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    471 results match your criteria AIDS Research and Therapy[Journal]

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    Preventing HIV infection without targeting the virus: how reducing HIV target cells at the genital tract is a new approach to HIV prevention.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):46. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Manitoba, 539-745 Bannnatyne Avenue, Winnipeg, MB, R2N 1V3, Canada.
    For over three decades, HIV infection has had a tremendous impact on the lives of individuals and public health. Microbicides and vaccines studies have shown that immune activation at the genital tract is a risk factor for HIV infection. Furthermore, lower level of immune activation, or what we call immune quiescence, has been associated with a lower risk of HIV acquisition. Read More

    HIV-I Nef inhibitors: a novel class of HIV-specific immune adjuvants in support of a cure.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):53. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, The University of Western Ontario, Dental Sciences Building, Room 3007J, London, ON, N6A 5C1, Canada.
    The success of many current vaccines relies on a formulation that incorporates an immune activating adjuvant. This will hold true for the design of a successful therapeutic HIV vaccine targeted at controlling reactivated virus following cessation of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). The HIV accessory protein Nef functions by interfering with HIV antigen presentation through the major histocompatibility complex I (MHC-I) pathway thereby suppressing CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell (CTL)-mediated killing of HIV infected cells. Read More

    Evasion of adaptive immunity by HIV through the action of host APOBEC3G/F enzymes.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):44. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Program in Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Division of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NF, A1B 3V6, Canada.
    APOBEC3G (A3G) and APOBEC3F (A3F) are DNA-mutating enzymes expressed in T cells, dendritic cells and macrophages. A3G/F have been considered innate immune host factors, based on reports that they lethally mutate the HIV genome in vitro. In vivo, A3G/F effectiveness is limited by viral proteins, entrapment in inactive complexes and filtration of mutations during viral life cycle. Read More

    Potential contribution of gut microbiota and systemic inflammation on HIV vaccine effectiveness and vaccine design.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):48. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada.
    The quest for an effective HIV-1 vaccine began as soon as the virus causing AIDS was identified. After several disappointing attempts, results of the Phase-III RV144 trial in Thailand were a beacon of hope for the field demonstrating correlation between protection and immunological markers. In order to optimize vaccine response, we underline results from yellow fever and hepatitis B vaccines, where protective responses were predicted by the pre-vaccination level of immune activation in healthy individuals. Read More

    Natural killer (NK) cell receptor-HLA ligand genotype combinations associated with protection from HIV infection: investigation of how protective genotypes influence anti HIV NK cell functions.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):38. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (RI-MUHC), Montreal, QC, Canada.
    The anti-HIV activity of natural killer (NK) cells could be induced fast enough to potentially prevent the establishment of HIV infection. Epidemiological studies identified two genotypes encoding NK receptors that contribute to NK cell function, that were more frequent in people who remained uninfected despite multiple HIV exposures than in HIV-susceptible subjects. NK cells from carriers of the *h/*y+B*57 genotype have higher NK cell functional potential and inhibit HIV replication in autologous HIV-infected CD4+ T cells (iCD4) more potently than those from carriers of non-protective genotypes. Read More

    The biology of how circumcision reduces HIV susceptibility: broader implications for the prevention field.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):49. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Medical Sciences Building, Room #6356, 1 King's College Circle, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A8, Canada.
    Circumcision reduces heterosexual HIV-1 acquisition in men by at least 60%. However, the biological mechanisms by which circumcision is protective remain incompletely understood. We test the hypothesis that the sub-preputial microenvironment created by the foreskin drives immune activation in adjacent foreskin tissues, facilitating HIV-1 infection through a combination of epithelial barrier disruption, enhanced dendritic cell maturation, and the recruitment/activation of neutrophils and susceptible CD4 T cell subsets such as Th17 cells. Read More

    Role of sex hormones and the vaginal microbiome in susceptibility and mucosal immunity to HIV-1 in the female genital tract.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):39. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster Immunology Research Centre, McMaster University, MDCL Room 4014, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1, Canada.
    While the prevalence of Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection has stabilized globally, it continues to be the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age. The majority of new infections are transmitted heterosexually, and women have consistently been found to be more susceptible to HIV-1 infection during heterosexual intercourse compared to men. This emphasizes the need for a deeper understanding of how the microenvironment in the female genital tract (FGT) could influence HIV-1 acquisition. Read More

    Development of targeted adjuvants for HIV-1 vaccines.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):43. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Clinical Sciences Division, University of Toronto, Room 6352, Medical Sciences Building, 1 King's College Circle, Toronto, ON, M5S1A8, Canada.
    Finding new adjuvants is an integrated component of the efforts in developing an effective HIV-1 vaccine. Compared with traditional adjuvants, a modern adjuvant in the context of HIV-1 prevention would elicit a durable and potent memory response from B cells, CD8(+) T cells, and NK cells but avoid overstimulation of HIV-1 susceptible CD4(+) T cells, especially at genital and rectal mucosa, the main portals for HIV-1 transmission. We briefly review recent advances in the studies of such potential targeted adjuvants, focusing on three classes of molecules that we study: TNFSF molecules, TLRs agonists, and NODs agonists. Read More

    RNA flow cytometric FISH for investigations into HIV immunology, vaccination and cure strategies.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):40. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Research Centre of the Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CRCHUM), and Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada.
    Despite the tremendous success of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) no current treatment can eradicate latent HIV reservoirs from HIV-infected individuals or generate, effective HIV-specific immunity. Technological limitations have hampered the identification and characterization of both HIV-infected cells and HIV-specific responses in clinical samples directly ex vivo. RNA-flow cytometric fluorescence in situ hybridisation (RNA Flow-FISH) is a powerful technique, which enables detection of mRNAs in conjunction with proteins at a single-cell level. Read More

    Eradication of HIV-1 latent reservoirs through therapeutic vaccination.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):45. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 5C1, Canada.
    Despite the significant success of combination anti-retroviral therapy to reduce HIV viremia and save lives, HIV-1 infection remains a lifelong infection that must be appropriately managed. Advances in the understanding of the HIV infection process and insights from vaccine development in other biomedical fields such as cancer, imaging, and genetic engineering have fueled rapid advancements in HIV cure research. In the last few years, several studies have focused on the development of "Kick and Kill" therapies to reverse HIV latency and kick start viral translational activity. Read More

    Development of an anti-HIV vaccine eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):50. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.
    The extreme HIV diversity posts a great challenge on development of an effective anti-HIV vaccine. To solve this problem, it is crucial to discover an appropriate immunogens and strategies that are able to prevent the transmission of the diverse viruses that are circulating in the world. Even though there have been a number of broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies (bNAbs) been discovered in recent years, induction of such antibodies to date has only been observed in HIV-1 infection. Read More

    Development of an HIV vaccine using a vesicular stomatitis virus vector expressing designer HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins to enhance humoral responses.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):55. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Western University, London, Canada.
    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), like many other Rhabdoviruses, have become the focus of intense research over the past couple of decades based on their suitability as vaccine vectors, transient gene delivery systems, and as oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy. VSV as a vaccine vector platform has multiple advantages over more traditional viral vectors including low level, non-pathogenic replication in diverse cell types, ability to induce both humoral and cell-mediate immune responses, and the remarkable expression of foreign proteins cloned into multiple intergenic sites in the VSV genome. The utility and safety of VSV as a vaccine vector was recently demonstrated near the end of the recent Ebola outbreak in West Africa where VSV pseudotyped with the Ebola virus (EBOV) glycoprotein was proven safe in humans and provided protective efficacy against EBOV in a human phase III clinical trial. Read More

    Unlocking HIV-1 Env: implications for antibody attack.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):42. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Centre de Recherche du CHUM (CRCHUM), 900 St-Denis Street, Tour Viger, Montréal, QC, H2X 0A9, Canada.
    Collective evidence supporting a role of Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC) in controlling HIV-1 transmission and disease progression emerged in the last few years. Non-neutralizing antibodies (nnAbs) recognizing conserved CD4-induced epitopes on Env and able to mediate potent ADCC against HIV-1-infected cells exposing Env in its CD4-bound conformation have been shown to be present in some RV144 vaccinees and most HIV-1-infected individuals. HIV-1 evolved sophisticated strategies to decrease exposure of this Env conformation by downregulating CD4 and by limiting the overall amount of cell-surface Env. Read More

    Modulation of the strength and character of HIV-specific CD8(+) T cell responses with heteroclitic peptides.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):41. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Division of BioMedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 300 Prince Phillip Drive, St. John's, NL, A1B 3V6, Canada.
    Chronic infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes HIV-specific CD8(+) T cell dysfunction and exhaustion. The strong association between non-progression and maintenance of HIV-specific CD8(+) T cell cytokine production and proliferative capacities suggests that invigorating CD8(+) T cell immune responses would reduce viremia and slow disease progression. A series of studies have demonstrated that sequence variants of native immunogenic peptides can generate more robust CD8(+) T cell responses and that stimulation with these 'heteroclitic' peptides can steer responses away from the phenotypic and functional attributes of exhaustion acquired during chronic HIV infection. Read More

    Killed whole-HIV vaccine; employing a well established strategy for antiviral vaccines.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):47. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6G 2V4, Canada.
    The development of an efficient prophylactic HIV vaccine has been one of the major challenges in infectious disease research during the last three decades. Here, we present a mini review on strategies employed for the development of HIV vaccines with an emphasis on a well-established vaccine technology, the killed whole-virus vaccine approach. Recently, we reported an evaluation of the safety and the immunogenicity of a genetically modified and killed whole-HIV-1 vaccine designated as SAV001 [1]. Read More

    A novel HIV vaccine targeting the protease cleavage sites.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Sep 12;14(1):51. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
    HIV preferentially infects activated CD4+ T cells and mutates rapidly. The classical vaccine approach aimed to generate broad immune responses to full HIV proteins largely failed to address the potential adverse impact of increased number of activated CD4+ T cells as viral targets. Learning from natural immunity observed in a group of HIV resistant Kenyan female sex workers, we are testing a novel vaccine approach. Read More

    Factors affecting affect cardiovascular health in Indonesian HIV patients beginning ART.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Aug 31;14(1):52. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Virology and Cancer Pathobiology Research Center, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.
    Background: We present a small longitudinal study of how demographic factors and persistent burdens of HIV and cytomegalovirus (CMV) influence cardiovascular health in young adults beginning ART in an inner-city clinic in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    Methods: ART-naïve HIV patients [n = 67; aged 31 (19 to 48) years] were enrolled in the JakCCANDO Project. Echocardiography and carotid Doppler ultrasonography were performed before ART (V0) and after 3, 6, and 12 months (V3-12). Read More

    A frailty index predicts post-liver transplant morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive patients.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Aug 5;14(1):37. Epub 2017 Aug 5.
    Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences for Adults and Children, Liver and Multivisceral Transplant Center, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.
    Background: We hypothesized that frailty acts as a measure of health outcomes in the context of LT. The aim of this study was to explore frailty index across LT, as a measure of morbidity and mortality. This was a retrospective observational study including all consecutive 47 HIV+patients who received LT in Modena, Italy from 2003 to June 2015. Read More

    High level of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations in patients with unsuppressed viral loads in rural northern South Africa.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Jul 27;14(1):36. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    HIV/AIDS & Global Health Research Program, Department of Microbiology, University of Venda, Thohoyandou, 0950, South Africa.
    Background: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has significantly reduced HIV morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. However, the sustainability of cART may be compromised by the emergence of viral drug resistance mutations (DRM) and the cellular persistence of proviruses carrying these DRM. This is potentially a more serious problem in resource limited settings. Read More

    Bone mineral density in people living with HIV: a narrative review of the literature.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Jul 26;14(1):35. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Department of Physiological Sciences, Stellenbosch University Main Campus, Stellenbosch, 7602, Western Cape Province, Republic of South Africa.
    Bone health status is largely absent in South Africa, the main reasons being the absence and cost-effectiveness of specific screening equipment for assessing bone mineral density (BMD). Various risk factors seem to play a role, some of which can be modified to change bone health status. Urbanisation is also a public health concern. Read More

    Safety and immunogenicity of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) vaccine in HIV-positive Spanish men who have sex with men (MSM).
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 18;14:34. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Infectious Disease Service, University Hospital Virgen de las Nieves, Granada, Spain.
    Background: Safety and immunogenicity of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) vaccine were evaluated in HIV-positive Spanish MSM. The prevalence of High Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HSIL) and genotypes of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) were also determined, as well as risk factors associated with the presence of HR-HPV in anal mucosa.

    Methods: This is a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial of the quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine. Read More

    Transition into adult care: factors associated with level of preparedness among adolescents living with HIV in Cambodia.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 17;14:33. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    National Center for HIV/AIDS, Dermatology and STD, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    Background: Preparing adolescents for transition into adult care and supporting their acquisition of self-health care management skills is a critical determinant of their post-transition HIV care outcomes. However, there is a scarcity of research on effective transition strategies. This study explores factors associated with adolescent preparedness for transition into adult care in Cambodia. Read More

    Safety and immunogenicity of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) vaccine in HIV-positive Spanish men who have sex with men (MSM).
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Jul 18;14(1):34. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Infectious Disease Service, University Hospital Virgen de las Nieves, Granada, Spain.
    Background: Safety and immunogenicity of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) vaccine were evaluated in HIV-positive Spanish MSM. The prevalence of High Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HSIL) and genotypes of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) were also determined, as well as risk factors associated with the presence of HR-HPV in anal mucosa.

    Methods: This is a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial of the quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine. Read More

    Transition into adult care: factors associated with level of preparedness among adolescents living with HIV in Cambodia.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Jul 17;14(1):33. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    National Center for HIV/AIDS, Dermatology and STD, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    Background: Preparing adolescents for transition into adult care and supporting their acquisition of self-health care management skills is a critical determinant of their post-transition HIV care outcomes. However, there is a scarcity of research on effective transition strategies. This study explores factors associated with adolescent preparedness for transition into adult care in Cambodia. Read More

    The therapeutic landscape of HIV-1 via genome editing.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Jul 14;14(1):32. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Allied Health Sciences, College of Health and Allied Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana.
    Current treatment for HIV-1 largely relies on chemotherapy through the administration of antiretroviral drugs. While the search for anti-HIV-1 vaccine remain elusive, the use of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) have been far-reaching and has changed HIV-1 into a manageable chronic infection. There is compelling evidence, including several side-effects of ARTs, suggesting that eradication of HIV-1 cannot depend solely on antiretrovirals. Read More

    The dynamic changes of interferon lambdas related genes and proteins in JAK/STAT pathway in both acute and chronic HIV-1 infected patients.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Jun 17;14(1):31. Epub 2017 Jun 17.
    Center for Infectious Diseases, Beijing You'an Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100069 China.
    Background: Host immune responses during acute HIV-1 infection can influence the viral setpoint, which is a predictor of disease progression. Interferon (IFN)-lambdas are newly classified type III interferons, which use JAK-STAT pathway. Currently, the dynamics of IFN-lambdas related genes and proteins expression in the signaling pathway have not been well elaborated, especially in acute HIV-1-infected patients. Read More

    Clinical characteristics, predictors of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and long-term prognosis in patients with Kaposi sarcoma.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 May 30;14(1):30. Epub 2017 May 30.
    Infectious Diseases Department, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología (INCan), Av. San Fernando No. 22, Col. Sección XVI, Deleg. Tlalpan, 14080, Mexico City, Mexico.
    Objective: To investigate the predictive factors for the development of Kaposi sarcoma-related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (KS-IRIS) and long-term prognosis in patients starting combined antiretroviral therapy (cART).

    Methods: We studied a retrospective-cohort of consecutive antiretroviral-naïve patients with KS initiating cART from January 2005 to December 2011 and followed through June 2013. KS-IRIS was defined as ≥2 of the following: abrupt increase in number of KS lesions, appearance or exacerbation of lung-opacities or lymphedema, concomitantly with an increase in CD4+ cell-count ≥50 cells/mm(3) and a decrease of >1 log in viral-load once started cART. Read More

    Erratum to: Hospital days attributable to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in persons living with HIV before and after the 2012 DHHS HIV guidelines.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 22;14:29. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, University of Virginia, PO Box 801379, Charlottesville, VA 22908 USA.
    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s12981-017-0152-0.]. Read More

    Factors associated with pre-treatment HIV RNA: application for the use of abacavir and rilpivirine as the first-line regimen for HIV-infected patients in resource-limited settings.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 5;14:27. Epub 2017 May 5.
    Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, 270 Rama VI Road, Bangkok, 10400 Thailand.
    Background: Abacavir and rilpivirine are alternative antiretroviral drugs for treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients. However, both drugs are only recommended for the patients who have pre-treatment HIV RNA <100,000 copies/mL. In resource-limited settings, pre-treatment HIV RNA is not routinely performed and not widely available. Read More

    COHORT PROFILE: The Complications of Long-Term Antiretroviral Therapy study in Uganda (CoLTART), a prospective clinical cohort.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 4;14:26. Epub 2017 May 4.
    MRC/UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS, P.O. Box 49, Entebbe, Uganda.
    Background: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) improves the survival and quality of life of HIV-positive individuals, but the effects of long-term ART use do eventually manifest. The Complications of Long-Term Antiretroviral Therapy cohort study in Uganda (CoLTART) was established to investigate the metabolic and renal complications of long-term ART use among Ugandan adults. We describe the CoLTART study set-up, aims, objectives, study methods, and also report some preliminary cross-sectional study enrolment metabolic and renal complications data analysis results. Read More

    The developmental effects of HIV and alcohol: a comparison of gestational outcomes among babies from South African communities with high prevalence of HIV and alcohol use.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 May 8;14(1):28. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Background: There is growing evidence of the negative impact of alcohol on morbidity and mortality of individuals living with HIV but limited evidence of in utero effects of HIV and alcohol on exposure on infants.

    Methods: We conducted a population-based birth cohort study (N = 667 mother-infant dyads) in South Africa to investigate whether maternal alcohol use and HIV affected gestational outcomes. Descriptive data analysis was conducted for all variables using frequency distributions, measures of central tendency, and estimates of variance. Read More

    Hospital days attributable to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in persons living with HIV before and after the 2012 DHHS HIV guidelines.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 2;14:25. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, University of Virginia, PO Box 801379, Charlottesville, VA 22908 USA.
    Background: Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) can manifest with initiation or reintroduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in persons living with HIV (PLWH). In 2012, updated United States treatment guidelines recommended initiation of ART for all PLWH regardless of CD4 count. The objectives of this study were to quantify hospital usage attributable to IRIS and assess the reasons for hospitalization in PLWH before and after the guideline update. Read More

    Molecular diagnosis of central nervous system opportunistic infections and mortality in HIV-infected adults in Central China.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 2;14:24. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Basic Medical College of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.
    Background: CSF PCR is the standard diagnostic technique used in resource-rich settings to detect pathogens of the CNS infection. However, it is not currently used for routine CSF testing in China. Knowledge of CNS opportunistic infections among people living with HIV in China is limited. Read More

    Factors associated with loss to follow-up after occupational HIV exposure in Cape Town, South Africa: a retrospective cohort study.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Apr 21;14(1):23. Epub 2017 Apr 21.
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Groote Schuur Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, 7925, South Africa.
    Background: There is limited data on factors associated with loss to follow-up (LTFU) of health care workers (HCWs) following occupational exposure to HIV, and most studies were conducted in an era when poorly tolerated antiretrovirals like zidovudine were used.

    Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of HCWs attending a referral hospital's Occupational Health Clinic in Cape Town, South Africa for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) during a period when tenofovir was available. Our primary outcome was LTFU at the 3-month visit. Read More

    What influences quality of life in older people living with HIV?
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 11;14:22. Epub 2017 Apr 11.
    grid.9757.cSchool of Social Science and Public Policy, Keele University, London, UK.
    Background: People with HIV with access to treatment are growing older and living healthier lives than in the past, and while health improvements and increased survival rates are welcome, the psychological and social consequences and quality of life of ageing are complex for this group. Understanding how ageing, HIV and quality of life intersect is key to developing effective interventions to improve QoL.

    Methods: One hundred people with HIV over the age of 50 (range 50-87, mean 58), were recruited through HIV community organizations, and clinics, and included men who have sex with men (MSM), and Black African and White heterosexual men and women. Read More

    Validity assessment of the PROMIS fatigue domain among people living with HIV.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 11;14:21. Epub 2017 Apr 11.
    grid.34477.33Department of Medicine, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington, 325 9th Ave, Box 359931, Seattle, WA USA.
    Purpose: To evaluate psychometric characteristics and cross-sectional and longitudinal validity of the 7-item PROMIS(®) Fatigue Short Form and additional fatigue items among people living with HIV (PLWH) in a nationally distributed network of clinics collecting patient reported data at the time of routine clinical care.

    Methods: Cross-sectional and longitudinal fatigue data were collected from September 2012 through April 2013 across clinics participating in the Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS). We analyzed data regarding psychometric characteristics including simulated computerized adaptive testing and differential item functioning, and regarding associations with clinical characteristics. Read More

    Antiretroviral therapy supply chain quality control and assurance in improving people living with HIV therapeutic outcomes in Cameroon.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Apr 4;14(1):19. Epub 2017 Apr 4.
    LABOREB-Laboratoire de Recherche et d'Expertise Biomédicale, Yaoundé, Cameroon.
    Background: Evaluation of medication efficacy and safety is an essential guarantee to successful therapeutic outcome in public health practices. However, larger distribution chain supply in developing countries such as Cameroon is often challenged by counterfeit drugs, poor manufacturing, storage and degradation leading to health and patient adverse consequences. Yet, access to supply chain management in strengthening ARVs quality assurance and outcomes remains poorly documented. Read More

    Comparison of six methods to estimate adherence in an ART-naïve cohort in a resource-poor setting: which best predicts virological and resistance outcomes?
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Apr 4;14(1):20. Epub 2017 Apr 4.
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Background: Incomplete adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) results in virologic failure and resistance. It remains unclear which adherence measure best predicts these outcomes. We compared six patient-reported and objective adherence measures in one ART-naïve cohort in South Africa. Read More

    CLINICAL outcomes and loss to follow-up among people living with HIV participating in the NAMWEZA intervention in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a prospective cohort study.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Mar 28;14(1):18. Epub 2017 Mar 28.
    National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR), Mwanza, Tanzania.
    Background: Psychosocial factors have been linked with loss to follow-up (LTFU) and clinical outcomes among people living with HIV (PLH), however little is known about the effect of psychosocial support on LTFU among PLH in treatment and care. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of NAMWEZA ("Yes, together we can") friends' psychosocial support intervention on clinical outcomes and LTFU among PLH. NAMWEZA is based on a novel program using "appreciative inquiry", positive psychology approaches to empower, promote positive attitudes and foster hope. Read More

    Determinants to antiretroviral treatment non-adherence among adult HIV/AIDS patients in northern Ethiopia.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 21;14:16. Epub 2017 Mar 21.
    0000 0000 8539 4635grid.59547.3aDepartment of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Science, University of Gondar, 196 Gondar, Ethiopia.
    Background: Adhering 95% and above of antiretroviral therapy reduces the rate of disease progression and death among people's living human immunodeficiency virus. Though manifold factors have reported as determinant factors of antiretroviral therapy adherence status, perhaps determinants of non-adherence differ up on the activities of patients in the study setting.

    Methods: An institution based unmatched case-control study was conducted in Aksum town. Read More

    Impaired human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replicative fitness in atypical viremic non-progressor individuals.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 20;14:15. Epub 2017 Mar 20.
    0000 0000 9149 4843grid.443867.aUniversity Hospital Translational Laboratory, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH USA ; 0000 0001 2164 3847grid.67105.35Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University/University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-7288 USA ; 0000 0001 2164 3847grid.67105.35Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH USA.
    Background: Progression rates from initial HIV-1 infection to advanced AIDS vary significantly among infected individuals. A distinct subgroup of HIV-1-infected individuals-termed viremic non-progressors (VNP) or controllers-do not seem to progress to AIDS, maintaining high CD4(+) T cell counts despite high levels of viremia for many years. Several studies have evaluated multiple host factors, including immune activation, trying to elucidate the atypical HIV-1 disease progression in these patients; however, limited work has been done to characterize viral factors in viremic controllers. Read More

    Barriers to uptake of early infant HIV testing in Zambia: the role of intimate partner violence and HIV status disclosure within couples.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Mar 21;14(1):17. Epub 2017 Mar 21.
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA.
    Background: Early detection of pediatric HIV through uptake of infant HIV testing is critical for access to treatment and child survival. While structural barriers have been well described, a greater understanding of social and behavioral factors that may relate to maternal uptake of early infant HIV testing services is urgently needed. The aim of this study was to explore how gender power dynamics within couples affect HIV-positive women's uptake of early infant HIV testing at a large health center in Lusaka, Zambia. Read More

    Joint longitudinal data analysis in detecting determinants of CD4 cell count change and adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy at Felege Hiwot Teaching and Specialized Hospital, North-west Ethiopia (Amhara Region).
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Mar 16;14(1):14. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa.
    Background: Adherence and CD4 cell count change measure the progression of the disease in HIV patients after the commencement of HAART. Lack of information about associated factors on adherence to HAART and CD4 cell count reduction is a challenge for the improvement of cells in HIV positive adults. The main objective of adopting joint modeling was to compare separate and joint models of longitudinal repeated measures in identifying long-term predictors of the two longitudinal outcomes: CD4 cell count and adherence to HAART. Read More

    Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf powder on the pharmacokinetics of nevirapine in HIV-infected adults: a one sequence cross-over study.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 14;14:12. Epub 2017 Mar 14.
    0000 0004 0572 0760grid.13001.33Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences, Harare, Zimbabwe.
    Background: Moringa oleifera Lam., an herb commonly consumed by HIV-infected people on antiretroviral therapy, inhibits cytochrome P450 3A4, 1A2 and 2D6 activity in vitro; and may alter the pharmacokinetics (PK) of antiretroviral drugs metabolized via the same pathways. However, in vitro drug interaction activity may not translate to a clinically significant effect. Read More

    Possible misdiagnosis of HIV associated lymphoma as tuberculosis among patients attending Uganda Cancer Institute.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Mar 14;14(1):13. Epub 2017 Mar 14.
    Infectious Disease Institute, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, P.O. Box 22418, Kampala, Uganda.
    Background: Early diagnosis of HIV associated lymphoma is challenging because the definitive diagnostic procedure of biopsy, requires skills and equipment that are not readily available. As a consequence, diagnosis may be delayed increasing the risk of mortality. We set out to determine the frequency and risk factors associated with the misdiagnosis of HIV associated lymphoma as tuberculosis (TB) among patients attending the Uganda Cancer Institute (UCI). Read More

    Characterization of occult hepatitis B virus infection among HIV positive patients in Cameroon.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Mar 8;14(1):11. Epub 2017 Mar 8.
    HIV/AIDS & Global Health Research Program, Department of Microbiology, University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, Thohoyandou, 0950, Limpopo, South Africa.
    Purpose: Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) among HIV positive patients varies widely in different geographic regions. We undertook a study to determine the prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection among HIV infected individuals visiting a health facility in South West Cameroon and characterized occult HBV strains based on sequence analyses.

    Methods: Plasma samples (n = 337), which previously tested negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), were screened for antibodies against hepatitis B core (anti-HBc) and surface (anti-HBs) antigens followed by DNA extraction. Read More

    HIV care in Yangon, Myanmar; successes, challenges and implications for policy.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Mar 4;14(1):10. Epub 2017 Mar 4.
    Department of Medicine, University of Medicine 2, Yangon, Myanmar.
    Background: Approximately 0.8% of adults aged 18-49 in Myanmar are seropositive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Identifying the demographic, epidemiological and clinical characteristics of people living with HIV (PLHIV) is essential to inform optimal management strategies in this resource-limited country. Read More

    Distribution and fate of HIV-1 unintegrated DNA species: a comprehensive update.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Feb 16;14(1). Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Department of Systems Biotechnology, Chung-Ang University, Anseong, Kyunggido, 456-756, South Korea.
    Reverse transcription of viral RNA and the subsequent integration of reverse transcripts are the classical early events of the HIV-1 life-cycle. Simultaneously, abundant unintegrated DNAs (uDNAs), are formed in cells ubiquitously. The uDNAs either undergo recombination or degradation or persist inactively for long periods in the nucleus as future resources. Read More

    Late presentation increases risk and costs of non-infectious comorbidities in people with HIV: an Italian cost impact study.
    AIDS Res Ther 2017 Feb 16;14(1). Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences for Adults and Children, Clinic of Infectious Diseases, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Emilia-Romagna, Modena, Italy.
    Background: Late presentation (LP) at the time of HIV diagnosis is defined as presentation with AIDS whatever the CD4 cell count or with CD4 <350 cells/mm. The objective of our study was to assess the prevalence of non-infectious comorbidities (NICM) and multimorbidity among HIV-positive individuals with and without a history of LP (HIV + LP and HIV + EP, respectively), and compare them to matched HIV-negative control participants from a community-based cohort. The secondary objective was to provide estimates and determinants of direct cost of medical care in HIV patients. Read More

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