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    5906 results match your criteria AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses[Journal]

    1 OF 119

    Genetic Variation of the Kinases that Phosphorylate Tenofovir and Emtricitabine in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Feb 17. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Departments of Medicine and Pharmacology , 725 N Wolfe Street , Biophysics 307 , Baltimore, Maryland, United States , 20020 ;
    Tenofovir (TFV) disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (FTC) are used in combination for HIV treatment and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is a prodrug that undergoes diester hydrolysis to TFV. FTC and TFV are nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors that upon phosphorylation to nucleotide triphosphate analogs competitively inhibit HIV reverse transcriptase. Read More

    Spatiotemporal characteristics of the HIV-1 CRF02_AG/CRF63_02A1 epidemic in Russia and central Asia.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Feb 17. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    National and Kapodistrian University of Athens - Faculty of Medicine, 68989, Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Athens, Greece ;
    Background: Eastern European countries including Russia, Ukraine and other former Soviet Union (FSU) countries have experienced an HIV epidemic spreading mostly among people who inject drugs (PWID). We aimed to investigate the origin and the dispersal patterns of HIV-1 CRF02_AG in Russia and other FSU countries.

    Methods: We studied 136 CRF02_AG sequences originating from Russia, and FSU countries along with a globally sampled dataset of 3,580 CRF02_AG sequences. Read More

    Dolutegravir-Based Regimens Are Active in Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitor-Naive Patients With Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Resistance.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    ViiV Healthcare, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, United States ;
    Dolutegravir demonstrated superior virologic efficacy compared with raltegravir in treatment-experienced, integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI)-naive patients with HIV-1 who harbored resistance to ≥2 classes of antiretroviral drugs. Significantly fewer dolutegravir-treated patients demonstrated virologic failure with treatment emergent resistance than raltegravir-treated patients through 48 weeks. Resistance analyses informed the design of investigator-selected background therapy (ISBT) that included at least 1 fully active agent. Read More

    Identification of a Novel HIV-1 Recombinant Form (B/C) in Men Who Have Sex with Men in Shaanxi, China.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Shaanxi Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 425040, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China ;
    Many new circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and unique recombinant forms (URFs) of HIV-1 have been found in men who have sex with men (MSM) in recent years, in China. In this study, a unique HIV-1 recombinant genome (SN153) was characterized from an HIV-positive male infected through homosexual behavior in Shaanxi, China. The mosaic pattern had a complex intersubtype recombinant structure with six breakpoints, with three subtype C segments inserted into subtype B backbone. Read More

    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    university hospital of bordeaux, virology , hopital pellegrin , bordeaux, France , 33076 ;
    We have estimated the prevalence of the different viral subtypes between January 2012 and December 2016 in HIV-1-infected patients of the Aquitaine region (south-west part of France) who had a routine HIV-1 genotype resistance testing (GRT) centralized at the Bordeaux University Hospital. GRT was performed on viral RNA (1784 samples) before treatment initiation or at failure whereas proviral DNA was used as template (1420 samples) in the event of a treatment switch in patients with viral load below 50 copies/mL. Pol and integrase sequences were obtained; subtypes, circulating recombinant forms (CRF) and unique recombinant forms (URF) were assigned by combining the results of SCUEAL, REGA, COMET and HIV BLAST. Read More

    Role of Integrin Signaling Activation on the Development of Human T-Cell Leukemia VIrus-1 (HTLV-1)-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis: Its Relationship to HTLV-1-infected CD4+ T Cell Transmigrating Activity into the Tissues.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Feb 5. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Nagasaki, Japan ;
    The main clinical feature of human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is slowly progressive spastic paraparesis with bladder dysfunction. HAM/TSP is induced by chronic inflammation in the spinal cord, mainly the lower thoracic cord. A long-standing bystander mechanism, such as the destruction of surrounding tissues by the interaction between infiltrated Th1-like, HTLV-1-infected CD4+ T cells and HTLV-1-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cells (CTL), is probably critical for the induction of chronic inflammation. Read More

    Association between Frailty and HIV-Associated Neurodegenerative Disorders among Older Adults Living with HIV.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Feb 1. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Departamento de Geriatría , Vasco de Quiroga 15 , Colonia Belisario Domínguez Sección XVI , Mexico City, Mexico, Mexico , 14080 ;
    Introduction: The population of aging adults living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is growing worldwide and evidence suggests that frailty occurs prematurely among them. In turn, frailty has been associated with cognitive decline. It is unknown, however, if people with both frailty and HIV-infection have higher risk of cognitive impairment compared with non-frail HIV-infected persons. Read More

    Superior Efficacy and Improved Renal and Bone Safety After Switching From a Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (TDF)- to a Tenofovir Alafenamide (TAF)-based Regimen Through 96 Weeks of Treatment.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jan 25. Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    Gilead Sciences Inc, 2158, Foster City, California, United States ;
    Background: We previously demonstrated superior efficacy and safety advantages in HIV-infected, virologically suppressed adults switched to a regimen containing tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) as compared with those remaining on a tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) regimen through week 48. We now report longer-term data through week 96.

    Methods: In this randomized, active-controlled, multicenter, open-label, non-inferiority trial (ClinicalTrials. Read More

    Enhanced fluconazole consolidation therapy for cryptococcal meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa: Much to gain, little to lose.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jan 21. Epub 2018 Jan 21.
    University of KwaZulu-Natal, Department of Infectious Diseases, Durban, South Africa ;
    Cryptococcal meningitis accounts for an estimated 25% of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Accumulating animal and accumulating human evidence suggest that a higher, more fungicidal, dose of fluconazole during consolidation therapy could be more effective in controlling residual infection and may help significantly reduce post-hospitalization mortality. Although the potential for toxicity is low, the use of fluconazole at a dose of 800 mg/day during consolidation therapy requires examination in a randomized clinical trial. Read More

    Absence of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations supports the use of dolutegravir in Uganda.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jan 21. Epub 2018 Jan 21.
    University of Western Ontario, Microbiology and Immunology, London, Ontario, Canada ;
    Objectives: To screen for drug resistance and possible treatment with Dolutegravir (DTG) in treatment naïve patients and those experiencing virologic failure during first, second, and third line combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) in Uganda.

    Design: Samples from 417 patients in Uganda were analyzed for predicted drug resistance upon failing a first (N=158), second (N=121), or third line (all 51 involving Raltegravir [RAL]) treatment regimen.

    Method: HIV-1 pol gene was amplified and sequenced from plasma samples. Read More

    Human Semen or Seminal Plasma Does Not Enhance HIV-1Ex Vivo Infection of Human Colonic Explants.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Feb 21. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    2 Department of Medicine, Center for HIV Prevention Research, UCLA AIDS Institute , David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California.
    To determine whether human whole semen (WS) and seminal plasma (SP) either previously frozen or freshly acquired altered ex vivo infectibility of human colonic explants or was associated with histology or toxicity changes, which may influence mucosal HIV-1 transmission in vivo. Pooled human semen samples were freshly obtained from study volunteers (never frozen) and from commercial sources (frozen/thawed). Endoscopically acquired rectal biopsies were evaluated for toxicity following titered ex vivo WS/SP exposure by histological grading and by MTT assay. Read More

    High Prevalence of Non-B HIV-1 Subtypes in Overseas Sailors and Prostitutes in Korea.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Feb 12. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    2 HIV Databases, Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory , Los Alamos, New Mexico .
    There have been no studies related to groups at the highest risk for HIV-1 infection in Korea before 1993. In this study, for the first time, we report the distribution of HIV subtypes in overseas sailors (OSs) and prostitutes who worked in brothels near U.S. Read More

    Naturally Occurring Mutations in HIV-1 CRF01_AE Capsid Affect Viral Sensitivity to Restriction Factors.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    3 National Institute of Health , Department of Medical Science, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand .
    TRIM5α and MxB are known as restriction factors that inhibit the early step of intracellular HIV-1 replication cycle. Both factors are believed to interact with the incoming virus core to suppress HIV-1 infection. The extreme diversity of HIV-1 is thought to be a consequence of its propensity to mutate to escape immune responses and host restriction factors. Read More

    Disparities in HIV Viral Load Suppression by Race/ethnicity among Men who Have Sex with Men in the HIV Outpatient Study.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jan 9. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    CDC, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States ;
    Introduction: Maximizing the rates of virologic suppression (VS) among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) is essential to limiting HIV morbidity and sexual transmission of HIV in the United States.

    Methods: We analyzed data for MSM of non-Hispanic white (white), non-Hispanic black (black) or Hispanic/Latino race/ethnicity in the HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) at nine U.S. Read More

    Postvaccination C-Reactive Protein and C5/gp41Antibody Level Fold-Changes Over Baseline Are Independent Predictors of Therapeutic HIV Vaccine Effect in a Phase 2 Clinical Study of Vacc-4x.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    4 Bionor Pharma AS , Oslo, Norway .
    Therapeutic vaccination has the potential to contribute to functional HIV cure strategies. However, to show functional HIV cure, study participants must be taken off combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The availability of suitable biomarkers that can predict viral load (VL) or CD4 count outcomes following therapeutic HIV vaccination would reduce the risks associated with cART interruption in such studies. Read More

    Optimization of the EC26-2A4 Epitope in the gp41 Membrane Proximal External Region Targeted by Neutralizing Antibodies from an Elite Controller.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jan 25. Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    1 Georg-Speyer-Haus, Institute for Tumor Biology and Experimental Therapy , Frankfurt, Germany .
    The analysis of patient derived HIV neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) and their target epitopes in the viral envelope (Env) protein provides important basic information for vaccine design. In this study we optimized an epitope, EC26-2A4, that is targeted by neutralizing antibodies from an elite controller (EC26) and localizes in the membrane-proximal external region from the gp41 transmembrane protein. Due to its overlap with the epitope of the first generation broadly neutralizing monoclonal Ab (mAb) 2F5 associated with autoreactivity, we first defined the minimal core epitope reacting with antibodies from EC26 plasma, but not with mAb 2F5. Read More

    HIV Infection and Drug Resistance with Unsupervised Use of HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jan 18. Epub 2018 Jan 18.
    2 Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute , Boston, Massachusetts.
    Although the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention currently only recommend daily dosing of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), an on-demand PrEP dosing strategy that includes doses before and after sexual activity has been shown to reduce risk for HIV acquisition in men who have sex with men. In this letter, we report a case of HIV infection and drug resistance in a patient using PrEP outside of regular clinical care, adopting a sporadic, suboptimal dosing strategy with pills he obtained from his sexual partners. This case illustrates the potential risks of PrEP use without provider monitoring to ensure safe and effective dosing and laboratory follow-up, as well as key challenges that must be addressed as nondaily PrEP use becomes more common outside of controlled research settings. Read More

    Specimen Processing Impacts Tissue Tenofovir PK Measurements.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Dec 19. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    The Johns Hopkins University, Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology , Blalock 569 , 600 North Wolfe Street , Baltimore, Maryland, United States , 21287-5554 ;
    Antiretroviral drug concentrations at sites of HIV exposure are important drivers that influence the development HIV pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis strategies and regimens. We assessed the effect of collection method - in the presence or absence of tissue culture media - on tenofovir (TFV) and tenofovir diphosphate (TFV-DP) concentrations in colonic biopsies. We find significant baseline inter-biopsy variation in TFV (38% CV) and TFV-DP (33% CV) concentrations. Read More

    Characterization of Envelope Surface Glycoprotein from HIV-2 Primary Isolates with Different Coreceptor Usage Profile.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Feb 23;34(2):218-221. Epub 2018 Jan 23.
    1 Host-Pathogen Interactions Unit, Research Institute for Medicines , iMed-ULisboa, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal .
    The main goal of this work was to identify molecular signatures in envelope surface glycoprotein that may be correlated with coreceptor usage by different human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-2 strains. From inspection of aligned HIV-2 sequences, we verified that V1/V2 region showed the highest degree of amino acid sequence heterogeneity, including polymorphisms in N-linked glycosylation sites, sequence, and length. Furthermore, we did not find any correlation between the net charge and specific amino acid positions in V3 region with any particular coreceptor usage pattern. Read More

    Origin and Spread of HIV-1 Subtype B Among Heterosexual Individuals in Bulgaria.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jan 23. Epub 2018 Jan 23.
    2 Epidemiology Unit, Department of Infectious Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità , Rome, Italy .
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was originally introduced in Bulgaria through heterosexual transmission (HET) and later transferred to other vulnerable groups along with numerous more recent introductions from outside Bulgaria. To define the diversity, origins, and dynamics of the HIV-1 subtypes prevalent in HET population in Bulgaria, we applied phylogenetic and phylodynamic analyses using polymerase (pol) sequences from HET individuals to infer the spatiotemporal evolutionary history of the HIV-1 epidemic in this population in Bulgaria. High genetic diversity was found, including 13 different HIV-1 subtypes: 45. Read More

    Characterization of a Novel HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Form, CRF01_AE/B'/C (CRF96_cpx), in Yunnan, China.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Dec 19. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    KunMing, China ;
    Currently, complex HIV-1 recombination among the B', C, and CRF01_AE genotypes have frequently arisen in Yunnan, China. A novel HIV-1 complex circulating recombinant form (CRF) consisting of B', C, and CRF01_AE (CRF96_cpx) was recently characterized from three epidemiologically unlinked individuals. Two strains of them were isolated from the injecting drug users in this study, the remaining one strain (JL. Read More

    Early Sites of Virus Replication After Oral SIVInfection of Infant Macaques: Implications for Pathogenesis.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jan 17. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    2 Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Center for AIDS Research, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
    Despite optimization of preventative measures for vertical HIV-1 transmission, daily, roughly 400 infants become HIV infected, most of them through breastfeeding. Viral entry has been presumed to occur in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the exact entry site(s) have not been defined. Therefore, we quantified simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) RNA and DNA in oral, intestinal, and systemic tissues of 15 infant macaques within 48-96 h after oral SIVexposure. Read More

    ARCHITECT HIV Combo Ag/Ab and RealTime HIV-1 Assays Detect Diverse HIV Strains in Clinical Specimens.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    1 Infectious Disease Research, Abbott Diagnostics , Abbott Park, Illinois.
    Periodic evaluation of the impact of viral diversity on diagnostic tests is critical to ensure current technologies are keeping pace with viral evolution. To determine whether HIV diversity impacts the ARCHITECT HIV Combo Ag/Ab (HIV Combo) or RealTime HIV-1 (RT) assays, a set of N = 199 HIV clinical specimens from Cameroon, Senegal, Saudi Arabia, and Thailand were sequenced and tested in both assays. The panel included historical groups N and P specimens and a newly identified group N specimen. Read More

    Natural Products and HIV/AIDS.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jan 10;34(1):31-38. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    1 Department of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco , San Francisco, California.
    The study of natural products in biomedical research is not a modern concept. Many of the most successful medical therapeutics are derived from natural products, including those studied in the field of HIV/AIDS. Biomedical research has a rich history of discovery based on screens of medicinal herbs and traditional medicine practices. Read More

    Identification of a Novel HIV-1 Unique Recombinant Form Between B, CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC in Men Who Have Sex with Men in Guangxi, China.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    1 State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Division of Virology and Immunology, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention , Beijing, People's Republic of China .
    B, CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC are three major HIV-1 subtypes circulating in China. Here we detected a novel CCR5-tropic HIV-1 recombinant virus (GX2016EU23), which was isolated from an HIV-1-infected man who had sex with men (MSM) in Guangxi, China. Phylogenetic analysis of the near full-length genome showed that GX2016EU23 consisted of at least seven segments, that is two B, two CRF01_AE, and three CRF07_BC segments. Read More

    Low Levels of Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Their Association with Systemic Inflammation and Monocyte Activation in Older HIV-Infected Men.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jan;34(1):39-45
    5 University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston , Houston, Texas.
    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) repair damaged vascular endothelium, and low circulating EPC levels have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). CD34/KDREPCs are commonly reported in the literature and CD34/CD133/KDREPCs are rare in circulation but highly specific for endothelial lineage. HIV-infected (HIV+) adults have chronic inflammation and increased CVD risk, but the relationship between CVD, vascular inflammation, and EPCs in HIV remains unclear. Read More

    High HIV-1 RNA Among Newly Diagnosed People in Botswana.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jan 17. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    1 Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute , Gaborone, Botswana .
    HIV-1 RNA level is strongly associated with HIV transmission risk. We sought to determine whether HIV-1 RNA level was associated with prior knowledge of HIV status among treatment-naive HIV-infected individuals in Botswana, a country with high rates of antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage. This information may be helpful in targeting HIV diagnosis and treatment efforts in similar high HIV prevalence settings in a population-based survey. Read More

    If We Build It, Will They Come? Perceptions of HIV Cure-Related Research by People Living with HIV in Four U.S. Cities: A Qualitative Focus Group Study.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jan;34(1):56-66
    8 Gillings School of Global Public Health, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
    Global interest and investment in the search for an HIV cure has increased. Research has focused on what experts refer to as a sterilizing or eradicating cure, where HIV is eliminated from the body, and on what is often called a functional cure, where HIV remains, kept durably suppressed in the absence of antiretroviral treatment and therapy (ART). Many believe that a functional cure is likely to be found first. Read More

    In Vitro Transduction and Target-Mutagenesis Efficiency of HIV-1 pol Gene Targeting ZFN and CRISPR/Cas9 Delivered by Various Plasmids and/or Vectors: Toward an HIV Cure.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jan 5;34(1):88-102. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    1 Department of Immunology and Molecular Biology, School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University , Kampala, Uganda .
    Efficiency of artificial restriction enzymes toward curing HIV has only been separately examined, using differing delivery vehicles. We compared the in vitro transduction and target-mutagenesis efficiency of consortium plasmid and adenoviral vector delivered HIV-1 pol gene targeting zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) with CRISPR/Cas, Custom-ZFN, CRISPR-Cas-9, and plasmids and vectors (murCTSD_pZFN, pGS-U-gRNA, pCMV-Cas-D01A, Ad5-RGD); cell lines (TZM-bl and ACH-2/J-Lat cells); and the latency reversing agents prostratin, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, and phorbol myristate acetate. Cell lines were grown in either Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium or Roswell Park Memorial Institute with the antibiotics kanamycin, zeocin, and efavirenz. Read More

    Distribution of Human Papillomavirus Genotype in Anal Condyloma Acuminatum among Japanese Men: the Higher Prevalence of High Risk Human Papillomavirus in Men Who Have Sex with Men with HIV Infection.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Nov 28. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
    National Hospital Organization Nagoya Medical Center, Department of Infectious Disease and Immunology, Clinical Research Center, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan ;
    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is known to cause anal condyloma acuminatum (CA) and squamous cell carcinoma. Men who have sex with men (MSM) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are frequently co-infected with HPV, especially high risk HPV (HR-HPV) that causes anal squamous cell carcinoma. However, there are few reports of HPV genotype studies in anal lesion of Japanese men. Read More

    Short Communication: Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate/Emtricitabine Fits for All as Appropriate HIV-1 Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis?
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Feb 18;34(2):168-170. Epub 2018 Jan 18.
    1 Infectious Diseases Unit, Policlinico Ospedale San Martino, University of Genoa , Genoa, Italy .
    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with TDF/FTC significantly reduces the risk for HIV-1 transmission, but, to date, nobody knows if PrEP can still be useful in case of viruses harboring resistances to TDF/FTC or if alternative antiretroviral drugs might be rather proposed in selected cases. We promote the debate by describing a case of an acute infection with multiresistant HIV that occurred in a young girl who started a relationship with an HIV-infected partner who had a known multiresistant HIV. Read More

    Recruitment of Underrepresented Minority Researchers into HIV Prevention Research: The HIV Prevention Trials Network Scholars Program.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Feb 20;34(2):171-177. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    6 School of Social Welfare, University at Albany State University of New York , Albany, New York.
    Most U.S. investigators in the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) have been of majority race/ethnicity and sexual orientation. Read More

    A Cohort Approach to Real-Time Detection of Acute HIV Infections Among People Who Inject Drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jan 17. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    4 Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina , Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
    To detect acute HIV infections (AHIs) in real time among people who inject drugs (PWID) in St. Petersburg, Russia and to test the feasibility of this approach. Prospective cohort study. Read More

    Harnessing Novel Imaging Approaches to Guide HIV Prevention and Cure Discoveries-A National Institutes of Health and Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise 2017 Meeting Report.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jan 5;34(1):12-26. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    1 Division of AIDS, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health , Bethesda, Maryland.
    Advances in imaging technologies have greatly increased our understanding of cellular and molecular interactions in humans and their corresponding animal models of infectious diseases. In the HIV/SIV field, imaging has provided key insights into mucosal viral transmission, local and systemic virus spread, host-virus dynamics, and chronic inflammation/immune activation and the resultant immunopathology. Recent developments in imaging applications are yielding physical, spatial, and temporal measurements to enhance insight into biological functions and disease processes, while retaining important cellular, microenvironmental, organ, and intact organism contextual details. Read More

    Purging Exhausted Virus-Specific CD8 T Cell Phenotypes by Somatic Cell Reprogramming.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Nov;33(S1):S59-S69
    1 Division of Hematology and Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA , Los Angeles, California.
    Cytotoxic T cells are critical in controlling virus infections. However, continuous antigen stimulation and negative regulatory factors cause CD8 T cells to enter a dysfunctional state (T cell exhaustion), resulting in viral persistence. We hypothesized that the exhausted T cell state could be molecularly rejuvenated using a somatic cell reprogramming technology, which is technically able to convert any types of cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), to regenerate functional T cells capable of purging chronic infection. Read More

    IL-21 Therapy Controls Immune Activation and Maintains Antiviral CD8T Cell Responses in Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Nov;33(S1):S81-S92
    1 California National Primate Research Center, University of California , Davis, California.
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replicate during acute infection in lymphocytes of the gastrointestinal tract, before disseminating systemically. Localized replication and associated loss of gut-resident CD4T cells occur regardless of the portal of entry of the virus (e.g. Read More

    Host Methyltransferases and Demethylases: Potential New Epigenetic Targets for HIV Cure Strategies and Beyond.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Nov;33(S1):S8-S22
    1 Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology , San Francisco, California.
    A successful HIV cure strategy may require reversing HIV latency to purge hidden viral reservoirs or enhancing HIV latency to permanently silence HIV transcription. Epigenetic modifying agents show promise as antilatency therapeutics in vitro and ex vivo, but also affect other steps in the viral life cycle. In this review, we summarize what we know about cellular DNA and protein methyltransferases (PMTs) as well as demethylases involved in HIV infection. Read More

    Cytomegalovirus and HIV Persistence: Pouring Gas on the Fire.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Nov;33(S1):S23-S30
    1 University of California San Diego , Center for AIDS Research, La Jolla, California.
    The inherent stability of a small population of T cells that are latently infected with HIV despite antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains a stubborn obstacle to an HIV cure. By exploiting the memory compartment of our immune system, HIV maintains persistence in a small subset of quiescent cells with varying phenotypes, thus evading immune surveillance and clinical detection. Understanding the molecular and immunological mechanisms that maintain the latent reservoir will be critical to the success of HIV eradication strategies. Read More

    Proteomic Profiling of a Primary CD4T Cell Model of HIV-1 Latency Identifies Proteins Whose Differential Expression Correlates with Reactivation of Latent HIV-1.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jan 5;34(1):103-110. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    1 Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine , Houston, Texas.
    The latent HIV-1 reservoir of memory CD4T cells that persists during combination antiviral therapy prevents a cure of infection. Insight into mechanisms of latency and viral reactivation are essential for the rational design of strategies to reduce the latent reservoir. In this study, we quantified the levels of >2,600 proteins in the CCL19 primary CD4T cell model of HIV-1 latency. Read More

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