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    486 results match your criteria AIDS Research and Therapy[Journal]

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    Linking gender, extramarital affairs, and HIV: a mixed methods study on contextual determinants of extramarital affairs in rural Tanzania.
    AIDS Res Ther 2018 Jun 7;15(1):12. Epub 2018 Jun 7.
    Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH), Basel, Switzerland.
    Background: Extramarital sex is a potential driver of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission for long-term couples in sub-Saharan Africa. It is increasingly recognized that preventing sexual risk behaviours requires an understanding and adjustment of sexual relationship factors beyond the individual level. We investigated the association between extramarital affairs and HIV status, factors associated with extramarital affairs, and created insights in the context and pathways for married men and women in rural Tanzania who engage in extramarital affairs. Read More

    Risk factors and outcomes for the Q151M and T69 insertion HIV-1 resistance mutations in historic UK data.
    AIDS Res Ther 2018 Apr 16;15(1):11. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    High Containment Microbiology, Public Health England, Salisbury, UK.
    Background: The prevalence of HIV-1 resistance to antiretroviral therapies (ART) has declined in high-income countries over recent years, but drug resistance remains a substantial concern in many low and middle-income countries. The Q151M and T69 insertion (T69i) resistance mutations in the viral reverse transcriptase gene can reduce susceptibility to all nucleoside/tide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors, motivating the present study to investigate the risk factors and outcomes associated with these mutations.

    Methods: We considered all data in the UK HIV Drug Resistance Database for blood samples obtained in the period 1997-2014. Read More

    Predictors of switch to and early outcomes on third-line antiretroviral therapy at a large public-sector clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa.
    AIDS Res Ther 2018 Apr 10;15(1):10. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Health Economics and Epidemiology Research Office, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Background: While efficacy data exist, there are limited data on the outcomes of patients on third-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa in actual practice. Being able to identify predictors of switch to third-line ART will be essential for planning for future need. We identify predictors of switch to third-line ART among patients with significant viraemia on a protease inhibitor (PI)-based second-line ART regimen. Read More

    Multivariate analysis of covariates of adherence among HIV-positive mothers with low viral suppression.
    AIDS Res Ther 2018 Mar 31;15(1). Epub 2018 Mar 31.
    United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Kampala, Uganda.
    Background: As part of efforts to improve the prevention of mother-to-child transmission in Northern Uganda, we explored reasons for poor viral suppression among 122 pregnant and lactating women who were in care, received viral load tests, but had not achieved viral suppression and had more than 1000 copies/mL. Understanding the patient factors associated with low viral suppression was of interest to the Ministry of Health to guide the development of tools and interventions to achieve viral suppression for pregnant and lactating women newly initiating on ART as well as those on ART with unsuppressed viral load.

    Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional and mixed methods study design was used, with retrospective medical record review. Read More

    Social-support needs among adolescents living with HIV in transition from pediatric to adult care in Cambodia: findings from a cross-sectional study.
    AIDS Res Ther 2018 Mar 28;15(1). Epub 2018 Mar 28.
    KHANA Center for Population Health Research, No. 33, Street 71, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    Background: Understanding the circumstances of adolescents living with HIV is critical in designing adolescent-friendly services that will facilitate successful transition from pediatric to adult care. This study describes access, utilization and ongoing social support needs among adolescents living with HIV aged 15-17 in transition from pediatric to adult HIV care in Cambodia.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 328 adolescents, randomly selected from 11 antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics across the country. Read More

    Effects of HIV infection and ART on phenotype and function of circulating monocytes, natural killer, and innate lymphoid cells.
    AIDS Res Ther 2018 Mar 15;15(1). Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    Department of Medicine, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda.
    HIV infection causes upregulation of markers of inflammation, immune activation and apoptosis of host adaptive, and innate immune cells particularly monocytes, natural killer (NK) and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) restores CD4 T-cell counts, the persistent aberrant activation of monocytes, NK and ILCs observed likely contributes to the incomplete recovery of T-cell effector functions. A better understanding of the effects of HIV infection and ART on the phenotype and function of circulating monocytes, NK, and ILCs is required to guide development of novel therapeutic interventions to optimize immune recovery. Read More

    Non-AIDS complexity amongst patients living with HIV in Sydney: risk factors and health outcomes.
    AIDS Res Ther 2018 Mar 8;15(1). Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Objective: To assess the prevalence of non-AIDS co-morbidities (NACs) and predictors of adverse health outcomes amongst people living with HIV in order to identify health needs and potential gaps in patient management.

    Design: Retrospective, non-consecutive medical record audit of patients attending a publicly funded HIV clinic in metropolitan Sydney analysed for predictors of adverse health outcomes. We developed a scoring system based on the validated Charlson score method for NACs, mental health and social issues and confounders were selected using directed acyclic graph theory under the principles of causal inference. Read More

    Prognostic indicators in the World Health Organization's algorithm for seriously ill HIV-infected inpatients with suspected tuberculosis.
    AIDS Res Ther 2018 Feb 12;15(1). Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, UCT Faculty of Health Sciences, Anzio Road, Observatory, Cape Town, 7925, South Africa.
    Background: Criteria for the 2007 WHO algorithm for diagnosing tuberculosis among HIV-infected seriously ill patients are the presence of one or more danger signs (respiratory rate > 30/min, heart rate > 120/min, temperature > 39 °C, and being unable to walk unaided) and cough ≥ 14 days. Determining predictors of poor outcomes among HIV-infected inpatients presenting with WHO danger signs could result in improved treatment and diagnostic algorithms.

    Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of inpatients presenting with any duration of cough and WHO danger signs to two regional hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa. Read More

    Quality improvement as a framework for behavior change interventions in HIV-predisposed communities: a case of adolescent girls and young women in northern Uganda.
    AIDS Res Ther 2018 Jan 25;15(1). Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Kampala, Uganda.
    Background: Despite the conventional approaches to HIV prevention being the bedrock for early reductions in HIV infections in Uganda, innovations that demonstrate reduction in risk to infection in vulnerable populations need to be embraced urgently. In the past 2 years, a USAID-funded project tested a quality improvement for behavior change model (QBC) to address barriers to behavioral change among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) at high risk of HIV infection. The model comprised skills building to improve ability of AGYW to stop risky behavior; setting up and empowering community quality improvement (QI) teams to mobilize community resources to support AGYW to stop risky behavior; and service delivery camps to provide HIV prevention services and commodities to AGYW and other community members. Read More

    Prevalence of lower limb deep venous thrombosis among adult HIV positive patients attending an outpatient clinic at Mulago Hospital.
    AIDS Res Ther 2018 Jan 25;15(1). Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    Prevention Care Treatment, Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI), Kampala, Uganda.
    Background: Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and its major complication pulmonary embolism (PE) are collectively known as venous thromboembolism. In Uganda, the prevalence of DVT among HIV patients has not been previously published. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and sonographic features of lower limb deep venous thrombosis among HIV positive patients on anti-retroviral treatment (ART). Read More

    Geographic patterns of poor HIV/AIDS care continuum in District of Columbia.
    AIDS Res Ther 2018 Jan 24;15(1). Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Strategic Information Division, HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis, STD and TB Administration (HAHSTA), District of Columbia Department of Health, Government of the District of Columbia, 899 North Capitol St., NE/Fourth Floor, Washington, DC, 20002, USA.
    Background: Concurrent with the UNAIDS 90-90-90 and NHAS plans, the District of Columbia (DC) launched its 90/90/90/50 plan (Plan) in 2015. The Plan proposes that by 2020, 90% of all DC residents will know their HIV status; 90% of residents living with HIV will be in sustained treatment; 90% of those in treatment will reach "Viral Suppression" and DC will achieve 50% reduction of new HIV cases. To achieve these goals targeted prevention strategies are imperative for areas where the relative risk (RR) of not being linked to care (NL), not retained in any care (NRC) and low viral suppression (NVSP) are highest in the District. Read More

    Mental health service utilization is associated with retention in care among persons living with HIV at a university-affiliated HIV clinic.
    AIDS Res Ther 2018 Jan 16;15(1). Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 845 19th St. South, Birmingham, AL, 35294, USA.
    Background: Mental health (MH) comorbidities reduce retention in care for persons living with HIV (PLWH) and are associated with poor health outcomes. Optimizing retention in primary care is vital, as poor retention is associated with delayed receipt of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, ARV non-adherence, and poor health outcomes, including failure to suppress viral load, decreased CD4 counts, and clinically significant ARV drug resistance. We hypothesized that MH service utilization would be associated with improved retention in care for patients with HIV and MH comorbidities. Read More

    A cluster randomized controlled trial of lay health worker support for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) in South Africa.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Dec 16;14(1):61. Epub 2017 Dec 16.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.
    Background: We evaluate the impact of clinic-based PMTCT community support by trained lay health workers in addition to standard clinical care on PMTCT infant outcomes.

    Methods: In a cluster randomized controlled trial, twelve community health centers (CHCs) in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, were randomized to have pregnant women living with HIV receive either: a standard care (SC) condition plus time-equivalent attention-control on disease prevention (SC; 6 CHCs; n  = 357), or an enhanced intervention (EI) condition of SC PMTCT plus the "Protect Your Family" intervention (EI; 6 CHCs; n  = 342). HIV-infected pregnant women in the SC attended four antenatal and two postnatal video sessions and those in the EI, four antenatal and two postnatal PMTCT plus "Protect Your Family" sessions led by trained lay health workers. Read More

    Hospitalization causes and outcomes in HIV patients in the late antiretroviral era in Colombia.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Nov 13;14(1):60. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    School of Health Sciences, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Carrera 44 # 18-56, Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia.
    Background: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has modified the natural history of HIV-infection: the incidence of opportunistic infections (OIs) has decreased and mortality associated to HIV has improved dramatically. The reasons for hospitalization have changed; OIs are no longer the most common reason for admission. This study describes the patient population, admission diagnosis and hospital course of HIV patients in Colombia in the ART era. Read More

    HIV treatment simplification to elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir disproxil fumarate (E/C/F/TDF) plus darunavir: a pharmacokinetic study.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Nov 2;14(1):59. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Background: As a simplification strategy for treatment-experienced HIV-infected patients who have achieved virologic suppression on a multi-drug, multi-class antiretroviral regimen, the aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of once-daily elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir disproxil fumarate (E/C/F/TDF) with darunavir.

    Methods: A single arm, open-label 48-week study was conducted of regimen simplification to E/C/F/TDF plus darunavir 800 mg daily from stable therapy including two nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor, and an integrase inhibitor. Participants had plasma HIV viral load consistently < 200 copies/mL for ≥ 6 months, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 60 mL/min, and no genotypic resistance to major components of the study regimen. Read More

    Drug resistance patterns following pharmacy stock shortage in Nigerian Antiretroviral Treatment Program.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Oct 13;14(1):58. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Department of Immunology & Infectious Diseases, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, 651 Huntington Avenue, FXB 405, Boston, 02115, MA, USA.
    Background: For patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART), treatment interruptions can impact patient outcomes and result in the accumulation of drug resistance mutations leading to virologic failure. There are minimal published data on the impact of an ART stock shortage on development of drug resistance mutations (DRMs). In this report, we evaluate data from patients enrolled in the Government of Nigeria National ART Program that were receiving treatment at the time of a national drug shortage in late 2003. Read More

    The role of the glycosyl moiety of myricetin derivatives in anti-HIV-1 activity in vitro.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Oct 12;14(1):57. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Laboratorio de Virología Molecular, Centro de Microbiología y Biología Celular, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Caracas, Venezuela.
    Background: Plant extracts are sources of valuable compounds with biological activity, especially for the anti-proliferative activity against pathogens or tumor cells. Myricetin is a flavonoid found in several plants that has been described as an inhibitor of Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) through its action against the HIV reverse transcriptase, but myricetin derivatives have not been fully studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-HIV-1 activity of glycosylated metabolites obtained from Marcetia taxifolia and derived from myricetin: myricetin rhamnoside and myricetin 3-(6-rhamnosylgalactoside). Read More

    Validation of a questionnaire to monitor symptoms in HIV-infected patients during hepatitis C treatment.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 20;14(1):56. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Department of Medicine-Owen Clinic, University of California at San Diego, 200 W. Arbor Drive, San Diego, CA, 92103-8681, USA.
    Background: Clinicians are incorporating patient-reported outcomes in the management of HIV-infected persons co-infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), but there are no validated inventories to monitor symptoms of patients during HCV therapy.

    Design: Five-year retrospective cohort analysis of persons living with HIV (PLWH) treated for HCV.

    Methods: The HCV symptom-inventory (HCV-SI) was administered before, during, and after HCV treatment. Read More

    Preventing HIV infection without targeting the virus: how reducing HIV target cells at the genital tract is a new approach to HIV prevention.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):46. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Manitoba, 539-745 Bannnatyne Avenue, Winnipeg, MB, R2N 1V3, Canada.
    For over three decades, HIV infection has had a tremendous impact on the lives of individuals and public health. Microbicides and vaccines studies have shown that immune activation at the genital tract is a risk factor for HIV infection. Furthermore, lower level of immune activation, or what we call immune quiescence, has been associated with a lower risk of HIV acquisition. Read More

    HIV-I Nef inhibitors: a novel class of HIV-specific immune adjuvants in support of a cure.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):53. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, The University of Western Ontario, Dental Sciences Building, Room 3007J, London, ON, N6A 5C1, Canada.
    The success of many current vaccines relies on a formulation that incorporates an immune activating adjuvant. This will hold true for the design of a successful therapeutic HIV vaccine targeted at controlling reactivated virus following cessation of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). The HIV accessory protein Nef functions by interfering with HIV antigen presentation through the major histocompatibility complex I (MHC-I) pathway thereby suppressing CD8 cytotoxic T cell (CTL)-mediated killing of HIV infected cells. Read More

    Evasion of adaptive immunity by HIV through the action of host APOBEC3G/F enzymes.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):44. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Program in Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Division of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NF, A1B 3V6, Canada.
    APOBEC3G (A3G) and APOBEC3F (A3F) are DNA-mutating enzymes expressed in T cells, dendritic cells and macrophages. A3G/F have been considered innate immune host factors, based on reports that they lethally mutate the HIV genome in vitro. In vivo, A3G/F effectiveness is limited by viral proteins, entrapment in inactive complexes and filtration of mutations during viral life cycle. Read More

    Potential contribution of gut microbiota and systemic inflammation on HIV vaccine effectiveness and vaccine design.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):48. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada.
    The quest for an effective HIV-1 vaccine began as soon as the virus causing AIDS was identified. After several disappointing attempts, results of the Phase-III RV144 trial in Thailand were a beacon of hope for the field demonstrating correlation between protection and immunological markers. In order to optimize vaccine response, we underline results from yellow fever and hepatitis B vaccines, where protective responses were predicted by the pre-vaccination level of immune activation in healthy individuals. Read More

    Natural killer (NK) cell receptor-HLA ligand genotype combinations associated with protection from HIV infection: investigation of how protective genotypes influence anti HIV NK cell functions.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):38. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (RI-MUHC), Montreal, QC, Canada.
    The anti-HIV activity of natural killer (NK) cells could be induced fast enough to potentially prevent the establishment of HIV infection. Epidemiological studies identified two genotypes encoding NK receptors that contribute to NK cell function, that were more frequent in people who remained uninfected despite multiple HIV exposures than in HIV-susceptible subjects. NK cells from carriers of the *h/*y+B*57 genotype have higher NK cell functional potential and inhibit HIV replication in autologous HIV-infected CD4+ T cells (iCD4) more potently than those from carriers of non-protective genotypes. Read More

    The biology of how circumcision reduces HIV susceptibility: broader implications for the prevention field.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):49. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Medical Sciences Building, Room #6356, 1 King's College Circle, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A8, Canada.
    Circumcision reduces heterosexual HIV-1 acquisition in men by at least 60%. However, the biological mechanisms by which circumcision is protective remain incompletely understood. We test the hypothesis that the sub-preputial microenvironment created by the foreskin drives immune activation in adjacent foreskin tissues, facilitating HIV-1 infection through a combination of epithelial barrier disruption, enhanced dendritic cell maturation, and the recruitment/activation of neutrophils and susceptible CD4 T cell subsets such as Th17 cells. Read More

    Role of sex hormones and the vaginal microbiome in susceptibility and mucosal immunity to HIV-1 in the female genital tract.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):39. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster Immunology Research Centre, McMaster University, MDCL Room 4014, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1, Canada.
    While the prevalence of Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection has stabilized globally, it continues to be the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age. The majority of new infections are transmitted heterosexually, and women have consistently been found to be more susceptible to HIV-1 infection during heterosexual intercourse compared to men. This emphasizes the need for a deeper understanding of how the microenvironment in the female genital tract (FGT) could influence HIV-1 acquisition. Read More

    Development of targeted adjuvants for HIV-1 vaccines.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):43. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Clinical Sciences Division, University of Toronto, Room 6352, Medical Sciences Building, 1 King's College Circle, Toronto, ON, M5S1A8, Canada.
    Finding new adjuvants is an integrated component of the efforts in developing an effective HIV-1 vaccine. Compared with traditional adjuvants, a modern adjuvant in the context of HIV-1 prevention would elicit a durable and potent memory response from B cells, CD8 T cells, and NK cells but avoid overstimulation of HIV-1 susceptible CD4 T cells, especially at genital and rectal mucosa, the main portals for HIV-1 transmission. We briefly review recent advances in the studies of such potential targeted adjuvants, focusing on three classes of molecules that we study: TNFSF molecules, TLRs agonists, and NODs agonists. Read More

    RNA flow cytometric FISH for investigations into HIV immunology, vaccination and cure strategies.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):40. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Research Centre of the Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CRCHUM), and Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada.
    Despite the tremendous success of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) no current treatment can eradicate latent HIV reservoirs from HIV-infected individuals or generate, effective HIV-specific immunity. Technological limitations have hampered the identification and characterization of both HIV-infected cells and HIV-specific responses in clinical samples directly ex vivo. RNA-flow cytometric fluorescence in situ hybridisation (RNA Flow-FISH) is a powerful technique, which enables detection of mRNAs in conjunction with proteins at a single-cell level. Read More

    Eradication of HIV-1 latent reservoirs through therapeutic vaccination.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):45. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 5C1, Canada.
    Despite the significant success of combination anti-retroviral therapy to reduce HIV viremia and save lives, HIV-1 infection remains a lifelong infection that must be appropriately managed. Advances in the understanding of the HIV infection process and insights from vaccine development in other biomedical fields such as cancer, imaging, and genetic engineering have fueled rapid advancements in HIV cure research. In the last few years, several studies have focused on the development of "Kick and Kill" therapies to reverse HIV latency and kick start viral translational activity. Read More

    Development of an anti-HIV vaccine eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):50. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.
    The extreme HIV diversity posts a great challenge on development of an effective anti-HIV vaccine. To solve this problem, it is crucial to discover an appropriate immunogens and strategies that are able to prevent the transmission of the diverse viruses that are circulating in the world. Even though there have been a number of broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies (bNAbs) been discovered in recent years, induction of such antibodies to date has only been observed in HIV-1 infection. Read More

    Development of an HIV vaccine using a vesicular stomatitis virus vector expressing designer HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins to enhance humoral responses.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):55. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Western University, London, Canada.
    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), like many other Rhabdoviruses, have become the focus of intense research over the past couple of decades based on their suitability as vaccine vectors, transient gene delivery systems, and as oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy. VSV as a vaccine vector platform has multiple advantages over more traditional viral vectors including low level, non-pathogenic replication in diverse cell types, ability to induce both humoral and cell-mediate immune responses, and the remarkable expression of foreign proteins cloned into multiple intergenic sites in the VSV genome. The utility and safety of VSV as a vaccine vector was recently demonstrated near the end of the recent Ebola outbreak in West Africa where VSV pseudotyped with the Ebola virus (EBOV) glycoprotein was proven safe in humans and provided protective efficacy against EBOV in a human phase III clinical trial. Read More

    Unlocking HIV-1 Env: implications for antibody attack.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):42. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Centre de Recherche du CHUM (CRCHUM), 900 St-Denis Street, Tour Viger, Montréal, QC, H2X 0A9, Canada.
    Collective evidence supporting a role of Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC) in controlling HIV-1 transmission and disease progression emerged in the last few years. Non-neutralizing antibodies (nnAbs) recognizing conserved CD4-induced epitopes on Env and able to mediate potent ADCC against HIV-1-infected cells exposing Env in its CD4-bound conformation have been shown to be present in some RV144 vaccinees and most HIV-1-infected individuals. HIV-1 evolved sophisticated strategies to decrease exposure of this Env conformation by downregulating CD4 and by limiting the overall amount of cell-surface Env. Read More

    Modulation of the strength and character of HIV-specific CD8 T cell responses with heteroclitic peptides.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):41. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Division of BioMedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 300 Prince Phillip Drive, St. John's, NL, A1B 3V6, Canada.
    Chronic infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes HIV-specific CD8 T cell dysfunction and exhaustion. The strong association between non-progression and maintenance of HIV-specific CD8 T cell cytokine production and proliferative capacities suggests that invigorating CD8 T cell immune responses would reduce viremia and slow disease progression. A series of studies have demonstrated that sequence variants of native immunogenic peptides can generate more robust CD8 T cell responses and that stimulation with these 'heteroclitic' peptides can steer responses away from the phenotypic and functional attributes of exhaustion acquired during chronic HIV infection. Read More

    Killed whole-HIV vaccine; employing a well established strategy for antiviral vaccines.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):47. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6G 2V4, Canada.
    The development of an efficient prophylactic HIV vaccine has been one of the major challenges in infectious disease research during the last three decades. Here, we present a mini review on strategies employed for the development of HIV vaccines with an emphasis on a well-established vaccine technology, the killed whole-virus vaccine approach. Recently, we reported an evaluation of the safety and the immunogenicity of a genetically modified and killed whole-HIV-1 vaccine designated as SAV001 [1]. Read More

    A novel HIV vaccine targeting the protease cleavage sites.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):51. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
    HIV preferentially infects activated CD4+ T cells and mutates rapidly. The classical vaccine approach aimed to generate broad immune responses to full HIV proteins largely failed to address the potential adverse impact of increased number of activated CD4+ T cells as viral targets. Learning from natural immunity observed in a group of HIV resistant Kenyan female sex workers, we are testing a novel vaccine approach. Read More

    Factors affecting affect cardiovascular health in Indonesian HIV patients beginning ART.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Aug 31;14(1):52. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Virology and Cancer Pathobiology Research Center, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.
    Background: We present a small longitudinal study of how demographic factors and persistent burdens of HIV and cytomegalovirus (CMV) influence cardiovascular health in young adults beginning ART in an inner-city clinic in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    Methods: ART-naïve HIV patients [n = 67; aged 31 (19 to 48) years] were enrolled in the JakCCANDO Project. Echocardiography and carotid Doppler ultrasonography were performed before ART (V0) and after 3, 6, and 12 months (V3-12). Read More

    A frailty index predicts post-liver transplant morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive patients.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Aug 5;14(1):37. Epub 2017 Aug 5.
    Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences for Adults and Children, Liver and Multivisceral Transplant Center, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.
    Background: We hypothesized that frailty acts as a measure of health outcomes in the context of LT. The aim of this study was to explore frailty index across LT, as a measure of morbidity and mortality. This was a retrospective observational study including all consecutive 47 HIV+patients who received LT in Modena, Italy from 2003 to June 2015. Read More

    High level of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations in patients with unsuppressed viral loads in rural northern South Africa.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Jul 27;14(1):36. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    HIV/AIDS & Global Health Research Program, Department of Microbiology, University of Venda, Thohoyandou, 0950, South Africa.
    Background: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has significantly reduced HIV morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. However, the sustainability of cART may be compromised by the emergence of viral drug resistance mutations (DRM) and the cellular persistence of proviruses carrying these DRM. This is potentially a more serious problem in resource limited settings. Read More

    Bone mineral density in people living with HIV: a narrative review of the literature.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Jul 26;14(1):35. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Department of Physiological Sciences, Stellenbosch University Main Campus, Stellenbosch, 7602, Western Cape Province, Republic of South Africa.
    Bone health status is largely absent in South Africa, the main reasons being the absence and cost-effectiveness of specific screening equipment for assessing bone mineral density (BMD). Various risk factors seem to play a role, some of which can be modified to change bone health status. Urbanisation is also a public health concern. Read More

    Safety and immunogenicity of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) vaccine in HIV-positive Spanish men who have sex with men (MSM).
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 18;14:34. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Infectious Disease Service, University Hospital Virgen de las Nieves, Granada, Spain.
    Background: Safety and immunogenicity of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) vaccine were evaluated in HIV-positive Spanish MSM. The prevalence of High Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HSIL) and genotypes of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) were also determined, as well as risk factors associated with the presence of HR-HPV in anal mucosa.

    Methods: This is a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial of the quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine. Read More

    Safety and immunogenicity of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) vaccine in HIV-positive Spanish men who have sex with men (MSM).
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Jul 18;14(1):34. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Infectious Disease Service, University Hospital Virgen de las Nieves, Granada, Spain.
    Background: Safety and immunogenicity of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) vaccine were evaluated in HIV-positive Spanish MSM. The prevalence of High Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HSIL) and genotypes of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) were also determined, as well as risk factors associated with the presence of HR-HPV in anal mucosa.

    Methods: This is a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial of the quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine. Read More

    Transition into adult care: factors associated with level of preparedness among adolescents living with HIV in Cambodia.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Jul 17;14(1):33. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    National Center for HIV/AIDS, Dermatology and STD, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    Background: Preparing adolescents for transition into adult care and supporting their acquisition of self-health care management skills is a critical determinant of their post-transition HIV care outcomes. However, there is a scarcity of research on effective transition strategies. This study explores factors associated with adolescent preparedness for transition into adult care in Cambodia. Read More

    The therapeutic landscape of HIV-1 via genome editing.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Jul 14;14(1):32. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Allied Health Sciences, College of Health and Allied Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana.
    Current treatment for HIV-1 largely relies on chemotherapy through the administration of antiretroviral drugs. While the search for anti-HIV-1 vaccine remain elusive, the use of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) have been far-reaching and has changed HIV-1 into a manageable chronic infection. There is compelling evidence, including several side-effects of ARTs, suggesting that eradication of HIV-1 cannot depend solely on antiretrovirals. Read More

    The dynamic changes of interferon lambdas related genes and proteins in JAK/STAT pathway in both acute and chronic HIV-1 infected patients.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Jun 17;14(1):31. Epub 2017 Jun 17.
    Center for Infectious Diseases, Beijing You'an Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100069 China.
    Background: Host immune responses during acute HIV-1 infection can influence the viral setpoint, which is a predictor of disease progression. Interferon (IFN)-lambdas are newly classified type III interferons, which use JAK-STAT pathway. Currently, the dynamics of IFN-lambdas related genes and proteins expression in the signaling pathway have not been well elaborated, especially in acute HIV-1-infected patients. Read More

    Clinical characteristics, predictors of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and long-term prognosis in patients with Kaposi sarcoma.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 May 30;14(1):30. Epub 2017 May 30.
    Infectious Diseases Department, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología (INCan), Av. San Fernando No. 22, Col. Sección XVI, Deleg. Tlalpan, 14080, Mexico City, Mexico.
    Objective: To investigate the predictive factors for the development of Kaposi sarcoma-related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (KS-IRIS) and long-term prognosis in patients starting combined antiretroviral therapy (cART).

    Methods: We studied a retrospective-cohort of consecutive antiretroviral-naïve patients with KS initiating cART from January 2005 to December 2011 and followed through June 2013. KS-IRIS was defined as ≥2 of the following: abrupt increase in number of KS lesions, appearance or exacerbation of lung-opacities or lymphedema, concomitantly with an increase in CD4+ cell-count ≥50 cells/mm and a decrease of >1 log in viral-load once started cART. Read More

    Erratum to: Hospital days attributable to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in persons living with HIV before and after the 2012 DHHS HIV guidelines.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 22;14:29. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, University of Virginia, PO Box 801379, Charlottesville, VA 22908 USA.
    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s12981-017-0152-0.]. Read More

    Factors associated with pre-treatment HIV RNA: application for the use of abacavir and rilpivirine as the first-line regimen for HIV-infected patients in resource-limited settings.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 5;14:27. Epub 2017 May 5.
    Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, 270 Rama VI Road, Bangkok, 10400 Thailand.
    Background: Abacavir and rilpivirine are alternative antiretroviral drugs for treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients. However, both drugs are only recommended for the patients who have pre-treatment HIV RNA <100,000 copies/mL. In resource-limited settings, pre-treatment HIV RNA is not routinely performed and not widely available. Read More

    COHORT PROFILE: The Complications of Long-Term Antiretroviral Therapy study in Uganda (CoLTART), a prospective clinical cohort.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 4;14:26. Epub 2017 May 4.
    MRC/UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS, P.O. Box 49, Entebbe, Uganda.
    Background: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) improves the survival and quality of life of HIV-positive individuals, but the effects of long-term ART use do eventually manifest. The Complications of Long-Term Antiretroviral Therapy cohort study in Uganda (CoLTART) was established to investigate the metabolic and renal complications of long-term ART use among Ugandan adults. We describe the CoLTART study set-up, aims, objectives, study methods, and also report some preliminary cross-sectional study enrolment metabolic and renal complications data analysis results. Read More

    The developmental effects of HIV and alcohol: a comparison of gestational outcomes among babies from South African communities with high prevalence of HIV and alcohol use.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 May 8;14(1):28. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Background: There is growing evidence of the negative impact of alcohol on morbidity and mortality of individuals living with HIV but limited evidence of in utero effects of HIV and alcohol on exposure on infants.

    Methods: We conducted a population-based birth cohort study (N = 667 mother-infant dyads) in South Africa to investigate whether maternal alcohol use and HIV affected gestational outcomes. Descriptive data analysis was conducted for all variables using frequency distributions, measures of central tendency, and estimates of variance. Read More

    Hospital days attributable to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in persons living with HIV before and after the 2012 DHHS HIV guidelines.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 2;14:25. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, University of Virginia, PO Box 801379, Charlottesville, VA 22908 USA.
    Background: Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) can manifest with initiation or reintroduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in persons living with HIV (PLWH). In 2012, updated United States treatment guidelines recommended initiation of ART for all PLWH regardless of CD4 count. The objectives of this study were to quantify hospital usage attributable to IRIS and assess the reasons for hospitalization in PLWH before and after the guideline update. Read More

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