6,070 results match your criteria AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses[Journal]


Hospital Onset Varicella Central Nervous System Vasculitis in a Patient with HIV Infection.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

4 Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/aid.2018.0262DOI Listing
February 2019

Syphilis among newly diagnosed therapy-naive HIV patients in Belém, Pará, Amazon Region of Brazil.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Universidade Federal do Pará, Laboratório de Virologia, Belem, Para, Brazil.

The incidence of syphilis has increased in people living with HIV/AIDS in recent years. Thus, this study described the prevalence and risk factors associated with syphilis in newly diagnosed individuals with HIV infection, antiretroviral-naive, in the city of Belém, Pará, northern Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2016 to June 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2019.0007DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Bioequivalence of Tenofovir Component of Tenofovir/Rilpivirine/Emtricitabine in Digital Pills.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Jan 29. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Brigham and Women's Hospital, Emergency Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States.

Background: Digital pills, gelatin capsules with radiofrequency transmitters activated by stomach chloride ions, directly measure anti-retroviral therapy (ART) adherence. In individuals with substance use disorders and HIV, real-time nonadherence detected by digital pills creates a platform to deliver substance use and adherence interventions. In this study, we determined the bioequivalence of Tenofovir (TFV), administered as tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in healthy human volunteers administered a commercial drug product and a digital pill formulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0073DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Partial pol sequences from drug naïve HIV-2 infected individuals from Maharashtra, India.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Jan 25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

ICMR-National AIDS Research Institute, HIV Drug Resistance Laboratory, Pune, Maharashtra, India ;

Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 2 (HIV-2) is important due to its unique challenges in diagnosis, treatment and drug resistance. The data on Indian HIV-2 pol gene as well as resistance to antiretroviral drugs is limited. Here we report sequence data of Protease (PR) and Reverse Transcriptase (RT) genes from HIV-2 infected treatment naïve individuals (N=32) from Maharashtra, India. Read More

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https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/AID.2018.0282
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January 2019
5 Reads

Multiple HIV-1 subtypes were found circulating in Shijingshan District of Beijing, China.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Jan 25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology , 20 Dongda Street , Fengtai District , Beijing , Beijing, China , 100071 ;

There has been a rapid increasing of HIV cases in the men who have sex with men (MSM) population in China. This study enrolled 223 HIV-1 sero-positive drug-na?ve patients from Shijingshan district in Beijing MSM population. The full-length gag, pol, and partial env gene sequences were amplified. Read More

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https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/AID.2018.0263
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0263DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Magnetic resonance imaging of cerebral small vessel disease in men living with HIV and HIV negative men aged 50 and above.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

University College London, Academic Neuroradiology Unit, Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation , Box 65, UCL Institute of Neurology Queen Square , London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland , WC1N 3BG ;

We assessed whether HIV status was associated with white matter hyperintensities (WMH), a neuroimaging correlate of cerebral small vessel disease, in men aged ≥50 years. A cross-sectional substudy was nested within a larger cohort study. Virologically suppressed men living with HIV (MLWH) and demographically matched HIV negative men aged ≥50 underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3 Tesla. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0249DOI Listing
January 2019

Viral genetic linkage analysis among Black men who have sex with men (HIV Prevention Trials Network 061).

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, Massachusetts, United States ;

Analysis of viral genetic linkage can reveal generalized transmission patterns within a population. The HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 study evaluated HIV incidence among Black men who have sex with men (MSM). HIV genotypes from 169 men who were HIV-infected at enrollment and 23 men who seroconverted during the study were analyzed for genetic linkage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0204DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

The evolving facets of bacterial vaginosis: implications for HIV transmission.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Burnet Institute, 104125, Disease Elimination Program, Life Sciences Discipline, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common yet poorly understood vaginal condition that has become a major focus of HIV transmission and immunology research. Varied terminologies are used by clinicians and researchers to describe microbial communities that reside in the female reproductive tract, which is driven in part by microbial genetic and metabolic complexity, evolving diagnostic and molecular techniques, and multidisciplinary perspectives of clinicians, epidemiologists, microbiologists, and immunologists who all appreciate the scientific importance of understanding mechanisms that underlie "BV". This Perspectives article aims to clarify the varied terms used to describe the cervicovaginal microbiota and its "non-optimal" state, under the overarching term of BV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0304DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Ultrasensitive Immunoassay for Assessing Residual Simian-Tropic HIV in Nonhuman Primate Models of AIDS.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

1 AIDS and Cancer Virus Program, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc., Frederick, Maryland.

Persistence of replication-competent viral reservoirs during infection remains a barrier to HIV cure, despite the ability of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) to effectively suppress viral replication. Simian-tropic HIV (stHIV) is a minimally chimeric HIV-1 that is comprised of 94% HIV-1 sequence, contains HIV-1 drug and immunologic targets, and is capable of replicating to high levels and causing authentic HIV-like pathogenesis leading to clinical AIDS in pigtail macaques. Suppression of stHIV replication by cART provides a model for study of viral reservoirs and HIV-specific intervention strategies targeting them. Read More

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https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/AID.2018.0278
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0278DOI Listing
February 2019
7 Reads

Reduced NK Cell subsets in perinatally acquired long term non progressors HIV infected children.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, 29751, Pediatrics, Chandigarh, Chandigarh, India ;

Background: Lymphocyte subsets of long term non progressor HIV infected children is a less studied aspect of HIV infection.

Materials And Methods: Evaluation of different lymphocyte subsets was done in HIV infected children ≥ 8 years of age. Subjects were divided in two groups (Group 1 (LTNP), treatment naive with CD4 ≥ 500 cells/µl (n=20), Group 2, (nLTNP) receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) with CD4 count ≤ 500 on at least one occasion (n=21). Read More

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https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/AID.2018.0243
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0243DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads
2.325 Impact Factor

The Use of Droplet Digital PCR to Quantify HIV-1 Replication in the Colorectal Explant Model.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

1 Magee-Womens Research Institute and Foundation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Ex vivo explant models are used to characterize in vitro efficacy of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) agents. Tissue is challenged with virus in culture and HIV-1 p24 levels are quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on supernatants collected throughout a 14-21-day incubation. Due to the narrow dynamic range of HIV-1 p24 kits, we evaluated whether droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) provides an alternative method to quantify HIV-1 replication in supernatant samples. Read More

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https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/AID.2018.0227
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0227DOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads

Prevalence of Opportunistic Pathogens Pneumocystis jiroveci and Tubercle Bacilli in HIV-Infected Patients with Respiratory Infections in Yaounde, Cameroon.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

1 Department of Virology and Centre Pasteur of Cameroon, Member of the International Network of Pasteur Institutes, Yaounde, Cameroon.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0216DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Dysregulation in Genital Tract Soluble Immune Mediators in Postmenopausal Women Is Distinct by HIV Status.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

3 Department of Medicine, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia.

A rise in new HIV diagnoses among older adults is characterized by poor prognosis and reduced survival times. Although heterosexual transmission remains the main route of infection in women, little is known regarding immune functions in the genital tract of postmenopausal women, especially those who are HIV positive. Furthermore, effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on the genital tract immune system are unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0234DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Intrinsically Disordered Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 p30 Protein: Experimental and Computational Evidence.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

1 Department of Biotechnology, Dr. Harisingh Gour University, Sagar, India.

Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) causes adult T cell leukemia and lymphoma and other neuroinflammatory diseases. The pX region of HTLV-1 genome encodes an accessory protein p30 that is required for viral persistence and spread in the host. p30 regulates viral gene expression at the transcription level by competing with Tax for p300 binding and at posttranscriptional level by nuclear retention of tax/rex messenger RNA (mRNA). Read More

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https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/AID.2018.0196
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0196DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Epidemiological and immunological characteristics of HIV-infected patients on the cadaveric kidney donor waiting list at the Johannesburg renal transplant program.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Jan 8. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

University of the Witwatersrand, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Molecular Medicine and Haematology , 7 York Road , Parktown , Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa , 2196.

HIV infection was previously considered an exclusion criterion for renal dialysis and transplant. Recent research has prompted policy changes allowing for transplantation in this subgroup of patients. Theoretical risks with transplantation include the immune dysregulation associated with post-transplantation immunosuppression and immune activation with possible organ rejection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0193DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

PD-1 Up-regulation is Associated with Exhaustion of Regulatory T Cells and Reflects Immune Activation in HIV-1 Infected Individuals.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Jan 8. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Shanghai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China ;

Objective And Design: We hypothesized that PD-1expressed by regulatory T cells (Tregs) would be functional and their expression levels may associate with activation status of CD4+ T, CD8+ T cells and the disease progression of HIV-1 infected patients. In order to prove it, we dynamically examined PD-1 expression levels by Tregs in peripheral blood of HIV-1 infected individuals not receiving anti-retro viral therapy.

Methods: Eighty-one HIV-1 infected individuals not undergoing anti-retroviral therapy and twenty-two HIV-1-seronegative donors were enrolled in our study. Read More

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https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/AID.2018.0218
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0218DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads
2.325 Impact Factor

HIV Status Does Not Affect Rectal Microbiome Composition, Diversity, or Stability over Time: A Chicago Women's Interagency HIV Study.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

1 Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois.

It remains unclear whether differences in gut microbiota noted between HIV-infected and uninfected individuals are driven by HIV or sexual behavior. We evaluated rectal swab microbiota of HIV-infected and uninfected women with similar demographic, neighborhood, and diet characteristics enrolled in the Chicago Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). DNA was amplified for sequencing of fragments of bacterial small subunit (SSU or 16S) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0250DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Relationship between Contraindicated Drug-Drug Interactions and Subsequent Hospitalizations among Patients Living with HIV Initiating Combination Antiretroviral Therapy.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Jan 5. Epub 2019 Jan 5.

University of California San Diego, 8784, Skaggs School of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, La Jolla, California, United States.

People living with HIV (PLWH) are at an increased risk of contraindicated drug-drug interactions (XDDIs), which may result in deleterious outcomes. Study objectives were to: 1) compare the frequency of hospitalizations between patients with and without XDDIs and 2) determine if XDDIs are independently associated with hospitalizations in PLWH. A retrospective cohort study was performed among PLWH receiving care at the Upstate New York Veterans' Healthcare Administration or University of New Mexico Truman Health Services from 2000-2013. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0205DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Raman-Enhanced Spectroscopy Distinguishes Anal Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Serodiscordant Couples.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

2 Department of Tropical Medicine, Medical Microbiology and Pharmacology, Hawaii Center for AIDS, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii.

HIV-positive individuals are at increased risk for precancerous anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs). Anal cytology and digital rectal examination are performed as screening tools, but extensive training and appropriate instruments are required to follow up on an abnormal anal cytology. Thus, novel approaches to SIL evaluation could improve better health care follow-up by efficient and timely diagnosis to offer treatment options. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0198DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Therapeutic Immunization Benefits Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cell Recovery in Contrast to Interleukin-2, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor, and Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Addition in HIV-1+ Treated Patients: Individual Case Reports from Phase I Trial.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cell populations are reduced in frequency in HIV-1+ patients, and this disruption is associated with systemic immune activation. Reconstitution of MAIT frequency may benefit HIV-1-infected individuals; however, only recently has in vivo work been endeavored. Treatment with interleukin (IL)-2, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) immunotherapy combined with an HIV-1 vaccine in the context of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has shown to reconstitute CD4 T cell population numbers and function. Read More

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https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/AID.2018.0176
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0176DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Mucosal Susceptibility to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in the Proliferative and Secretory Phases of the Menstrual Cycle.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

1 Center for Biomedical Research, Population Council, New York, New York.

Factors underlying HIV acquisition in women remain incompletely understood. This study evaluated ex vivo mucosal HIV-1 infection (ectocervix, endocervix), T cell frequencies and phenotype (ectocervix, endocervix, peripheral blood), and HIV-1-induced tissue immune responses (ectocervix) in the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle using samples obtained from women undergoing hysterectomies. Tissue infectivity (number of productively infected explants) and infection level following 500 and/or fifty 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID) HIV-1 challenge were similar in the proliferative and secretory phases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0154DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Increased Cervical CD4CCR5 T Cells Among Kenyan Sex Working Women Using Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

1 Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.

Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is the most common hormonal contraceptive used by women in sub-Saharan Africa, however, it has been epidemiologically associated with HIV infections. To assess whether DMPA has an effect on the number and activation of HIV target cells, this study assessed the levels and phenotype of blood- and mucosal-derived HIV target cells among women using DMPA. Thirty-five HIV uninfected women from the Pumwani Sex Worker cohort from Nairobi, Kenya were enrolled in the study (15 using DMPA and 20 not using hormonal contraception). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0188DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 Among Voluntary Blood Donors in Vietnam.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Jan 29. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

4 Scientific Affairs, Abbott Laboratories, Duo Tower, Singapore.

Infection with human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV), although asymptomatic in most cases, can lead to severe illnesses, such as adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma or myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. HTLV can be transmitted by whole-blood (WB) transfusion. The prevalence of HTLV among blood donor populations has not been characterized in Vietnam, although the screening has been partially implemented on voluntary basis since 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0240DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Female Sex Hormones Activate Human Endogenous Retrovirus Type K Through the OCT4 Transcription Factor in T47D Breast Cancer Cells.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Sciences, Liberty University College of Osteopathic Medicine, Lynchburg, Virginia.

Female sex hormones, the octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4), and human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are all involved in the development of breast cancer. However, whether there are cross talks between these factors to promote breast cancer is still unknown. Using the T47D human breast cancer cell line, we have found that estradiol and progesterone synergistically activate HERV-K through nuclear receptors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0173DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Validation of the Limiting Antigen Avidity Assay to Estimate Level and Trends in HIV Incidence in an A/D Epidemic in Rakai, Uganda.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Jan 29. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

1 National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (NIH) , Baltimore, Maryland.

The limiting-antigen avidity (LAg-Avidity) assay with viral load (VL) >1,000 copies/mL is being used to estimate population-level HIV incidence in Africa. However, this has not been validated in East Africa where HIV-1 subtypes A and D circulate. Sera from persons seen in two surveys (2008-2009 and 2012-2013) limited to those who attended the previous round of the Rakai Community Cohort in Uganda were analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0207DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

HIV-1 Transmitted Drug Resistance Mutations in Recently Diagnosed Antiretroviral-Naive Patients in Belém, Pará, Northern Brazil.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Feb 22;35(2):121-122. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

1 Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia de Agentes Infecciosos e Parasitários, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0169DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Pretreatment HIV Drug Resistance and Virologic Outcomes to First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy in Peru.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Feb 22;35(2):150-154. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

3 Center for Global Infectious Diseases Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, Washington.

Access to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV has been increasing in Peru since a national ART program was initiated in 2004. Between 2007 and 2009, we found a 1% prevalence of pre-ART HIV drug resistance (PDR) among antiretroviral (ARV)-naive Peruvians. Given that PDR has been associated with virologic failure (VF) of ART, in 2014-2015 we enrolled a follow-up cohort at the same institution to determine whether the rate of transmitted resistance had increased and compared virologic outcomes of those with and without PDR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360394PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Field Performance of PIMA Point-of-Care Machine for CD4 Enumeration Under a Mobile HIV Counseling and Testing Program in Remote Fishing Communities of Lake Victoria, Uganda.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

1 UVRI-IAVI HIV Vaccine Program Limited, Entebbe, Uganda.

Uganda is among the most HIV/AIDS-afflicted countries, and many HIV-infected persons live in remote areas with poor access to health care. The success of HIV care programs relies in part on patient monitoring using CD4 T cell counts. We conducted an evaluation of the point-of-care PIMA test using BD FACSCount as a gold standard. Read More

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https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/AID.2018.0223
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0223DOI Listing
February 2019
9 Reads

Evaluation of Two HIV Rapid Diagnostic Tests in a Context of Strains' Genetic Diversity in Mali.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Feb 22;35(2):145-149. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

5 Department of Virology, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hôpital, Paris, France.

The rapid diagnostic tests used in most resource-limited countries offer little specificity in the differentiation of HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-1 + 2. World Health Organization (WHO) does periodically evaluate rapid tests in use in the South Countries. Despite the prequalification from WHO, it is necessary at local level to conduct comparative studies between the available tests. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2017.0296DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Dolutegravir Monotherapy's Virological Efficacy in a Highly Treatment-Experienced Patient.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

2 Infectious Diseases Unit, G.B. Rossi University Hospital, Verona, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0117DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Short Communication: The Interaction of HIV Set Point Viral Load and Subtype on Disease Progression.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Jan;35(1):49-51

5 National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Baltimore, Maryland.

HIV-1 subtype and viral load set point have been implicated as strong predictors of HIV-1 disease progression; however, the relationship between these two variables has not been investigated. We used data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study to investigate whether the association between viral load set point and disease progression is modified by HIV subtype. Time to AIDS or AIDS-related death was estimated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis stratified by subtype and viral set point, and Cox proportional hazards regression with an interaction term between viral load set point and HIV subtype. Read More

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https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/AID.2018.0165
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6343197PMC
January 2019
15 Reads

HIV-1 DNA Is Maintained in Antigen-Specific CD4+ T Cell Subsets in Patients on Long-Term Antiretroviral Therapy Regardless of Recurrent Antigen Exposure.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Jan;35(1):112-120

1 The Kirby Institute, UNSW Australia, Sydney, Australia.

Memory CD4+ T cells (mCD4s) containing integrated HIV DNA are considered the main barrier to a cure for HIV infection. Here, we analyzed HIV DNA reservoirs in antigen-specific subsets of mCDs to delineate the mechanisms by which HIV reservoirs persist during antiretroviral therapy (ART). HIV Gag, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and tetanus toxoid (TT)-specific mCD4s were isolated from peripheral blood samples obtained from 11 individual subjects, 2-11 years after commencing ART. Read More

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https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/AID.2018.0235
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0235DOI Listing
January 2019
10 Reads

Identification of a Novel HIV-1 Second-Generation Recombinant Form (CRF01_AE/07_BC) in Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beijing, China.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Jan 2. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Institute for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Beijing Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing Center for Preventive Medical Research, Beijing, China.

HIV-1 CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC have been two mainly circulating HIV-1 strains in the men who have sex with men (MSM) population in Beijing for years. These two subtypes together were accounting for 78.1% of HIV-1 positive cases newly diagnosed in Beijing, 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0228DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Short Communication: Decreased Plasma Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide as a Novel Biomarker for HIV-1 Disease Progression.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Jan 2;35(1):52-55. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

1 Laboratory of Mucosal Entry of HIV-1 and Mucosal Immunity, Department of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, Cochin Institute, CNRS UMR8104, Paris, France.

HIV-1 mucosal transmission in genital epithelia occurs through infection of Langerhans cells and subsequent transinfection of CD4 T cells. We previously reported that the vasodilator neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), secreted upon activation of sensory peripheral neurons that innervate all mucosal epithelia, significantly inhibits transinfection. To investigate the association between CGRP and HIV-1 during infection, we evaluated circulating CGRP levels in HIV-1-infected patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0210DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Moderate-to-High Levels of Pretreatment HIV Drug Resistance in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Feb 7;35(2):129-138. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

1 KwaZulu-Natal Research Innovation and Sequencing Platform (KRISP), School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

There is evidence of increasing levels of pretreatment HIV drug resistance (PDR) in Southern Africa. We used data from two large population-based HIV surveillance studies to estimate prevalence of PDR in KwaZulu-Natal, the province with the highest HIV prevalence in South Africa. Sanger sequencing was performed on samples obtained from a longitudinal HIV surveillance program (study A, 2013-2014) and the HIV Incidence Provincial Surveillance System (study B, 2014-2015). Read More

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https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/AID.2018.0202
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0202DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360398PMC
February 2019
12 Reads
2.325 Impact Factor

The Changing Epidemiological Profile of HIV-1 Subtype B Epidemic in Ukraine.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Feb 14;35(2):155-163. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

1 Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

While HIV-1 subtype B has caused a large epidemic in the Western world, its transmission in Ukraine remains poorly understood. We assessed the genetic diversity of HIV-1 subtype B viruses circulating in Ukraine, characterized the transmission group structure, and estimated key evolutionary and epidemiological parameters. We analyzed 120 HIV-1 subtype B pol sequences (including 46 newly generated) sampled from patients residing in 11 regions of Ukraine between 2002 and 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360399PMC
February 2019
21 Reads

Discordance of HIV-1 Viral Load from Paired Blood and Seminal Plasma Samples in a Chinese Men Who Have Sex with Men Population.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Dec 26. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

1 Department of HIV/AIDS and STD Control and Prevention, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention , Hangzhou, China .

The alarming spread of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) has become a national concern in China. Estimating men's sexual HIV infectiousness from blood plasma viral load (BPVL) depends on the association between BPVL and seminal plasma viral load (SPVL). However, previous studies were controversial and few concentrated on MSM. Read More

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https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/AID.2018.0090
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0090DOI Listing
December 2018
12 Reads
2.330 Impact Factor

Cross-Subtype Detection of HIV-1 Capsid p24 Antigen Using a Sensitive Europium Nanoparticle Assay.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Laboratory of Molecular Virology, CBER, FDA, Silver Spring, Maryland.

Accurate and early detection of diverse HIV-1 subtypes using currently available p24 antigen assays have been a major challenge. We report the development of a sensitive time resolved fluorescence (TRF) europium nanoparticle immuno assay for cross subtype detection of p24 antigen using broadly cross-reactive antibodies. Several antibodies were tested for optimal reactivity with antigens of diverse HIV-1 subtypes and circulating recombinant forms. Read More

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https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/AID.2018.0163
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0163DOI Listing
January 2019
74 Reads
2.330 Impact Factor

Estimating effects of HIV sequencing data completeness on transmission network patterns and detection of growing HIV transmission clusters.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Nov 7. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

CDC, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention , 1600 Clifton Rd, MS E-47 , Atlanta, Georgia, United States , 30329 ;

Objectives: HIV nucleotide sequence data can identify clusters of persons with genetically similar strains suggesting transmission. We simulated the effect of lowered data completeness, defined by the percent of persons with diagnosed HIV with a reported sequence, on transmission patterns and detection of growing HIV transmission clusters.

Methods: We analyzed HIV surveillance data for persons with HIV diagnosed during 2008-2014 who resided in Michigan or Washington. Read More

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https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/AID.2018.0181
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0181DOI Listing
November 2018
7 Reads

Mucosal T Helper 17 and T Regulatory Cell Homeostasis Correlate with Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Viremia and Responsiveness to Antiretroviral Therapy in Macaques.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Jan 2. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

1 Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Depletion of gut T helper 17 (Th17) cells during HIV infection leads to decreased mucosal integrity and increased disease progression. Conversely, T regulatory (Treg) cells may inhibit antiviral responses or immune activation. In HIV elite controllers, a balanced Th17/Treg ratio is maintained in the blood, suggesting a role for these responses in controlling inflammation and viral replication. Read More

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https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/AID.2018.0184
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0184DOI Listing
January 2019
14 Reads

Immunosuppression and HIV Viremia Associated with More Atherogenic Lipid Profile in Older People with HIV.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Jan 27;35(1):81-91. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Milken Institute School of Public Health, The George Washington University, Washington, District of Columbia.

To explore reasons for the disproportionate metabolic and cardiovascular disease burdens among older HIV-infected persons, we investigated whether associations of CD4 count and HIV viral load (VL) with non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C] differed by age. Longitudinal clinical and laboratory data were collected between 2011 and 2016 for HIV-infected outpatients in the DC Cohort study. Using data for patients aged ≥21 years with ≥1 cholesterol result and contemporaneous CD4/VL results, we created multivariable linear regression models with generalized estimating equations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6343189PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Short Communication: Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Exhibit Immunosuppressive Effects on Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 T Lymphocyte from Infected Individuals.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Feb 22;35(2):164-168. Epub 2018 Dec 22.

1 Center for Cell-Based Research, Regional Blood Center of Ribeirão Preto, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

Human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) display immunoregulatory functions that can modulate innate and adaptive cellular immune responses. The suppressive and immunomodulatory activities of MSCs occur through the action of soluble factors that are constitutively produced and released by these cells or, alternatively, after MSC induction by stimuli of inflammatory microenvironments. However, to date the contribution of MSCs in the inflammatory microenvironment resulting from viral infection is unknown. Read More

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https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/AID.2018.0066
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0066DOI Listing
February 2019
12 Reads

Current Strategies for Elimination of HIV-1 Latent Reservoirs Using Chemical Compounds Targeting Host and Viral Factors.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Jan 12;35(1):1-24. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

2 Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio.

Since the implementation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), rates of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) mortality, morbidity, and newly acquired infections have decreased dramatically. In fact, HIV-1-infected individuals under effective suppressive cART approach normal life span and quality of life. However, long-term therapy is required because the virus establish a reversible state of latency in memory CD4 T cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6343200PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Mapping of Neutralizing Antibody Epitopes on the Envelope of Viruses Obtained from Plasma Samples Exhibiting Broad Cross-Clade Neutralization Potential Against HIV-1.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Feb 20;35(2):169-184. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

1 Department of HIV/AIDS, National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis, Chennai, India.

Several broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that can target HIV strains with large degrees of variability have recently been identified. However, efforts to induce synthesis of such bNAbs that can protect against HIV infection have not met with much success. Identification of specific epitopes encoded in the HIV-1 envelope (Env) that can direct the host to synthesize bNAbs remains a challenge. Read More

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https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/AID.2018.0224
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0224DOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads

Oral Coadministration of an Intramuscular DNA/Modified Vaccinia Ankara Vaccine for Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Is Associated with Better Control of Infection in Orally Exposed Infant Macaques.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

1 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

The majority of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infections in infants are acquired orally through breastfeeding. Toward development of a pediatric HIV vaccine to prevent breastmilk transmission, we tested the efficacy of a simultaneous oral and intramuscular (IM) vaccination regimen for preventing oral simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) transmission in infant rhesus macaques. Two groups of neonatal macaques were immunized with DNA encoding SIV virus-like particles (DNA-SIV) on weeks 0 and 3, then boosted with modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus expressing SIV antigens (MVA-SIV) on weeks 6 and 9. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0180DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

Naive B Cell Output in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Children.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Jan 26;35(1):33-39. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

1 UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom.

In this study, we aimed to quantify KREC (kappa-deleting recombination excision circle) levels and naive B cell output in healthy HIV-uninfected children, compared with HIV-infected South African children, before and after starting ART (antiretroviral therapy). Samples were acquired from a Child Wellness Clinic (n = 288 HIV-uninfected South African children, 2 weeks-12 years) and the Children with HIV Early Antiretroviral Therapy (CHER) trial (n = 153 HIV-infected South African children, 7 weeks-8 years). Naive B cell output was estimated using a mathematical model combining KREC levels to reflect B cell emigration into the circulation, flow cytometry measures of naive unswitched B cells to quantify total body naive B cells, and their rates of proliferation using the intracellular marker Ki67. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0170DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads
2.330 Impact Factor

Effect of Testosterone Use on Bone Mineral Density in HIV-Infected Men.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Jan 1;35(1):75-80. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

2 Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland.

HIV-infected men have increased rates of osteoporosis and fracture compared to HIV-uninfected men. Testosterone use among HIV-infected men is common. In HIV-uninfected men, testosterone increases bone mineral density (BMD), but its effects have not been evaluated in HIV-infected men. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0150DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Short Communication: Association of Vitamin D Insufficiency and Protective Tenofovir Diphosphate Concentrations with Bone Toxicity in Adolescent Boys and Young Men Using Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate/Emtricitabine for HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Feb 5;35(2):123-128. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

11 Department of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, California.

We examined associations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD), tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), and bone toxicity. We studied TDF/emtricitabine (FTC) HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Bone toxicity was predefined using bone mineral density/content change from baseline to week 48. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360393PMC
February 2019
11 Reads

Alterations in Serum Zinc and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Concentrations in Treatment-Naive HIV-Diagnosed Alcohol-Dependent Subjects with Liver Injury.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Jan 11;35(1):92-99. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

1 Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky.

Heavy alcohol drinking causes alterations in the metabolism of fatty acids and zinc that participate in inflammation and liver injury. HIV infection has been reported to cause dysregulated polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and zinc metabolism. In this pilot study, we examined the role of dysregulated PUFA metabolism and zinc deficiency in the liver injury occurring in heavy drinkers with early-stage HIV diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6343188PMC
January 2019
4 Reads