6,291 results match your criteria AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses[Journal]


Near Full-Length Genomic Characterization of a Novel HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Form (CRF106_cpx) Identifified among Heterosexuals in China.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for AIDS/STD and Control Prevention, No 27 Nanwei road, Beijing, China, 100050;

In our study, we reported a novel CRF01_AE/B/C HIV-1 recombinant form among six epidemiologically unlinked heterosexual patients in Yunnan, China. It was named CRF106_cpx (this is temporary as we have not received the CRF number from HIV databases). After sequencing and analyzing of the near full-length genome (NFLG), we found that CRF106_cpx was generated by three B segments and two CRF01_AE segments inserted into the C backbone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2020.0101DOI Listing

Analysis of CRISPR/Cas9 guide RNA efficiency and specificity against genetically diverse HIV-1 isolates.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

White River Junction VA Medical Center, 20127, White River Junction, Vermont, United States.

Gene editing approaches using CRISPR/Cas9 are being developed as a means for targeting the integrated HIV-1 provirus. Enthusiasm for the use of gene editing as an anti-HIV-1 therapeutic has been tempered by concerns about the specificity and efficacy of this approach. Guide RNAs (gRNAs) that target conserved sequences across a wide range of genetically diverse HIV-1 isolates will have greater clinical utility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2020.0055DOI Listing

HIV-1 drug resistance mutation analyses of Cameroon derived Integrase sequences.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Stellenbosch University, Division of Medical Virology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences,, PO Box 19063, Francie van Zijl Avenue, Cape Town, Western Cape Province, South Africa, 7505;

HIV-1 Integrase (IN) is a primary target for combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Only a limited number of studies report on the emergence of resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) in Cameroon. We observed that (1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2020.0022DOI Listing

Assisters Succeed in Insurance Navigation for People Living with HIV and People at Increased Risk of HIV in a Complex Coverage Landscape.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

University of Virginia School of Nursing, 16179, Charlottesville, Virginia, United States;

Insurance enrollment is complex for people living with HIV (PLWH) and people at increased risk for HIV, in part due to needing to ensure access to adequate provider networks and appropriate formularies. Insurance for PLWH facilitates access to HIV care/treatment and, ultimately, viral suppression, which has the individual benefit of longevity and the public health benefit of decreased HIV transmission. For people at increased risk for HIV, access to insurance facilitates improved access to HIV biomedical prevention, which has the individual benefit of elimination of transmission risk and the public health benefit of decreased HIV transmission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2020.0013DOI Listing

Anti-HIV Activity of Standard cART in Primary Cells Is Intensified by CCR5-Targeting Drugs.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jul 5. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Institute of Human Virology, Basic Science, Baltimore, Maryland, United States.

The efficacy of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) against HIV-1 is evidenced by reduction of plasma viremia, disease progression, viral transmission and mortality. However, major challenges still remain in HIV-1 management, especially the emergence of resistant strains and the persistence of viral reservoirs, apparent after cART treatment interruption. Efforts are ongoing to explore the most effective means to intensify cART therapy and successfully control residual viral replication. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2020.0064DOI Listing
July 2020
2.325 Impact Factor

Impact of Fat Changes on the Effect of Protease Inhibitors on Lumbar Spine Bone Mineral Density Changes with Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Initiation.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jul 5. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Johns Hopkins University, 1466, 1830 East Monument Street, Suite 333, Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 21287;

People living with HIV (PLWH) who are on protease inhibitor (PI) containing regimens have been shown to have increases in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and a greater decrease in spine bone mineral density (BMD) than those receiving non-PI regimens when initiating treatment. This increase in VAT has been hypothesized to falsely lower spine BMD measured via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), suggesting that the PI associated BMD loss is an artefact rather than real. To test this, data collected from two completed 96-week clinical trials, ACTG studies A5224s and A5260s, of ART naïve PLWH initiating treatment with PI and non-PI containing regimens were analyzed comparing VAT accumulation and spine BMD loss. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2019.0290DOI Listing

New knowledge about CCR5, HIV infection and disease progression: is "old" still valuable?

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Case Western Reserve University, 2546, Center for Global Health and Diseases, BRB 409A, Cleveland, Cleveland, Ohio, United States, 44106-7078;

C-C chemokine receptor (CCR) 5 (CCR5) is the main HIV-1 co-receptor involved in virus entry and cell-to-cell spread during acute and chronic infections: such CCR5-using and T cell-tropic viruses are adapted to and replicate in CD4+ memory T cells. Polymorphisms in CCR5 regulate CCR5 expression, which, in turn, influences HIV infection acquisition and subsequent disease progression. Among these polymorphisms, a 32-bp deletion in the CCR5 open reading frame (CCR5 Δ32) and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter (-2459G/A) are the most well-characterized ones. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2020.0060DOI Listing

A geographic hotspot and emerging transmission cluster of the HIV-1 epidemic among older adults in a rural area of eastern China.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Lishui Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Lishui, China;

Despite the implementation of health education and free condom distribution for decades, the HIV/AIDS epidemic among older adults in China shows no sign of declining. This study aims to identify HIV transmission patterns and pathways in a rural county area and provide insight for developing effective HIV prevention strategies among older adults. Epidemiological field surveys combined with phylogenetic analysis were used to identify potential HIV transmission linkage in one rural county with a rapidly increasing HIV epidemic among older adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2019.0293DOI Listing

Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Insulin Resistance in Pubertal Youth Living with Perinatally-acquired HIV.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

University of Hawaii, Cell and Mol Biol, 651 Ilalo Street, BSB 222B, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States, 96813;

Mitochondrial dysfunction (MD) is linked to cardiometabolic complications, such as obesity and insulin resistance (IR), the frequencies of which are higher in adults living with HIV infection and receiving combination antiretroviral therapies (ARV). ARV-treated youth living with perinatally-acquired HIV infection (YLPHIV) may be especially susceptible to IR due to long-term exposure to both factors. Medical histories, fasting blood chemistry panels, and mitochondrial function in banked peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were assessed in eligible YLPHIV from the PHACS/AMP Mitochondrial Determinants Component cohort, stratified by Homeostatic Model Assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) score: case (score≥4, n=39) or control (score<4, n=105). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2020.0067DOI Listing

Admission CRP-to-albumin ratio predicts the 180-day mortality of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related pneumocystis pneumonia.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Beijing Di-Tan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China;

Background: Assessment tools are necessary for the adequate stratification of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP).

Aim: To evaluate the ability of severity assessment scores and inflammation- and nutrition-based parameters for predicting the 180-day mortality of AIDS-related PCP.

Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with AIDS-related PCP admitted at the Beijing Di-Tan Hospital. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2020.0057DOI Listing

Association between polymorphisms in the interleukin-10 gene and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jun 16. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Tumor Hospital Affiliated to Guangxi Medical University, Department of Radiology, He Di Rd. #71, Nanning, Guangxi, China, 530021;

ackground: This study meta-analyzed the literature on possible association of three polymorphisms (-592, -1082, -819) in the interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene with susceptibility to HIV-1 infection.

Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE and Google Scholar were systematically searched to identify relevant studies in English. Meta-analyses were performed to examine the association of IL-10 polymorphisms -592, -1082, and -819 with susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2020.0011DOI Listing
June 2020
2.325 Impact Factor

HIV-1 genetic diversity and high prevalence of pretreatment drug resistance in Tianjin, China.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jun 16. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Tianjin Second People's Hospital, Department of Infectious Disease, Tianjin, China;

Background: Diversity of genotypes and prevalence of pretreatment drug resistance (PDR) challenge the epidemic control and vaccine development of HIV-1. However, little is known about the situation in Tianjin. Methods: Blood samples were collected from newly diagnosed antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naive HIV/AIDS patients from January 2016 to November 2019. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2020.0056DOI Listing

HIV infection does not increase 10-week mortality of Chinese cryptococcal meningitis patients.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jun 16. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Infectious Diseases Department, 79 Qing Chun Road, 79 Qing Chun Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, 310006.

Backgroud The role of HIV infection in precipitating different clinical features in Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) patients remains controversial. Methods One hundred and twelve CM patients living with HIV/AIDS (CM+HIV+ patients) and 112 CM patients living without HIV/AIDS (CM+HIV- patients) were enrolled after propensity score matching. Demographic characteristics, symptoms, routine blood tests, biochemical and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) profiles were compared between the two groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2020.0001DOI Listing

Associations Between Personality Traits and Patterns of HIV Risk Behaviors Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in China.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statisitics, School of Health Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

This study aimed to ascertain the patterns of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviors among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) and explore the relationships between personality traits and patterns of HIV risk behaviors. Three hundred and seventy-five YMSM were recruited from March to December 2013, in central China. Latent class analysis (LCA) was utilized to identify underlying subgroups of HIV risk behaviors; multinomial logistic regression was used to examine predictors of HIV risk behaviors patterns. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2019.0291DOI Listing

Tenofovir Alafenamide Fumarate Therapy for HIV Treatment: Cardiometabolic and Renal Safety.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

HIV Unit, Democritus University of Thrace, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Alexandroupoli, Greece.

Antiretroviral treatment based on tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (TAF) is increasingly recommended, as it maintains the viral suppression and improves renal function and bone density in comparison with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). We carried out a retrospective cohort study including experienced patients who switched treatment from TDF to TAF. Serum lipids and glucose, renal function, body mass index (BMI), and cardiovascular risk were evaluated before and 3 and 6 months after the initiation of TAF-based treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2019.0280DOI Listing

Initiation of antiretroviral therapy differentially influences genital and systemic immune activation in HIV-infected women.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jun 11. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

University of Cape Town Faculty of Health Sciences, 63726, Pathology, Anzio Road, Observatory, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa, 7925.

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has significantly improved the quality of life of HIV-infected individuals: reducing plasma viremia, restoring CD4+ T-cell numbers and correcting imbalances in blood memory T-cell subsets. While ART improves immune correlates at mucosal sites, including the lower female genital tract (FGT), ART initiation has been associated with reactivation of common FGT infections. We investigated the effect of ART on immune activation and inflammation in the genital tract. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2019.0268DOI Listing

Association of Pain and Pain Medication Use with Multiple Characteristics of Older People Living with HIV.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

ViiV Healthcare, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA.

People living with HIV (PLWH) experience chronic pain that may impact function. Gaps in knowledge exist for factors that impact pain and pain medication use in older (age 50+) PLWH. Data for this study were obtained from the Aging with Dignity, Health, Optimism and Community (ADHOC) cohort, an observational study of older PLWH from 10 clinics across the United States. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2020.0039DOI Listing

Rate of the HIV transmission and associated factors among HIV-exposed infants in Guangxi , China: 2014-2019.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jun 5. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Children's Hospital, Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Nanning, Guangxi, China;

This study aims to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV and identify the possible factors leading to infant HIV infection using a retrospective cohort study of early infant diagnosis (EID). Information on a total of 3,145 exposed infant-mother pairs was collected from the EID platform from July/2014 to December/2019. The MTCT rate was 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2020.0073DOI Listing

Comparison of HIV Incidence in the Zimbabwe Population-Based HIV Impact Assessment Survey (2015-2016) with Modeled Estimates: Progress Toward Epidemic Control.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

ICAP at Columbia University, New York, New York, USA.

Between October 2015 and August 2016, Zimbabwe conducted the Zimbabwe Population-Based HIV Impact Assessment (ZIMPHIA) cross-sectional survey to determine progress toward epidemic control. Of 25,131 eligible adults aged 15-64 years, 20,577 (81.8%) consented to face-to-face questionnaire and biomarker testing in this nationally representative household survey. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2020.0046DOI Listing
June 2020
2.325 Impact Factor

High Levels of Acquired HIV Drug Resistance Following Virological Nonsuppression in HIV-Infected Women from a High-Risk Cohort in Uganda.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Medical Research Council (MRC)/Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI) and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) Uganda Research Unit, Entebbe, Uganda.

HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) is of increasing health concern, especially among key populations. We investigated the prevalence of virological suppression (VS), prevalence and correlates of HIVDR in HIV-infected women, enrolled in a high-risk cohort. We enrolled 267 women initiated on first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) between 2015 and 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2019.0279DOI Listing
June 2020
2.325 Impact Factor

Chemokine Coreceptor Usage Among HIV-1 Drug-Naive Patients Residing in the Rural Eastern Cape, South Africa.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

School of Science and Technology, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, Pretoria, South Africa.

Sub-Saharan region in Africa still holds the highest burden of HIV/AIDS globally. HIV-1 requires coreceptor to gain entry into permissive cells to initiate infection. Molecular analysis of the chemokine coreceptor usage is important clinically and in the effective management of AIDS virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2020.0066DOI Listing

Prevalence of Insulin Resistance in Adults Living with HIV: Implications of Alcohol Use.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Comprehensive Alcohol-HIV/AIDS Research Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.

Unhealthy alcohol use is prevalent among persons living with HIV (PLWH). Aging and increased survival of PLWH on antiretroviral therapy (ART) are complicated by metabolic dysregulation and increased risk of insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and association of IR with unhealthy alcohol use in adult in-care PLWH. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2020.0029DOI Listing

"My Death Will Not [Be] in Vain": Testimonials from Last Gift Rapid Research Autopsy Study Participants Living with HIV at the End of Life.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, AntiViral Research Center, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, USA.

End-of-life (EOL) HIV cure-related research provides a novel approach to studying HIV reservoirs. The Last Gift is a rapid autopsy research study at the University of California San Diego that enrolls terminally ill people living with HIV (PLWHIV) with a desire to contribute to HIV cure-related research. We conducted in-depth baseline and follow-up interviews with Last Gift study participants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2020.0020DOI Listing
June 2020
2.325 Impact Factor

Perceptions of Next-of-Kin/Loved Ones About Last Gift Rapid Research Autopsy Study Enrolling People with HIV/AIDS at the End of Life: A Qualitative Interview Study.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

AntiViral Research Center, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, USA.

A growing number of people living with HIV/AIDS are participating in HIV cure-related research at the end of life (EOL). Due to the novelty of EOL HIV cure-related research, there is a need to understand how their next-of-kin (NOK) perceive such research. We conducted in-depth interviews with NOK of the Last Gift study participants at the University of California, San Diego. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2020.0025DOI Listing
June 2020
2.325 Impact Factor

Fake Science: XMRV, COVID-19, and the Toxic Legacy of Dr. Judy Mikovits.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 07 22;36(7):545-549. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

One cannot spend >5 min on social media at the moment without finding a link to some conspiracy theory or other regarding the origin of SARS-CoV2, the coronavirus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. From the virus being deliberately released as a bioweapon to pharmaceutical companies blocking the trials of natural remedies to boost their dangerous drugs and vaccines, the Internet is rife with far-fetched rumors. And predictably, now that the first immunization trials have started, the antivaccine lobby has latched on to most of them. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2020.0095DOI Listing

Sleep Health Should be Included as a Therapeutic Target in the Treatment of HIV.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jun 16. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Sequencing Core, Research Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2020.0094DOI Listing

Treatment Experience and Repeat Pregnancy Impact the Effectiveness of Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcription Inhibitor-Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy for the Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jun 9. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Reference Lab, The Bahamas Ministry of Health, Nassau, Bahamas.

Non-nucleoside reverse transcription inhibitor (NNRTI)-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) for the prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has led to dramatic reductions in perinatal HIV infection in resource-constrained settings. Nonetheless, PMTCT programs are complicated by repeat pregnancies, in which long-term or repeat exposures to PMTCT regimens over time may lead to the acquisition of HIV drug resistance mutations, and consequent treatment failure. In this study, we retrospectively assessed the effectiveness of the NNRTI-based PMTCT protocol from 2008 to 2010 in The Bahamas National HIV/AIDS Program. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2019.0001DOI Listing

Risk Factors of Hypovitaminosis D in HIV-Infected Patients on Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jun 8. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases and Hepatology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Low serum vitamin D levels are very common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. In our cross-sectional study, we investigated the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and serum inflammation markers [C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cells (WBC), D-dimers, platelet count (PLT)] in 148 HIV-infected patients on combined antiretroviral therapy [28 on tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)] and 40 healthy controls. The controls were significantly older (56. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2019.0020DOI Listing

Effects of Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate, Copper Intrauterine Devices, and Levonorgestrel Implants on Early HIV Disease Progression.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Setshaba Research Center, Soshanguve, South Africa.

Limited data exist on the effects of contraceptives on HIV disease progression. We studied the association between intramuscular injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA-IM), the copper intrauterine device (IUD), and the levonorgestrel (LNG) implant on markers of HIV disease progression at the time of HIV detection and 3 months postdetection and time from detection to CD4 count <350 cells/mm. Among women initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), we studied the effect of contraceptive group on time from ART initiation to viral load (VL) <40 copies/mL. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2020.0015DOI Listing
June 2020
2.325 Impact Factor

Physical Therapy for Chronic Pain Mitigation and Opioid Use Reduction Among People Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Atlanta, GA: A Descriptive Case Series.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

People living with HIV (PLH) may be at increased risk of experiencing both chronic pain and opioid dependence. Physical therapy (PT) has been shown to be effective as a nonpharmacological strategy for mitigating chronic pain in the general population, however, there is gap in research investigating PT to reduce chronic pain and opioid use among PLH. This case series describes the feasibility of an innovative PT intervention to decrease chronic pain and opioid use at a multidisciplinary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2020.0028DOI Listing
June 2020
2.325 Impact Factor

Endogenous Hormones and Antiretroviral Exposure in Plasma, Cervicovaginal Fluid, and Upper-Layer Packed Cells of Malawian Women Living with HIV.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jun 9. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Overlap in metabolism pathways of endogenous female sex hormones and antiretroviral drugs may lead to altered exposure to these compounds. In a family planning clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, blood, blood cell, and cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) samples from seventy-three HIV positive Malawian women taken in follicular and luteal menstrual phases were assessed for estradiol and progesterone by chemiluminescent immunoassay, and for antiretroviral concentration by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In both follicular and luteal phases, estradiol concentrations were lower in women receiving efavirenz compared with women on non-efavirenz regimens or no antiretroviral therapy ( < . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2019.0278DOI Listing
June 2020
2.325 Impact Factor

First Detection of a Circulating Recombinant Form of HIV-1 CRF01_AE/08_BC (CRF105_0108) with Drug-Resistant Mutations in Sichuan, China.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jul;36(7):625-630

State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention (NCAIDS), Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC), Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Beijing, China.

In this study, we identified a novel circulating recombinant form (CRF) of HIV (CRF105_0108) in a total of five patients with no obvious epidemiological linkage in Sichuan, China. Four strains were found in this study, and another strain (XC2014EU01) was reported in a previous study. The phylogenetic analysis of the five near full-length genomes showed that a CRF08_BC segment was inserted into the CRF01_AE backbone with one recombinant breakpoint in the region, which is the first HIV-1 CRF of CRF01_AE and CRF08_BC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2020.0034DOI Listing
July 2020
2.325 Impact Factor

Perceptions of HIV Virologic Control Strategies Among Younger and Older Age Groups of People Living with HIV in the United States: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jul 27;36(7):606-615. Epub 2020 May 27.

UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Two HIV virologic control advances are in various stages of development, including long-acting antiretroviral therapy (ART) formulations and strategies aimed at sustained ART-free HIV control. Perceptions of risks and benefits toward HIV virologic control strategies may be different based on an individual's age due to differing experiences of the impacts of the domestic HIV epidemic, altruistic attitudes toward research participation, and general levels of engagement in health care. We examined preferences of HIV virologic control strategies by age groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2020.0023DOI Listing

Review on the Alteration of Gut Microbiota: The Role of HIV Infection and Old Age.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jul 18;36(7):556-565. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection results in gut microbiota alteration and this is associated with immune activation and chronic inflammation. The gastrointestinal tract is a primary site of viral replication and thus HIV-induced loss of T-helper (Th) cells in the gut causes impairments in intestinal barriers, resulting in disruptions in intestinal immunity and precipitating into gut dysbiosis. Here, we show that late HIV diagnosis can negatively affect the immunological, virological, and clinical prognosis of the patients with its higher implication at an older age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2019.0282DOI Listing

Multiple HIV-1 Genotypes Circulating Among College Students in Nanjing, China.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jul 18;36(7):616-624. Epub 2020 May 18.

Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Ministry of Education, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

College students are disproportionately affected by HIV-1 in China. However, little is known about the genetic characteristics of HIV-1 among this population. A molecular epidemiological investigation was conducted among the newly diagnosed antiretroviral therapy-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals during 2015-2019 in Nanjing city, China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2019.0288DOI Listing

Late Presenters of HIV Infection in an HIV Unit of a Tertiary University Hospital in a Rural Region of Greece.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jul 12;36(7):601-605. Epub 2020 May 12.

HIV Unit, 2nd Department of Internal Medicine, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece.

A significant progress has been made over the years in the prognosis and treatment of patients with early diagnosis of HIV infection. However, late presentation of a large number of patients remains a serious public health problem. The aim of our study is to highlight the dimensions of the problem by evaluating the data from the HIV Unit of Alexandroupolis, a rural region with population heterogeneity and a strategic position between West and East, Europe, and Asia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2019.0246DOI Listing

Impact of Early Antiretroviral Treatment Initiation on Performance of Cross-Sectional Incidence Assays.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jul 27;36(7):583-589. Epub 2020 May 27.

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can impact assays used for cross-sectional HIV incidence testing, causing inaccurate HIV incidence estimates. We evaluated the relationship between the timing of ART initiation and the performance of two serologic HIV incidence assays. We analyzed 302 samples from 55 individuals from the RV217 cohort (Early Capture HIV Cohort Study). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2019.0286DOI Listing

New Genomes from the Congo Basin Expand History of CRF01_AE Origin and Dissemination.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jul 18;36(7):574-582. Epub 2020 May 18.

Abbott Diagnostics, Infectious Disease Research, Abbott Park, Illinois, USA.

Although the first HIV circulating recombinant form (CRF01_AE) is the predominant strain in many Asian countries, it is uncommonly found in the Congo Basin from where it first originated. To fill the gap in the evolutionary history of this important strain, we sequenced near complete genomes from HIV samples with subgenomic CRF01_AE regions collected in Cameroon and the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 2001 to 2006. HIV genomes were generated from  = 13 plasma specimens by next-generation sequencing of metagenomic libraries prepared with spiked primers targeting HIV, followed by Sanger gap-filling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2020.0031DOI Listing
July 2020
2.325 Impact Factor

HIV-1 Subtype Distribution and Diversity Over 18 Years in Rakai, Uganda.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jun;36(6):522-526

Laboratory of Immunoregulation, Division of Intramural Research, NIAID, NIH, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

The Rakai Community Cohort Study in south central Uganda has surveyed people aged 15-49 since 1994. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) was introduced in 2004. HIV p24 and gp41 subtype distribution and viral diversity were studied from blood samples collected at three surveys in 1994-1995, 2002-2003, and 2008-2009, which were compared with a new survey round from 2011 to 2012. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2020.0062DOI Listing

Short Communication: Elevated Labile Iron Levels in CD4 and CD8 T Cells from HIV-Positive Individuals with Undetectable Viral Load.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jul 15;36(7):597-600. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

National Reference Laboratory of Immunology, National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Sofia, Bulgaria.

Iron is a key factor at various stages of HIV life cycle and determines the progression of HIV infection. Data about cellular labile iron pool (LIP) in the settings of contemporary antiretroviral therapy (cART) are lacking. Yet LIP is directly related to the generation of reactive oxygen species, and may contribute to immune activation, dysfunction, and exhaustion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2020.0010DOI Listing
July 2020
2.325 Impact Factor

Rapid Uptake of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis After Significant Price Reduction in Germany Highlights Importance of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Accessibility.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Institute for HIV Research, University Hospital, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) has been widely accepted as an effective method to prevent HIV infections, but high costs precluded a widespread use in Germany. A novel distribution pathway of tenofovir-disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine PrEP was implemented, which reduced monthly PrEP costs by 16-fold in Germany. Over a period of 6 months, we recorded prescription data, demographics, and sexual behavior of PrEP users, including self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs), alcohol and drug use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2019.0237DOI Listing

The London Patient.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Apr 31;36(4):251-252. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Palm Springs, California.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2020.0058DOI Listing

Participant Perspectives in an HIV Cure-Related Trial Conducted Exclusively in Women in the United States: Results from AIDS Clinical Trials Group 5366.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Apr;36(4):268-282

John Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Women remain underrepresented in HIV research. The AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) 5366 study was the first HIV cure-related trial conducted exclusively in women. Our multidisciplinary team integrated participant-centered reports into the ACTG 5366 protocol to elicit their perspectives. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2019.0284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7185351PMC

Drug Resistance Among Adolescents and Young Adults with Virologic Failure of First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy and Response to Second-Line Treatment.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jul 2;36(7):566-573. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Department of Molecular Biology, Biomedical Research and Training Institute, Harare, Zimbabwe.

Barriers to sustainable virologic suppression (VS) of HIV-infected adolescents and young adults include drug resistance mutations (DRMs) and limited treatment options, which may impact the outcome of second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART). We sequenced plasma viral RNA from 74 adolescents and young adults (16-24 years) failing first-line ART at Newlands Clinic, Zimbabwe between October 2015 and December 2016. We evaluated first-line nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) susceptibility scores to first- and second-line regimens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2019.0232DOI Listing
July 2020
2.325 Impact Factor

Circulating HIV-1 Integrase Genotypes in Tanzania: Implication on the Introduction of Integrase Inhibitors-Based Antiretroviral Therapy Regimen.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jun 6;36(6):539-543. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Tanzania has recently adapted World Health Organization antiretroviral guidelines that include integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) in the first-line regimen. However, there is lack of evidence on integrase (IN) gene polymorphisms in viral strains circulating in Tanzania. In this study, we characterize IN gene polymorphisms in viral strains circulating in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, before introduction of INSTIs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2020.0021DOI Listing

Genetic Characterization of Full-Length HIV-2 Long Terminal Repeat Sequences: Identification of Rare Promoter Variants.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jun 2;36(6):533-538. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Department of HIV/AIDS, National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis (Indian Council of Medical Research), Chennai, India.

In this study, we sequenced the full-length HIV type 2 (HIV-2) long terminal repeat region from the proviral DNA of 23 HIV-2-infected individuals from the southern parts of India. We identified two different promoter variant strains circulating in this region along with the globally circulating common promoter variant. Seven sequences had an additional nuclear factor kappa-light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) binding motif and the sequence from another subject showed one NF-κB and one RBE-III binding site. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2020.0027DOI Listing

Higher Proportion of Abnormal Nutritional Status Among Well-Suppressed HIV-Infected Elderly Asians Compared to HIV-Negative Individuals.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jul 25;36(7):590-596. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

HIV-NAT, Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre, Bangkok, Thailand.

Older adults face physiological, psychological, social, and economic changes, which may impair nutritional status, making the body vulnerable to illness and adverse clinical outcomes. Little is known regarding the nutritional status among elderly people living with HIV (PLHIV). We aimed to study the prevalence of malnutrition and the associated factors in a Thai aging cohort. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2019.0285DOI Listing

Near Full-Length Genomic Characterization of a Novel Unique Recombinant (CRF01_AE/CRF07_BC) in Fuyang City of China.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jun 15;36(6):527-532. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of AIDS Research, State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, China.

Recombinant forms contribute substantially to the genetic diversity of HIV-1. Recent studies have also revealed that three major viral strains (CRF07_BC, CRF01_AE, and subtype B) have been cocirculating among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Anhui, suggesting a high probability of generating new recombinants. In this study, we reported a novel CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC HIV-1 recombinant form in MSM in Fuyang city of China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2020.0002DOI Listing

Clinical/Laboratory Interface Interventions to Improve Impact of Viral Load and Early Infant Diagnosis Testing Scale-Up.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jul 12;36(7):550-555. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

African Society for Laboratory Medicine, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Despite tremendous improvements in viral load (VL) monitoring and early infant diagnosis (EID) in many countries, low VL and EID testing rates and low VL suppression rates persist in specific regions and among certain subpopulations. The VL/EID cascade includes patient and provider demand creation, sample collection and transportation, laboratory testing, results transmission back to the clinic, and patient management. Gaps in communication and coordination between clinical and laboratory counterparts can lead to suboptimal outcomes, such as delay or inability to collect and transport samples to the laboratory for testing and failure of test results to reach providers and patients in an efficient, timely, and effective manner. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2019.0266DOI Listing