV-diphosphate (dp) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and seminal mononuclear cells (SMCs) at the end of the dosing interval (C24h). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy1074DOI Listing
December 2018

Visual Life Sciences Workflow Design using Distributed and Heterogeneous Resources.

IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Programming or querying usually presupposes some degree of technical familiarity with the syntax of a language and the peculiarity of the objects it manipulates to produce useful information. The degree of abstractions supported in a language helps lessen the depth of such familiarity needed, and aids in improving access to and usability of these resources. To help biologists concentrate more on their science questions and not on how to compute it, several successful workflow orchestration languages and systems have been proposed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCBB.2018.2886185DOI Listing
December 2018

Prescription of Antibacterial Drugs for HIV-Exposed, Uninfected Infants, Malawi, 2004-2010.

Emerg Infect Dis 2019 Jan;25(1)

Antimicrobial drug resistance is a serious health hazard driven by overuse. Administration of antimicrobial drugs to HIV-exposed, uninfected infants, a population that is growing and at high risk for infection, is poorly studied. We therefore analyzed factors associated with antibacterial drug administration to HIV-exposed, uninfected infants during their first year of life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2501.180782DOI Listing
January 2019

Perfusion MRI in treatment evaluation of glioblastomas: Clinical relevance of current and future techniques.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2019 Jan;49(1):11-22

Department of Radiology, Medical Imaging Center (MIC), University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Treatment evaluation of patients with glioblastomas is important to aid in clinical decisions. Conventional MRI with contrast is currently the standard method, but unable to differentiate tumor progression from treatment-related effects. Pseudoprogression appears as new enhancement, and thus mimics tumor progression on conventional MRI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.26306DOI Listing
January 2019

Advancing an HIV vaccine; advancing vaccinology.

Authors:
Dennis R Burton

Nat Rev Immunol 2018 Dec 18. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, the Scripps Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery (CHAVI-ID), International AIDS Vaccine Initiative Neutralizing Antibody Center, Scripps Research, La Jolla, CA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-018-0103-6DOI Listing
December 2018

Stunted scale-up of a performance-based financing program on HIV and maternal-child health services in Mozambique - a policy analysis.

Afr J AIDS Res 2018 Dec;17(4):353-361

a ThinkWell , Maputo , Mozambique.

Objective: A performance-based financing (PBF) program was implemented for services for HIV, prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and maternal/child health (MCH) in two provinces of Mozambique. This study investigates the determinants of policy scale-up to help accelerate the expansion of PBF in Mozambique and globally from pilot projects to national policies.

Methods: A retrospective policy programme analysis was carried out using in-depth key informant interviews. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/16085906.2018.1544574DOI Listing
December 2018

Health and AIDS in 2019 and beyond.

Afr J AIDS Res 2018 Dec;17(4):iii-v

c Global AIDS Program , World Bank , Washington DC , USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/16085906.2018.1550202DOI Listing
December 2018

Unpacking the practice of ukujola in contemporary South Africa: understanding informal/casual sexual relations of young African adults in the context of HIV and AIDS.

Afr J AIDS Res 2018 Dec;17(4):341-351

b DST/NRF SARChI Chair in Economic Development, School of Built Environment and Development Studies , University of KwaZulu-Natal , Durban , South Africa.

HIV and AIDS continue to pose a global health and development challenge, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. South Africa has the largest number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the world. In spite of the accelerated efforts to combat the HIV and AIDS epidemic, there still remains an unabated challenge, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/16085906.2018.1544573DOI Listing
December 2018

Validation of the Limiting Antigen Avidity Assay to Estimate Level and Trends in HIV Incidence in an A/D epidemic in Rakai, Uganda.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Dec 18. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 35037, Bethesda, Maryland, United States ;

Objective: The Limiting-Antigen Avidity Assay (LAg-Avidity) with viral load >1000 copies/ml is being used to estimate population-level HIV incidence in Africa. However, this has not been validated in East Africa where HIV-1 subtypes A and D circulate.

Methods: Sera from persons seen in two surveys (2008-09 and 2012-13) limited to those who attended the previous round of the Rakai Community Cohort in Uganda were analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0207DOI Listing
December 2018

HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance mutations in recently diagnosed antiretroviral-naive patients in Belém, Pará, Northern of Brazil.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Dec 18. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Universidade Federal do Pará, Laboratório de Virologia , Rua Augusto Correa 1 , Belem, Para, Brazil , 66075-110.

The transmission of antiretroviral resistant HIV strains may jeopardize the success of early antiretroviral treatment among recent HIV infected patients. This study aimed to identify subtypes of HIV-1 and transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRM) in Belém, Pará, Amazon Region of Brazil. The HIV-1 protease and partial reverse transcriptase regions of 40 antiretroviral therapy-naive people living with HIV were sequenced and viral subtypes were assigned. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0169DOI Listing
December 2018

Pretreatment HIV drug resistance and virologic outcomes to first-line antiretroviral therapy in Peru.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Dec 18. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Seattle Childrens Research Institute, Pediatrics , 1900 - 9th Ave , Seattle, Washington, United States , 98101 ;

Background: Access to nucleoside and non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor (NRTI and NNRTI) first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) for human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV) has been increasing in Peru since a national ART program was initiated in 2004. Between 2007-2009, we found a 1% prevalence of pre-ART HIV drug-resistance (PDR) among antiretroviral (ARV)-naïve Peruvians. Given that PDR has been associated with virologic failure (VF) of ART, in 2014-15 we enrolled a follow-up cohort at the same institution to determine whether the rate of TDR had increased and compared virologic outcomes of those with and without PDR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0239DOI Listing
December 2018

Field performance of PIMA Point-of-Care Machine for CD4 Enumeration Under a Mobile HIV Counseling and Testing Program in Remote Fishing Communities of Lake Victoria, Uganda.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Dec 18. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Makerere University College of Health Sciences, 58589, School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Immunology and Molecular Biology, Kampala, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: Uganda is among the most HIV/AIDS afflicted countries, and many HIV infected persons live in remote areas with poor access to healthcare. The success of HIV care programs relies in part on patient monitoring using CD4 T cell counts. We conducted an evaluation of the point-of-care PIMA test using BD FACSCount as a gold standard. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0223DOI Listing
December 2018

Evaluation of Two HIV Rapid Diagnostic Tests in a Context of Strains' Genetic Diversity in Mali.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Dec 18. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, INSERM, Institut Pierre Louis d'Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique (IPLESP UMRS 1136), PARIS, France ;

The rapid diagnostic tests used in most resource-limited countries offer little specificity in the differentiation of HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1 + 2. World Health Organization (WHO) does periodically evaluate rapid tests in use in the South Countries. Despite the pre-qualification from WHO, it is necessary at local level to conduct comparative studies between the available tests. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2017.0296DOI Listing
December 2018

Biomarker-Measured Unhealthy Alcohol Use in Relation to CD4 Count Among Individuals Starting ART in Sub-Saharan Africa.

AIDS Behav 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco, CA, USA.

Individuals are initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) at earlier HIV disease stages. Unhealthy alcohol use is a known barrier to successful HIV treatment outcomes, yet it is unclear whether the problem varies by disease stage. We measured alcohol use with an objective biomarker (phosphatidylethanol [PEth]), comparing individuals (n = 401) with early (CD4 > 350 cells/mL, WHO Stage 1) versus late (CD4 < 200 cells/mL) ART initiation in HIV care in Uganda and South Africa (SA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-018-2364-2DOI Listing
December 2018

Evaluating Physicians' Intention to Discriminate Against Patients Living with HIV in Malaysia.

AIDS Behav 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Centre of Excellence for Research in AIDS, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

People with HIV (PWH) in Malaysia experience high levels of stigma, which may act as a barrier to accessing healthcare. Stigma against PWH in medical settings is understudied in Malaysia. In the present study, we examine factors associated with physicians' intention to discriminate against PWH in Malaysia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-018-2362-4DOI Listing
December 2018

Gut Microbiome, Short-Chain Fatty Acids, and Mucosa Injury in Young Adults with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

Dig Dis Sci 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Institute of Dermatology, Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences and Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, School of Medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, 32 Xier Section, Yihuan Road, Qingyang District, Chengdu, 610072, Sichuan, China.

Background: HIV progression is characterized by immune activation and microbial translocation from the gut. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are essential for gut homeostasis. Decreased intestinal SCFAs play a role in rapid HIV progression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-018-5428-2DOI Listing
December 2018

Immersive Anatomy Atlas-Empirical Study Investigating the Usability of a Virtual Reality Environment as a Learning Tool for Anatomy.

Front Surg 2018 30;5:73. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Computer Science, Computer Graphics and Virtual Reality, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.

We developed a prototype of a virtual, immersive, and interactive anatomy atlas for surgical anatomical training. The aim of this study was to test the usability of the VR anatomy atlas and to measure differences in knowledge acquirement between an immersive content delivery medium and conventional learning (OB). Twenty-eight students of the 11th grade of two german high schools randomly divided into two groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2018.00073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6284347PMC
November 2018

Severe hypercalcemia in a patient with extrapulmonary : granuloma or immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome? First case of presenting as retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy with severe hypercalcemia: a case report and literature review.

J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect 2018 11;8(6):331-338. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Medicine Department, Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Interfaith Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA.

Nontuberculous mycobacterium is a recognized cause of hypercalcemia, particularly in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Here we describe a case of severe hypercalcemia secondary to () in a patient with AIDS. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case report describing a case of presenting as retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy and severe hypercalcemia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20009666.2018.1539057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6292348PMC
December 2018

Enhanced astrocyte responses are driven by a genetic risk allele associated with multiple sclerosis.

Nat Commun 2018 Dec 17;9(1):5337. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Neurology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, 06511, USA.

Epigenetic annotation studies of genetic risk variants for multiple sclerosis (MS) implicate dysfunctional lymphocytes in MS susceptibility; however, the role of central nervous system (CNS) cells remains unclear. We investigated the effect of the risk variant, rs7665090, located near NFKB1, on astrocytes. We demonstrated that chromatin is accessible at the risk locus, a prerequisite for its impact on astroglial function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-07785-8DOI Listing
December 2018

Disparate impact on CD4 T cell count by two distinct HIV-1 phylogenetic clusters from the same clade.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, 102206 Beijing, China;

HIV-1 evolved into various genetic subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) in the global epidemic. The same subtype or CRF is usually considered to have similar phenotype. Being one of the world's major CRFs, CRF01_AE infection was reported to associate with higher prevalence of CXCR4 (X4) viruses and faster CD4 decline. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1814714116DOI Listing
December 2018

Father-Son Communication About Consistent and Correct Condom Use.

Pediatrics 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Division of Reproductive Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

: media-1vid15852345835001PEDS-VA_2018-1609 OBJECTIVES: With this study, we explore communication about consistent and correct condom use among African American and Latino male adolescents ages 15 to 19 and their fathers.

Methods: Twenty-five father-son dyads completed semistructured interviews designed to elicit specific preferences for teaching and learning about consistent and correct condom use and strategies for addressing common condom use errors and problems. For analysis, we used in vivo coding and vertical and horizontal analysis techniques. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-1609DOI Listing
December 2018

Relative contributions of auditory and cognitive functions on speech recognition in quiet and in noise among older adults.

Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Kuliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences International Islamic University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Introduction: Hearing acuity, central auditory processing and cognition contribute to the speech recognition difficulty experienced by older adults. Therefore, quantifying the contribution of these factors on speech recognition problem is important in order to formulate a holistic and effective rehabilitation.

Objective: To examine the relative contributions of auditory functioning and cognition status to speech recognition in quiet and in noise. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjorl.2018.10.010DOI Listing
December 2018

8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol inhibited proliferation and disturbed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and antigen-presenting genes in murine macrophages.

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

College of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, China. Electronic address:

Fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs, F(CF)CHCHOH) are members of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and are increasingly used in surfactant and polymer industries. FTOHs pose hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and endocrine-disrupting risks. Nevertheless, there is limited research on the immunotoxic effects of FTOHs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.12.091DOI Listing
December 2018

Causes of death and predictors of childhood mortality in Rwanda: a matched case-control study using verbal social autopsy.

BMC Public Health 2018 Dec 17;18(1):1378. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Partners In Health/Inshuti Mu Buzima, Rwinkwavu, Rwanda.

Background: Rwanda has dramatically reduced child mortality, but the causes and sociodemographic drivers for mortality are poorly understood.

Methods: We conducted a matched case-control study of all children who died before 5 years of age in eastern Rwanda between 1st March 2013 and 28th February 2014 to identify causes and risk factors for death. We identified deaths at the facility level and via a community health worker reporting system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-6282-zDOI Listing
December 2018

Sexual risk among Colombian adolescents: knowledge, attitudes, normative beliefs, perceived control, intention, and sexual behavior.

BMC Public Health 2018 Dec 17;18(1):1377. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Universidad Miguel Hernández, Elche, Spain.

Background: Colombia has one of the highest rates of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and pregnancies - both of which are influenced by lack of condom use -, among adolescent population in Latin America; however, the mechanisms underlying the inconsistent use of condoms in this population are poorly understood. This descriptive and cross-sectional study's purpose was to examine sexual behavior and its precursors using the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and considering gender-based differences. Another objective was to study the mediating effect of intention in the relationship between behavior precursors and condom use based on the TPB. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-6311-yDOI Listing
December 2018

Pilot study of decision support tools on breast cancer chemoprevention for high-risk women and healthcare providers in the primary care setting.

BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2018 Dec 17;18(1):134. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Columbia University, Mailman School of Public Health, 622 West 168th Street, PH-20, New York, NY, 10032, USA.

Background: Breast cancer chemoprevention can reduce breast cancer incidence in high-risk women; however, chemoprevention is underutilized in the primary care setting. We conducted a pilot study of decision support tools among high-risk women and their primary care providers (PCPs).

Methods: The intervention included a decision aid (DA) for high-risk women, RealRisks, and a provider-centered tool, Breast Cancer Risk Navigation (BNAV). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12911-018-0716-5DOI Listing
December 2018

Prevalence and associated factors of treatment failure among HIV/AIDS patients on HAART attending University of Gondar Referral Hospital Northwest Ethiopia.

BMC Immunol 2018 Dec 17;19(1):37. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Departhement of Medical Microbiology college of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: The initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) plays a significant role in the clinical management of HIV infected people by preventing morbidity and mortality. This benefit becomes, the most terrible when treatment failure develops. Thus, this research aims to assess the prevalence and associated factors of treatment failure among HIV/AIDS patients on HAART attending University of Gondar Referral Hospital Northwest Ethiopia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12865-018-0278-4DOI Listing
December 2018

Prevalence and associated risk factors for Kaposi's sarcoma among HIV-positive patients in a referral hospital in Northern Tanzania: a retrospective hospital-based study.

BMC Cancer 2018 Dec 17;18(1):1258. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, P.O Box 2236, Moshi, Tanzania.

Background: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a multifocal angioproliferative tumor involving blood and lymphatic vessels, caused by Human Herpes Virus-8 (HHV-8). KS is an important AIDS-defining tumor with high prevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa, including Tanzania which has high HIV and HHV-8 sero-prevalence. It is critically important to monitor the prevalence of AIDS-defining tumors, such as KS, in the age of HIV/AIDS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-018-5155-2DOI Listing
December 2018

Novel compound heterozygous ATP6V1B1 mutations in a Chinese child patient with primary distal renal tubular acidosis: a case report.

BMC Nephrol 2018 Dec 17;19(1):364. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Central Laboratory, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, 1677 Wutaishan Road, Qingdao, 266555, China.

Background: Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. Autosomal recessive dRTA is usually caused by mutations occurring in ATP6V1B1 and ATP6V0A4 genes,encoding subunits B1 and a4 of apical H-ATPase, respectively. The heterogeneous clinical manifestations of dRTA have been described in different ethnic groups harboring distinct mutations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-018-1173-1DOI Listing
December 2018

Associations of food insecurity and psychosocial measures with diet quality in adults aging with HIV.

AIDS Care 2018 Dec 17:1-9. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

c Department of Infectious Diseases , The University of Alabama at Birmingham , Birmingham, Alabama , United States.

People aging with HIV face social stressors which may negatively affect their overall nutrition. Here, we assess relationships between self-reported measures of depression, perceived stress, social support, and food insecurity with diet quality in older adults with HIV. A retrospective analysis of self-reported data from parent study at The University of Alabama at Birmingham 1917 HIV Clinic was performed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2018.1554239DOI Listing
December 2018

Complete remission of both immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis and psoriasis after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Dec;97(50):e13589

National Clinical Research Center of Kidney Diseases, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Rationale: Immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (AL amyloidosis) is characterized by the deposition of abnormal amyloid protein produced by a pathological plasma cell clone in various organs and soft tissues. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an effective way to treat AL amyloidosis. Psoriasis is a common autoimmune disease (AID) and HSCT is a potential treatment for severe AIDs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000013589DOI Listing
December 2018

Adherence, virological outcome, and drug resistance in Chinese HIV patients receiving first-line antiretroviral therapy from 2011 to 2015.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Dec;97(50):e13555

State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention (NCAIDS), Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC), Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Beijing.

Stavudine (D4T), zidovudine (AZT), and tenofovir (TDF) along with lamivudine (3TC) are the most widely used HIV treatment regimens in China. China's National Free Antiretroviral Treatment Programme (NFATP) has replaced D4T with AZT or TDF in the standard first-line regimens since 2010. Few studies have evaluated the adherence, virological outcome, and drug resistance in HIV patients receiving first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) from 2011 to 2015 due to changes in ART regimen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000013555DOI Listing
December 2018

Primary Human Neutrophils Exhibit a Unique HIV-Directed Antibody-Dependent Phagocytosis Profile.

J Innate Immun 2018 Dec 17:1-10. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

The only clinical HIV vaccine trial to demonstrate efficacy, RV144, correlated protection with the antibodies (Abs) mediating function via the "constant" immunoglobulin region, the crystallizable fragment (Fc). These data have supported a focus on the induction of Abs by vaccines that trigger antiviral activities by relevant leukocytes via Fc receptors (FcRs). Neutrophils are phagocytes that comprise > 50% of leukocytes and display unique FcRs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000494371DOI Listing
December 2018
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Smoking cessation in the context of recovery from drug and alcohol problems: Prevalence, predictors, and cohort effects in a national U.S. sample.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2018 Dec 8;195:6-12. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Recovery Research Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 151 Merrimac Street, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.

Background: Tobacco and alcohol and other drug (AOD) use remain prominent risk factors for morbidity, mortality, and health care utilization. Moreover, these often cluster together within persons, exponentiating health risks. Little is known regarding if and when people resolving AOD problems stop smoking, who stops, and whether recent general population trends toward smoking cessation are evident also among persons more recently entering recovery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.11.017DOI Listing
December 2018

Disclosure of HIV serostatus and condomless sex among men living with HIV/AIDS in Florida.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0207838. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Epidemiology, College of Medicine and College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States of America.

Despite campaigns to increase safer sex practices, there are people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) who do not disclose their HIV status to sexual partners and engage in condomless sex. The purpose of this research was to: 1) describe factors associated with disclosure of HIV status to sexual partners; and 2) determine if disclosure and/or receipt of prevention counseling are independently associated with condomless sex. We used the Florida Medical Monitoring Project to analyze data from 376 HIV positive men with more than one sexual partner. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0207838PLOS
December 2018

HIV screening among patients seeking care at Xuanwu Hospital: A cross-sectional study in Beijing, China, 2011-2016.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208008. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

Objectives: One-third of people living with HIV in China are still unaware of their status, so we sought to better understand HIV testing in the general hospital setting in China.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using the electronic medical records of all patients who attended Xuanwu Hospital in Beijing, January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2016. HIV screening and detection rates and characteristics of patients diagnosed with HIV were assessed. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0208008PLOS
December 2018

Voluntary medical male circumcision service delivery in South Africa: The economic costs and potential opportunity for private sector involvement.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208698. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Project SOAR (Supporting Operational AIDS Research), Avenir Health, Washington, DC, United States of America.

Background: In 2010, the South African Government initiated a voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) program as a part of the country's HIV prevention strategy based on compelling evidence that VMMC reduces men's risk of becoming HIV infected by approximately 60%. A previous VMMC costing study at Government and PEPFAR-supported facilities noted that the lack of sufficient data from the private sector represented a gap in knowledge concerning the overall cost of scaling up VMMC services. This study, conducted in mid-2016, focused on surgical circumcision and aims to address this limitation. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0208698PLOS
December 2018

The adjuvant AlhydroGel elicits higher antibody titres than AddaVax when combined with HIV-1 subtype C gp140 from CAP256.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208310. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Science, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

With the HIV-1 epidemic in southern Africa still rising, a prophylactic vaccine against the region's most prolific subtype (subtype C) would be a significant step forward. In this paper we report on the effect of 2 different adjuvants, AddaVax and AlhydroGel, formulated with HIV-1 subtype C gp140, on the development of binding and neutralising antibody titres in rabbits. AddaVax is a squalene-based oil-in-water nano-emulsion (similar to MF59) which can enhance both cellular and humoral immune responses, whilst AlhydroGel (aluminium hydroxide gel) mainly drives a Th2 response. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0208310PLOS
December 2018