511 results match your criteria AIDS Research and Therapy[Journal]


Development of a neurocognitive test battery for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) screening: suggested solutions for resource-limited clinical settings.

AIDS Res Ther 2019 Apr 15;16(1). Epub 2019 Apr 15.

National Centre for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 16 Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore, 308442, Singapore.

Background: Practical screening strategies are necessary to detect neurocognitive impairment of all severities in HIV populations, which remains prevalent despite highly active antiretroviral therapy and requires full neuropsychological testing for diagnosis. We aimed to develop a brief and clinically feasible battery to screen for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in resource-limited settings even where English is not the native language.

Methods: A total of 53 outpatients were recruited from a multi-ethnic Southeast Asian HIV-positive cohort. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-019-0224-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6463654PMC
April 2019
4 Reads

Feasibility and yield of HIV screening among adult trauma patients presenting to an urban emergency department of a tertiary referral hospital in Tanzania.

AIDS Res Ther 2019 Apr 9;16(1). Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Emergency Medicine Department, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Science, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Background: The World Health Organization and Tanzanian National Guidelines for HIV and AIDS management, recommends provider initiated testing and counseling for HIV at any point of health care contact. In Tanzania, over 45% of people living with HIV are unaware of their HIV positive status. We determine the feasibility and yield of HIV screening among otherwise healthy adult trauma patients presenting to the first full-capacity Emergency Department in Tanzania. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-019-0223-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456950PMC

Efficacy and improvement of lipid profile after switching to rilpivirine in resource limited setting: real life clinical practice.

AIDS Res Ther 2019 Apr 5;16(1). Epub 2019 Apr 5.

HIV-NAT, Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre, 104 Ratchadamri Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand.

Background: Long-term success of cART is possible if the regimen is convenient and less-toxic. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of switching from a first-line NNRTI or boosted PI-based regimens to RPV-based regimens among virologically suppressed participants in resource-limited setting (RLS).

Methods: This is a prospective cohort study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-019-0222-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451290PMC

HIV late presentation and advanced HIV disease among patients with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS in Southwestern China: a large-scale cross-sectional study.

AIDS Res Ther 2019 Mar 16;16(1). Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of AIDS Prevention and Treatment, School of Public Health, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, 530021, Guangxi, China.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of HIV late presentation and advanced HIV disease and to identify the factors associated with HIV late presentation and advanced HIV disease among patients with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, in Southwestern China.

Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed HIV registered in the HIV surveillance system of Guangxi Centers for Disease Control between January 2012 and December 2016 were included in this study.

Results: Of 45,118 newly diagnosed patients, 70. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-019-0221-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6420760PMC
March 2019
1 Read
1.841 Impact Factor

High rates of transmitted NNRTI resistance among persons with acute HIV infection in Malawi: implications for first-line dolutegravir scale-up.

AIDS Res Ther 2019 Feb 22;16(1). Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Division of Infectious Diseases, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

High rates of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) resistance was a key consideration in the WHO policies transitioning first-line regimens to include integrase inhibitors (dolutegravir [DTG]). However, recent data suggests a relationship between DTG and neural tube defects among women exposed during conception, giving providers and policymakers pause regarding the planned regimen changes. We examined HIV drug resistance among a cohort of 46 acutely infected persons in Malawi. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-019-0220-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6385432PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Moderate prevalence of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance mutations in southern Brazil.

AIDS Res Ther 2019 Feb 5;16(1). Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Clinical Analysis and Biomedicine, State University of Maringá, Av Colombo 5790, Maringá, Paraná, CEP 87020-900, Brazil.

Background: Despite the advances in therapy, the occurrence of drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a major obstacle to successful treatment. This study aimed to characterize the genetic diversity and to determine the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRM) between individuals recently or chronically diagnosed with HIV-1 from Paraná, Brazil.

Methods: A total of 260 HIV-1 positive antiretroviral therapy-naïve patients were recruited to participate on the study, of which 39 were recently diagnosed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-019-0219-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6364409PMC
February 2019
3 Reads

First-line HIV treatment failures in non-B subtypes and recombinants: a cross-sectional analysis of multiple populations in Uganda.

AIDS Res Ther 2019 Jan 22;16(1). Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Western University, London, Canada.

Background: Our understanding of HIV-1 and antiretroviral treatment (ART) is strongly biased towards subtype B, the predominant subtype in North America and western Europe. Efforts to characterize the response to first-line treatments in other HIV-1 subtypes have been hindered by the availability of large study cohorts in resource-limited settings. To maximize our statistical power, we combined HIV-1 sequence and clinical data from every available study population associated with the Joint Clinical Research Centre (JCRC) in Uganda. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-019-0218-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6343277PMC
January 2019
4 Reads
1.841 Impact Factor

What causes non-adherence among some individuals on long term antiretroviral therapy? Experiences of individuals with poor viral suppression in Uganda.

AIDS Res Ther 2019 Jan 21;16(1). Epub 2019 Jan 21.

MRC/UVRI and LSHTM Uganda Research Unit, P.O. Box 49, Entebbe, Uganda.

Background: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) use by people living with HIV reduces HIV transmission, morbidity, mortality, and improves quality of life. Good ART adherence is required to achieve these benefits. We investigated how the environmental, social, economic and behavioural experiences of people living with HIV with poor viral suppression could explain their non-adherence to long term ART. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-018-0214-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6340167PMC
January 2019
7 Reads

HLA-B*57:01 screening and hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir between 1999 and 2016 in the OPERA observational database: a cohort study.

AIDS Res Ther 2019 Jan 16;16(1). Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Epividian, Inc, 4505 Emperor Blvd, Suite 220, Durham, NC, 27703, USA.

Background: HLA-B*57:01 screening was added to clinical care guidelines in 2008 to reduce the risk of hypersensitivity reaction from abacavir. The uptake of HLA-B*57:01 screening and incidence of hypersensitivity reaction were assessed in a prospective clinical cohort in the United States to evaluate the effectiveness of this intervention.

Methods: We included all patients initiating an abacavir-containing regimen for the first time in the pre-HLA-B*57:01 screening period (January 1, 1999 to June 14, 2008) or the post-HLA-B*57:01 screening period (June 15, 2008 to January 1, 2016). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-019-0217-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6334426PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Looking at the positives: proactive management of STIs in people with HIV.

AIDS Res Ther 2018 Dec 21;15(1):28. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Alfred Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Patients who are HIV-positive and co-infected with other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are at risk of increased morbidity and mortality. This is of clinical significance. There has been a dramatic increase in the incidence of STIs, particularly syphilis, gonorrhoea, Mycoplasma genitalium and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in HIV-positive patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-018-0216-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302453PMC
December 2018
15 Reads

Two cases of relapsed HIV-associated visceral leishmaniasis successfully treated with combination therapy.

AIDS Res Ther 2018 Dec 20;15(1):27. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Unit of Microbiology, Regional Reference Centre for Microbiological Emergencies (CRREM), St. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Bologna, Italy.

Background: The management of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in HIV-infected patients is often complex with patients experiencing higher mortality rates, more toxic side effects and a higher possibility of treatment failure and relapse than HIV-negative individuals with VL.

Case Presentation: We report on successful salvage therapy in two HIV-infected patients suffering with disseminated cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, recalcitrant to therapy with liposomal amphotericin B. After the employment of combination anti-leishmanial treatment, parasite genomes were not detectable up to the last follow up visit, 57 and 78 weeks after treatment onset, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-018-0215-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6300903PMC
December 2018
4 Reads

Smoking and HIV: what are the risks and what harm reduction strategies do we have at our disposal?

AIDS Res Ther 2018 Dec 12;15(1):26. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

The World Health Organization estimates that smoking poses one of the greatest global health risks in the general population. Rates of current smoking among people living with HIV (PLHIV) are 2-3 times that of the general population, which contributes to the higher incidence of non-AIDS-related morbidity and mortality in PLHIV. Given the benefit of smoking cessation, strategies to assist individuals who smoke to quit should be a primary focus in modern HIV care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-018-0213-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6291979PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Association between quantitative varicella-zoster virus antibody levels and zoster reactivation in HIV-infected persons.

AIDS Res Ther 2018 Dec 11;15(1):25. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Infectious Disease Service, San Antonio Military Medical Center, San Antonio, USA.

Background: Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) reactivation is common but difficult to predict in HIV-infected persons.

Objective: Since qualitative VZV antibodies can determine past VZV disease or vaccination, we evaluated whether quantitative VZV antibody levels over time can predict future zoster.

Study Design: US Military HIV Natural History (NHS) participants with a zoster diagnosis at least 5 years after HIV diagnosis (n = 100) were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-018-0212-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6288959PMC
December 2018
2 Reads
1.841 Impact Factor

Cost and cost-effectiveness of voluntary medical male circumcision in street-connected youth: findings from an education-based pilot intervention in Eldoret, Kenya.

AIDS Res Ther 2018 Nov 29;15(1):24. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH), Eldoret, Kenya.

Background: Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is a critical component of HIV prevention. VMMC policies have achieved initial targets in adult men yet continue to fall short in reaching younger men and adolescents.

Setting: We present the cost and scale-up implications of an education-based, VMMC intervention for adolescent street-connected males, for whom the street has become their home and/or source of livelihood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-018-0207-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6264043PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Long-term virological outcome in children receiving first-line antiretroviral therapy.

AIDS Res Ther 2018 Nov 26;15(1):23. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India.

Background: Studies relating to long-term virological outcomes among children on first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) from low and middle-income countries are limited.

Methods: Perinatally HIV infected, ART-naive children, between 2 and 12 years of age, initiating NNRTI-based ART during 2010-2015, with at least 12 months of follow-up, were included in the analysis. CD4 cell counts and plasma HIV-1 RNA were measured every 24 weeks post-ART initiation. Read More

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https://aidsrestherapy.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-018-0208-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6260781PMC
November 2018
19 Reads
1.841 Impact Factor

Ageing in patients with chronic HIV infection: impact of hypercoagulation.

AIDS Res Ther 2018 Nov 24;15(1):22. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Divisions of Clinical Pharmacology and Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine and Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Ageing is the result of biological events that progressively and irreversibly compromise the function of vital organs and eventually result in death. There is a general perception that ageing is accelerated in people living with HIV, with an increasing body of evidence to support this view. With the introduction of effective antiretroviral therapy, the life expectancy of people living with HIV has improved. Read More

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https://aidsrestherapy.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-018-0211-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6260879PMC
November 2018
17 Reads

Processes and dynamics of linkage to care from mobile/outreach and facility-based HIV testing models in hard-to-reach settings in rural Tanzania. Qualitative findings of a mixed methods study.

AIDS Res Ther 2018 Nov 20;15(1):21. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

School of Public Health, University of Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Like other countries, Tanzania instituted mobile and outreach testing approaches to address low HIV testing rates at health facilities and enhance linkage to care. Available evidence from hard-to-reach rural settings of Mbeya region, Tanzania suggests that clients testing HIV+ at facility-based sites are more likely to link to care, and to link sooner, than those testing at mobile sites. This paper (1) describes the populations accessing HIV testing at mobile/outreach and facility-based testing sites, and (2) compares processes and dynamics from testing to linkage to care between these two testing models from the same study context. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-018-0209-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6247671PMC
November 2018
5 Reads
1.841 Impact Factor

Factors associated with viral non-suppression among adolescents living with HIV in Cambodia: a cross-sectional study.

AIDS Res Ther 2018 Nov 17;15(1):20. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

KHANA Center for Population Health Research, No. 33, Street 71, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

Background: Adolescents living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART) have worse treatment adherence, viral suppression, and mortality rates compared to adults. This study investigated factors associated with viral non-suppression among adolescents living with HIV in Cambodia.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in August 2016 among 328 adolescents living with HIV aged 15-17 years who were randomly selected from 11 ART clinics in the capital city of Phnom Penh and 10 other provinces. Read More

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https://aidsrestherapy.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-018-0205-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6240223PMC
November 2018
19 Reads

Frailty in people living with HIV.

Authors:
Mark Bloch

AIDS Res Ther 2018 Nov 16;15(1):19. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Holdsworth House Medical Practice, Darlinghurst, Level 3, 26 College St, Sydney, NSW, 2010, Australia.

The life expectancy of people living with HIV (PLHIV) has dramatically improved with effective and well-tolerated antiretroviral therapy. This presents a new challenge in caring for this patient population, with up to 28% of older PLHIV being identified as frail. Studies suggest that the prevalence of frailty is higher in PLHIV compared to the general population, and that the onset of frailty occurs at an earlier age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-018-0210-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6240180PMC
November 2018
12 Reads

Characterization of minority HIV-1 drug resistant variants in the United Kingdom following the verification of a deep sequencing-based HIV-1 genotyping and tropism assay.

AIDS Res Ther 2018 Nov 8;15(1):18. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

University Hospital Translational Laboratory, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Background: The widespread global access to antiretroviral drugs has led to considerable reductions in morbidity and mortality but, unfortunately, the risk of virologic failure increases with the emergence, and potential transmission, of drug resistant viruses. Detecting and quantifying HIV-1 drug resistance has therefore become the standard of care when designing new antiretroviral regimens. The sensitivity of Sanger sequencing-based HIV-1 genotypic assays is limited by its inability to identify minority members of the quasispecies, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-018-0206-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6223033PMC
November 2018
15 Reads

A meta-analysis comparing 48-week treatment outcomes of single and multi-tablet antiretroviral regimens for the treatment of people living with HIV.

AIDS Res Ther 2018 Oct 30;15(1):17. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Market Access Solutions, LLC, 575 NJ-28, Raritan, NJ, 08869, USA.

Objectives: To compare outcomes with single tablet regimens (STR) versus multi-tablet regimens (MTR) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment using published data.

Design: Systematic review and random-effects meta-analysis of literature on approved and investigational HIV regimens.

Methods: The research followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-018-0204-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6206661PMC
October 2018
12 Reads

Non-AIDS defining cancer (NADC) among HIV-infected patients at an oncology tertiary-care center in Mexico.

AIDS Res Ther 2018 Oct 27;15(1):16. Epub 2018 Oct 27.

Infectious Diseases Department, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología (INCan), Av. San Fernando No. 22 Col. Sección XVI, Del. Tlalpan, 14000, Mexico City, CDMX, Mexico.

Background: Non-AIDS defining cancers (NADCs) have been an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV. There is no data on the spectrum of NADCs in Mexico. We describe the type of neoplasms, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of HIV-infected patients with NADCs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-018-0202-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6204055PMC
October 2018
9 Reads

Risky sexual behavior among patients on long-term antiretroviral therapy: a prospective cohort study in urban and rural Uganda.

AIDS Res Ther 2018 Oct 19;15(1):15. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Global Health Institute, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Background: While the effects of initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) on risky sexual behavior have been extensively studied, less is known about the long-term changes in risky sexual behavior over time in resource-poor settings.

Methods: We conducted a secondary longitudinal analysis of one rural and one urban cohort of patients who initiated ART in Uganda between April 2004 and July 2007 followed up-to 2016. Data on sexual behavior were collected every 6 months for 3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-018-0203-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6195707PMC
October 2018
5 Reads

Increases in condomless chemsex associated with HIV acquisition in MSM but not heterosexuals attending a HIV testing center in Antwerp, Belgium.

AIDS Res Ther 2018 Oct 19;15(1):14. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium.

Background: It has been speculated that the prevalence of chemsex is increasing in men who have sex with men and that this may be playing a role in the spread of HIV.

Methods: We assessed if the prevalence of reported chemsex was increasing and if chemsex was associated with HIV infection in clients attending the 'Helpcenter', Antwerp, between 2011 and 2017. This is a HIV/STI testing center that offers HIV/STI testing to HIV-uninfected individuals from key populations including MSM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-018-0201-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6195714PMC
October 2018
3 Reads

CD4/CD8 ratio normalization rates and low ratio as prognostic marker for non-AIDS defining events among long-term virologically suppressed people living with HIV.

AIDS Res Ther 2018 Sep 27;15(1):13. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

HIV-NAT, The Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Center, 104 Ratchadamri Rd., Pathumwan, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand.

Background: Immune restoration is often incomplete after ART in HIV patients, both quantitatively and qualitatively. We studied the incidence and probability of CD4/CD8 normalization in an adult Thai HIV cohort and explored the predictive value of the ratio for developing of non-AIDS defining events (NAEs).

Methods: We analyzed data from HIV-infected Thai adults between 1996 and 2017 in the HIV-NAT 006 prospective long-term cohort in Bangkok, Thailand. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-018-0200-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6158807PMC
September 2018
3 Reads

Linking gender, extramarital affairs, and HIV: a mixed methods study on contextual determinants of extramarital affairs in rural Tanzania.

AIDS Res Ther 2018 Jun 7;15(1):12. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH), Basel, Switzerland.

Background: Extramarital sex is a potential driver of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission for long-term couples in sub-Saharan Africa. It is increasingly recognized that preventing sexual risk behaviours requires an understanding and adjustment of sexual relationship factors beyond the individual level. We investigated the association between extramarital affairs and HIV status, factors associated with extramarital affairs, and created insights in the context and pathways for married men and women in rural Tanzania who engage in extramarital affairs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-018-0199-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5991469PMC
June 2018
4 Reads

Risk factors and outcomes for the Q151M and T69 insertion HIV-1 resistance mutations in historic UK data.

AIDS Res Ther 2018 Apr 16;15(1):11. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

High Containment Microbiology, Public Health England, Salisbury, UK.

Background: The prevalence of HIV-1 resistance to antiretroviral therapies (ART) has declined in high-income countries over recent years, but drug resistance remains a substantial concern in many low and middle-income countries. The Q151M and T69 insertion (T69i) resistance mutations in the viral reverse transcriptase gene can reduce susceptibility to all nucleoside/tide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors, motivating the present study to investigate the risk factors and outcomes associated with these mutations.

Methods: We considered all data in the UK HIV Drug Resistance Database for blood samples obtained in the period 1997-2014. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-018-0198-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5902836PMC
April 2018
7 Reads

Predictors of switch to and early outcomes on third-line antiretroviral therapy at a large public-sector clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa.

AIDS Res Ther 2018 Apr 10;15(1):10. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Health Economics and Epidemiology Research Office, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: While efficacy data exist, there are limited data on the outcomes of patients on third-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa in actual practice. Being able to identify predictors of switch to third-line ART will be essential for planning for future need. We identify predictors of switch to third-line ART among patients with significant viraemia on a protease inhibitor (PI)-based second-line ART regimen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-018-0196-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5891887PMC
April 2018
9 Reads

Multivariate analysis of covariates of adherence among HIV-positive mothers with low viral suppression.

AIDS Res Ther 2018 Mar 31;15(1). Epub 2018 Mar 31.

United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Kampala, Uganda.

Background: As part of efforts to improve the prevention of mother-to-child transmission in Northern Uganda, we explored reasons for poor viral suppression among 122 pregnant and lactating women who were in care, received viral load tests, but had not achieved viral suppression and had more than 1000 copies/mL. Understanding the patient factors associated with low viral suppression was of interest to the Ministry of Health to guide the development of tools and interventions to achieve viral suppression for pregnant and lactating women newly initiating on ART as well as those on ART with unsuppressed viral load.

Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional and mixed methods study design was used, with retrospective medical record review. Read More

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https://aidsrestherapy.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-018-0197-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5878417PMC
March 2018
14 Reads

Social-support needs among adolescents living with HIV in transition from pediatric to adult care in Cambodia: findings from a cross-sectional study.

AIDS Res Ther 2018 Mar 28;15(1). Epub 2018 Mar 28.

KHANA Center for Population Health Research, No. 33, Street 71, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

Background: Understanding the circumstances of adolescents living with HIV is critical in designing adolescent-friendly services that will facilitate successful transition from pediatric to adult care. This study describes access, utilization and ongoing social support needs among adolescents living with HIV aged 15-17 in transition from pediatric to adult HIV care in Cambodia.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 328 adolescents, randomly selected from 11 antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics across the country. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-018-0195-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5872568PMC
March 2018
14 Reads

Effects of HIV infection and ART on phenotype and function of circulating monocytes, natural killer, and innate lymphoid cells.

AIDS Res Ther 2018 Mar 15;15(1). Epub 2018 Mar 15.

Department of Medicine, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda.

HIV infection causes upregulation of markers of inflammation, immune activation and apoptosis of host adaptive, and innate immune cells particularly monocytes, natural killer (NK) and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) restores CD4 T-cell counts, the persistent aberrant activation of monocytes, NK and ILCs observed likely contributes to the incomplete recovery of T-cell effector functions. A better understanding of the effects of HIV infection and ART on the phenotype and function of circulating monocytes, NK, and ILCs is required to guide development of novel therapeutic interventions to optimize immune recovery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-018-0194-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5853105PMC
March 2018
5 Reads

Non-AIDS complexity amongst patients living with HIV in Sydney: risk factors and health outcomes.

AIDS Res Ther 2018 Mar 8;15(1). Epub 2018 Mar 8.

University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Objective: To assess the prevalence of non-AIDS co-morbidities (NACs) and predictors of adverse health outcomes amongst people living with HIV in order to identify health needs and potential gaps in patient management.

Design: Retrospective, non-consecutive medical record audit of patients attending a publicly funded HIV clinic in metropolitan Sydney analysed for predictors of adverse health outcomes. We developed a scoring system based on the validated Charlson score method for NACs, mental health and social issues and confounders were selected using directed acyclic graph theory under the principles of causal inference. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-018-0193-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5844086PMC
March 2018
5 Reads

Prognostic indicators in the World Health Organization's algorithm for seriously ill HIV-infected inpatients with suspected tuberculosis.

AIDS Res Ther 2018 Feb 12;15(1). Epub 2018 Feb 12.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, UCT Faculty of Health Sciences, Anzio Road, Observatory, Cape Town, 7925, South Africa.

Background: Criteria for the 2007 WHO algorithm for diagnosing tuberculosis among HIV-infected seriously ill patients are the presence of one or more danger signs (respiratory rate > 30/min, heart rate > 120/min, temperature > 39 °C, and being unable to walk unaided) and cough ≥ 14 days. Determining predictors of poor outcomes among HIV-infected inpatients presenting with WHO danger signs could result in improved treatment and diagnostic algorithms.

Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of inpatients presenting with any duration of cough and WHO danger signs to two regional hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-018-0192-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5808414PMC
February 2018
8 Reads

Quality improvement as a framework for behavior change interventions in HIV-predisposed communities: a case of adolescent girls and young women in northern Uganda.

AIDS Res Ther 2018 Jan 25;15(1). Epub 2018 Jan 25.

United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Kampala, Uganda.

Background: Despite the conventional approaches to HIV prevention being the bedrock for early reductions in HIV infections in Uganda, innovations that demonstrate reduction in risk to infection in vulnerable populations need to be embraced urgently. In the past 2 years, a USAID-funded project tested a quality improvement for behavior change model (QBC) to address barriers to behavioral change among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) at high risk of HIV infection. The model comprised skills building to improve ability of AGYW to stop risky behavior; setting up and empowering community quality improvement (QI) teams to mobilize community resources to support AGYW to stop risky behavior; and service delivery camps to provide HIV prevention services and commodities to AGYW and other community members. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-018-0190-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5785880PMC
January 2018
24 Reads

Prevalence of lower limb deep venous thrombosis among adult HIV positive patients attending an outpatient clinic at Mulago Hospital.

AIDS Res Ther 2018 Jan 25;15(1). Epub 2018 Jan 25.

Prevention Care Treatment, Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI), Kampala, Uganda.

Background: Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and its major complication pulmonary embolism (PE) are collectively known as venous thromboembolism. In Uganda, the prevalence of DVT among HIV patients has not been previously published. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and sonographic features of lower limb deep venous thrombosis among HIV positive patients on anti-retroviral treatment (ART). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-018-0191-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5784710PMC
January 2018
9 Reads

Geographic patterns of poor HIV/AIDS care continuum in District of Columbia.

AIDS Res Ther 2018 Jan 24;15(1). Epub 2018 Jan 24.

Strategic Information Division, HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis, STD and TB Administration (HAHSTA), District of Columbia Department of Health, Government of the District of Columbia, 899 North Capitol St., NE/Fourth Floor, Washington, DC, 20002, USA.

Background: Concurrent with the UNAIDS 90-90-90 and NHAS plans, the District of Columbia (DC) launched its 90/90/90/50 plan (Plan) in 2015. The Plan proposes that by 2020, 90% of all DC residents will know their HIV status; 90% of residents living with HIV will be in sustained treatment; 90% of those in treatment will reach "Viral Suppression" and DC will achieve 50% reduction of new HIV cases. To achieve these goals targeted prevention strategies are imperative for areas where the relative risk (RR) of not being linked to care (NL), not retained in any care (NRC) and low viral suppression (NVSP) are highest in the District. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-018-0189-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5784661PMC
January 2018
10 Reads

Mental health service utilization is associated with retention in care among persons living with HIV at a university-affiliated HIV clinic.

AIDS Res Ther 2018 Jan 16;15(1). Epub 2018 Jan 16.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 845 19th St. South, Birmingham, AL, 35294, USA.

Background: Mental health (MH) comorbidities reduce retention in care for persons living with HIV (PLWH) and are associated with poor health outcomes. Optimizing retention in primary care is vital, as poor retention is associated with delayed receipt of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, ARV non-adherence, and poor health outcomes, including failure to suppress viral load, decreased CD4 counts, and clinically significant ARV drug resistance. We hypothesized that MH service utilization would be associated with improved retention in care for patients with HIV and MH comorbidities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-018-0188-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5771035PMC
January 2018
16 Reads

A cluster randomized controlled trial of lay health worker support for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) in South Africa.

AIDS Res Ther 2017 Dec 16;14(1):61. Epub 2017 Dec 16.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.

Background: We evaluate the impact of clinic-based PMTCT community support by trained lay health workers in addition to standard clinical care on PMTCT infant outcomes.

Methods: In a cluster randomized controlled trial, twelve community health centers (CHCs) in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, were randomized to have pregnant women living with HIV receive either: a standard care (SC) condition plus time-equivalent attention-control on disease prevention (SC; 6 CHCs; n  = 357), or an enhanced intervention (EI) condition of SC PMTCT plus the "Protect Your Family" intervention (EI; 6 CHCs; n  = 342). HIV-infected pregnant women in the SC attended four antenatal and two postnatal video sessions and those in the EI, four antenatal and two postnatal PMTCT plus "Protect Your Family" sessions led by trained lay health workers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-017-0187-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5732507PMC
December 2017
63 Reads

Hospitalization causes and outcomes in HIV patients in the late antiretroviral era in Colombia.

AIDS Res Ther 2017 Nov 13;14(1):60. Epub 2017 Nov 13.

School of Health Sciences, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Carrera 44 # 18-56, Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia.

Background: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has modified the natural history of HIV-infection: the incidence of opportunistic infections (OIs) has decreased and mortality associated to HIV has improved dramatically. The reasons for hospitalization have changed; OIs are no longer the most common reason for admission. This study describes the patient population, admission diagnosis and hospital course of HIV patients in Colombia in the ART era. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-017-0186-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5683524PMC
November 2017
10 Reads

HIV treatment simplification to elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir disproxil fumarate (E/C/F/TDF) plus darunavir: a pharmacokinetic study.

AIDS Res Ther 2017 Nov 2;14(1):59. Epub 2017 Nov 2.

British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Background: As a simplification strategy for treatment-experienced HIV-infected patients who have achieved virologic suppression on a multi-drug, multi-class antiretroviral regimen, the aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of once-daily elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir disproxil fumarate (E/C/F/TDF) with darunavir.

Methods: A single arm, open-label 48-week study was conducted of regimen simplification to E/C/F/TDF plus darunavir 800 mg daily from stable therapy including two nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor, and an integrase inhibitor. Participants had plasma HIV viral load consistently < 200 copies/mL for ≥ 6 months, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 60 mL/min, and no genotypic resistance to major components of the study regimen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-017-0185-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5669010PMC
November 2017
8 Reads

Drug resistance patterns following pharmacy stock shortage in Nigerian Antiretroviral Treatment Program.

AIDS Res Ther 2017 Oct 13;14(1):58. Epub 2017 Oct 13.

Department of Immunology & Infectious Diseases, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, 651 Huntington Avenue, FXB 405, Boston, 02115, MA, USA.

Background: For patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART), treatment interruptions can impact patient outcomes and result in the accumulation of drug resistance mutations leading to virologic failure. There are minimal published data on the impact of an ART stock shortage on development of drug resistance mutations (DRMs). In this report, we evaluate data from patients enrolled in the Government of Nigeria National ART Program that were receiving treatment at the time of a national drug shortage in late 2003. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-017-0184-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5640939PMC
October 2017
13 Reads

The role of the glycosyl moiety of myricetin derivatives in anti-HIV-1 activity in vitro.

AIDS Res Ther 2017 Oct 12;14(1):57. Epub 2017 Oct 12.

Laboratorio de Virología Molecular, Centro de Microbiología y Biología Celular, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Caracas, Venezuela.

Background: Plant extracts are sources of valuable compounds with biological activity, especially for the anti-proliferative activity against pathogens or tumor cells. Myricetin is a flavonoid found in several plants that has been described as an inhibitor of Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) through its action against the HIV reverse transcriptase, but myricetin derivatives have not been fully studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-HIV-1 activity of glycosylated metabolites obtained from Marcetia taxifolia and derived from myricetin: myricetin rhamnoside and myricetin 3-(6-rhamnosylgalactoside). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-017-0183-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5639754PMC
October 2017
14 Reads

Validation of a questionnaire to monitor symptoms in HIV-infected patients during hepatitis C treatment.

AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 20;14(1):56. Epub 2017 Sep 20.

Department of Medicine-Owen Clinic, University of California at San Diego, 200 W. Arbor Drive, San Diego, CA, 92103-8681, USA.

Background: Clinicians are incorporating patient-reported outcomes in the management of HIV-infected persons co-infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), but there are no validated inventories to monitor symptoms of patients during HCV therapy.

Design: Five-year retrospective cohort analysis of persons living with HIV (PLWH) treated for HCV.

Methods: The HCV symptom-inventory (HCV-SI) was administered before, during, and after HCV treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-017-0182-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5607579PMC
September 2017
39 Reads

Preventing HIV infection without targeting the virus: how reducing HIV target cells at the genital tract is a new approach to HIV prevention.

AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):46. Epub 2017 Sep 12.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Manitoba, 539-745 Bannnatyne Avenue, Winnipeg, MB, R2N 1V3, Canada.

For over three decades, HIV infection has had a tremendous impact on the lives of individuals and public health. Microbicides and vaccines studies have shown that immune activation at the genital tract is a risk factor for HIV infection. Furthermore, lower level of immune activation, or what we call immune quiescence, has been associated with a lower risk of HIV acquisition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-017-0166-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5594430PMC
September 2017
6 Reads

HIV-I Nef inhibitors: a novel class of HIV-specific immune adjuvants in support of a cure.

AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):53. Epub 2017 Sep 12.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, The University of Western Ontario, Dental Sciences Building, Room 3007J, London, ON, N6A 5C1, Canada.

The success of many current vaccines relies on a formulation that incorporates an immune activating adjuvant. This will hold true for the design of a successful therapeutic HIV vaccine targeted at controlling reactivated virus following cessation of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). The HIV accessory protein Nef functions by interfering with HIV antigen presentation through the major histocompatibility complex I (MHC-I) pathway thereby suppressing CD8 cytotoxic T cell (CTL)-mediated killing of HIV infected cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-017-0175-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5594582PMC
September 2017
6 Reads

HIV vaccine research in Canada.

Authors:
Robin Shattock

AIDS Res Ther 2017 09 12;14(1):54. Epub 2017 Sep 12.

Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, W2 1PG, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-017-0181-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5594529PMC
September 2017
9 Reads

Evasion of adaptive immunity by HIV through the action of host APOBEC3G/F enzymes.

AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):44. Epub 2017 Sep 12.

Program in Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Division of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NF, A1B 3V6, Canada.

APOBEC3G (A3G) and APOBEC3F (A3F) are DNA-mutating enzymes expressed in T cells, dendritic cells and macrophages. A3G/F have been considered innate immune host factors, based on reports that they lethally mutate the HIV genome in vitro. In vivo, A3G/F effectiveness is limited by viral proteins, entrapment in inactive complexes and filtration of mutations during viral life cycle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-017-0173-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5594601PMC
September 2017
13 Reads

Potential contribution of gut microbiota and systemic inflammation on HIV vaccine effectiveness and vaccine design.

AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):48. Epub 2017 Sep 12.

Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada.

The quest for an effective HIV-1 vaccine began as soon as the virus causing AIDS was identified. After several disappointing attempts, results of the Phase-III RV144 trial in Thailand were a beacon of hope for the field demonstrating correlation between protection and immunological markers. In order to optimize vaccine response, we underline results from yellow fever and hepatitis B vaccines, where protective responses were predicted by the pre-vaccination level of immune activation in healthy individuals. Read More

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http://aidsrestherapy.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-017-0164-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5594512PMC
September 2017
11 Reads

Natural killer (NK) cell receptor-HLA ligand genotype combinations associated with protection from HIV infection: investigation of how protective genotypes influence anti HIV NK cell functions.

Authors:
Nicole F Bernard

AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):38. Epub 2017 Sep 12.

Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (RI-MUHC), Montreal, QC, Canada.

The anti-HIV activity of natural killer (NK) cells could be induced fast enough to potentially prevent the establishment of HIV infection. Epidemiological studies identified two genotypes encoding NK receptors that contribute to NK cell function, that were more frequent in people who remained uninfected despite multiple HIV exposures than in HIV-susceptible subjects. NK cells from carriers of the *h/*y+B*57 genotype have higher NK cell functional potential and inhibit HIV replication in autologous HIV-infected CD4+ T cells (iCD4) more potently than those from carriers of non-protective genotypes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-017-0172-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5594513PMC
September 2017
23 Reads

The biology of how circumcision reduces HIV susceptibility: broader implications for the prevention field.

AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):49. Epub 2017 Sep 12.

Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Medical Sciences Building, Room #6356, 1 King's College Circle, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A8, Canada.

Circumcision reduces heterosexual HIV-1 acquisition in men by at least 60%. However, the biological mechanisms by which circumcision is protective remain incompletely understood. We test the hypothesis that the sub-preputial microenvironment created by the foreskin drives immune activation in adjacent foreskin tissues, facilitating HIV-1 infection through a combination of epithelial barrier disruption, enhanced dendritic cell maturation, and the recruitment/activation of neutrophils and susceptible CD4 T cell subsets such as Th17 cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-017-0167-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5594533PMC
September 2017
9 Reads