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    5956 results match your criteria AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses[Journal]

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    Conformation-dependent interactions between HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins and broadly neutralizing antibodies.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jun 15. Epub 2018 Jun 15.
    University of Minnesota, Department of Medicine , Room 2-101 MRF , 689 23rd Av SE , Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States , 55455 ;
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins (Env) mediate virus entry and are the target of neutralizing antibodies. Binding of the metastable HIV-1 Env trimer to the CD4 receptor triggers structural rearrangements that mediate Env conformational transitions from a closed conformation to a more open state through an intermediate step. Recent studies have revealed new insights on the dynamics, regulation and molecular mechanisms of Env transitions along the entry pathway. Read More

    Early treatment of primary HIV infection is associated with decreased mortality.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jun 14. Epub 2018 Jun 14.
    UNSW Australia, The Kirby Institute, sydney, New South Wales, Australia ;
    Background: The aim of this study was to understand factors associated with increased mortality in a cohort of primary HIV infection (PHI) in New South Wales over three decades.

    Methods: 602 patients with PHI were enrolled from 1984 to 2009. Probabilistic data linkage was performed to NSW Registry of births deaths and marriages, and Australian Bureau of Statistics mortality database. Read More

    CD4:HIV-1 Envelope interactions provide critical insights for the SHIV/Macaque model.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jun 11. Epub 2018 Jun 11.
    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 7286, Human Biology Division, Seattle, Washington, United States ;
    The macaque models of HIV-1 infection have been a cornerstone of research on transmission, pathogenesis and prevention. In particular, the infection of macaques with chimeric SIV/HIV-1 viruses (SHIVs) are central to the vaccine development pipeline because SHIVs encode the key target of HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), the HIV-1 envelope (env) protein. In this letter, we highlight some of the recent studies that have improved our understanding of the CD4:HIV-1 Env interaction, which are crucial for development of SHIV/macaque models of HIV-1 infection. Read More

    An altered gut microbiota in HIV infection: future prospective of FMT therapy.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jun 7. Epub 2018 Jun 7.
    Kunming University of Science and Technology, 47910, Kunming, Yunnan, China ;
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection progressively destroys CD4+ mononuclear cells leading to profound cellular immune deficiency that manifests as life threatening opportunistic infections and malignancies, i.e., the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Read More

    CD4+ T cell subsets and pathways to HIV latency.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jun 5. Epub 2018 Jun 5.
    Boston University School of Medicine, Medicine , 650 Albany St , Boston, Massachusetts, United States , 02118 ;
    Latent infection of CD4+ T cells is the main barrier to eradicating HIV-1 infection from infected patients. The cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the establishment and maintenance of latent infection are directly linked to the transcriptional program of the different CD4+ T cell subsets targeted by the virus. In this review, we provide an overview of how T cell activation, T cell differentiation into functional subsets and the mode of initial viral infection influence HIV proviral transcription and entry into latency. Read More

    Ultrasenstive Immunoassay for SIV p27CA.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jun 5. Epub 2018 Jun 5.
    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, 437329, AIDS and Cancer Virus Program, Frederick, Maryland, United States ;
    Although effective at suppressing viral replication, combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) does not represent definitive therapy of HIV infection due to persistence of replication-competent viral reservoirs. The advent of effective cART regimens for simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infected nonhuman primates (NHP) has enabled the development of relevant models for studying viral reservoirs and intervention strategies targeting them. Viral reservoir measurements are crucial for such studies, but are problematic. Read More

    Early Life HIV-1 immunization: Providing a window for protection prior to sexual debut.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jun 2. Epub 2018 Jun 2.
    University of North Carolina, Microbiology and Immunology , Burnett Womack Bldg., Rm. 9029 , 160 Dental Circle, CB #7292 , Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States , 27559-7292 ;
    Limited success of current HIV-1 vaccines warrants new approaches. We discuss feasibility and potential benefits of early life HIV-1 immunization followed by vaccine boosts during childhood that may enable maturation of vaccine-induced broad anti-HIV-1 immunity over several years. By initiating this immunization approach in the very young, well before sexual debut, such a strategy may dramatically reduce the risk of HIV-1 infection. Read More

    Oral microbiome in HIV-infected women: Shifts in the abundance of pathogenic and beneficial bacteria are associated with aging, HIV load, CD4 count, and ART.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 May 29. Epub 2018 May 29.
    Roche Sequencing Solutions, Pleasanton, California, United States.
    HIV-associated non-AIDS conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, and dementia are more prevalent in older than in young adult HIV-infected subjects. Although the oral microbiome has been studied as a window into pathogenesis in aging populations, its relationship to HIV disease progression, opportunistic infections and HIV-associated non-AIDS conditions is not well understood. We utilized 16S rDNA-based pyrosequencing to compare the salivary microbiome in three groups: 1) Chronically HIV-infected women >50 years old (aging); 2) HIV-infected women < 35 years old (young adult); and 3) HIV-uninfected age-matched women. Read More

    Nucleolar Localization of HIV-1 Rev is Required Yet Insufficient for Production of Infectious Viral Particles.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 May 26. Epub 2018 May 26.
    City of Hope, Division of Molecular Biology , 1450 E. Duarte Rd. , Duarte, California, United States , 91010 ;
    Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) fails in complete suppression of HIV-1 due to drug resistance and persistent latency. Novel therapeutic intervention requires knowledge of intracellular pathways responsible for viral replication, specifically those untargeted by antiretroviral drugs. An understudied phenomenon is the nucleolar localization of Rev phosphoprotein, which completes nucleocytoplasmic transport of unspliced/partially spliced HIV mRNA through multimerization with intronic cis-acting targets - the Rev-response element (RRE). Read More

    Identification of a Novel HIV-1 Unique Recombinant Form Comprising CRF01_AE, Subtype B', and CRF65_cpx Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Jilin, China.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jun 18. Epub 2018 Jun 18.
    1 Department of Infectious Diseases, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University , Harbin, China .
    The current HIV-1 epidemic in China is featured by diverse subtypes and continual emergence of new recombinant viruses. This study identified a novel unique recombinant form (URF), JL16013, among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Jilin, China. The JL16013 virus was different from all known subtypes and set up a distinct branch on the phylogenetic tree. Read More

    Incidence of acute kidney injury in patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus receiving tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and ledipasvir/sofosbuvir in a real-world, urban, Ryan White clinic.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 May 16. Epub 2018 May 16.
    Emory University School of Medicine, 12239, Medicine Division of Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, Georgia, United States ;
    Background Ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF), an antiviral treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV), and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), an antiretroviral for treating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), may be co-administered in patients co-infected with these viruses. A drug interaction between LDV and TDF could increase TDF-associated nephrotoxicity rates; however, there is minimal clinical evidence describing acute kidney injury (AKI) rates in this population. Setting This study was conducted at a Ryan White-funded facility in Atlanta, Georgia, that cares for over 5,000 patients with AIDS. Read More

    No Time to Delay! Fiebig Stages and Referral in Acute HIV infection: Seattle Primary Infection Program Experience.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jun 13. Epub 2018 Jun 13.
    1 Department of Medicine, University of Washington , Seattle, Washington.
    There has been increasing recognition of the importance of diagnosing individuals during the earliest stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Sera from individuals referred to a primary HIV infection research program were screened using the IgG-sensitive Vironostika HIV-1 Microelisa System, IgG/IgM-sensitive GS HIV-1/HIV-2 Plus O antibody enzyme immunoassay (EIA), or Abbott ARCHITECT HIV antigen (Ag)/antibody (Ab) Combo assay and confirmed by the Bio-Rad Multispot and Western blot. A subset of participants was co-enrolled in a study designed to compare the ability of point-of-care tests to detect early infection. Read More

    Characterization of the Transmitted Virus in an Ongoing HIV-1 Epidemic Driven by Injecting Drug Use.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 May 14. Epub 2018 May 14.
    UNC Chapel Hill, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States ;
    Understanding features of the HIV-1 transmission process have the potential to inform biological interventions for prevention. We have examined the transmitted virus in a cohort of people who inject drugs and who are at risk of HIV-1 infection through blood contamination when injecting in a group. This study focused on seven newly infected participants in St. Read More

    Discordance in Drug Resistance Mutations Between Blood Plasma and Semen or Rectal Secretions Among Newly Diagnosed HIV-1-Infected Thai Men Who Have Sex with Men.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jun 13. Epub 2018 Jun 13.
    1 The Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre , Bangkok, Thailand .
    Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection is most commonly transmitted by sexual contact across mucosal surfaces. Information on concordance in drug resistance profile between blood plasma and anogenital compartments in resource-limited settings is limited. We aimed to determine discordances in genotypic drug resistance-associated mutations (DRAMs) between blood plasma and semen or rectal secretions among newly diagnosed, antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive, HIV-1-infected Thai men who have sex with men (MSM). Read More

    Characterization of Cellular Immune Responses in Thai Individuals With and Without HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jun 12. Epub 2018 Jun 12.
    13 Memory and Aging Center, Department of Neurology, University of California , San Francisco, California.
    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains a challenge despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), and has been linked to monocyte/macrophage (M/M) migration to the brain. Due to the potential impact of T cell effector mechanisms in eliminating activated/HIV-infected M/M, T cell activation may play a role in the development of HAND. We sought to investigate the relationship between cognition and both CD8 T cell activation (HLA-DR/CD38) and HIV-specific CD8 T cell responses at the time of HIV diagnosis and 12 months postinitiation of ART. Read More

    Asymptomatic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Vertical Transmitted Adolescents' Brain Functional Changes: Based on Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jun 18. Epub 2018 Jun 18.
    1 Radiology Department, Shenzhen University General Hospital and Shenzhen University Clinical Medical Academy , Shenzhen, P.R. China .
    Perinatal HIV-infected (PHIV+) adolescents survive longer with the use of readily found combination antiretroviral therapy (cART); however, they still have the risk of developing cognitive deficits. The article aims to explore the brain functional changes in asymptomatic PHIV+ adolescents with cART based on the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). rs-fMRI was performed on 20 PHIV+ adolescents and 28 PHIV- controls to evaluate the regional homogeneity (ReHo) in different brain regions by calculating the Kendall harmonious coefficient. Read More

    Prevalence of Rilpivirine and Etravirine Resistance Mutations in HIV-1 Subtype C-Infected Patients Failing Nevirapine or Efavirenz-Based Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Botswana.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jun 12. Epub 2018 Jun 12.
    1 Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership , Gaborone, Botswana .
    Rilpivirine (RPV) and Etravirine (ETR) are approved second-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) for HIV treatment. There is a cross-resistance HIV mutation profile between first- and second-generation NNRTI drugs. We determined the prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations (DRMs) to RPV and ETR in Botswana. Read More

    Changes from 2000 to 2009 in the Prevalence of HIV-1 Containing Drug Resistance-Associated Mutations from Antiretroviral Therapy-Naive, HIV-1-Infected Patients in the United States.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jun 5. Epub 2018 Jun 5.
    1 ViiV Healthcare , Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.
    Pre-existing HIV drug resistance can jeopardize first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) success. Changes in the prevalence of drug resistance-associated mutations (DRMs) were analyzed from HIV-infected, ART-naive, U.S. Read More

    Shifting the HIV Paradigm from Care to Cure: Proceedings from the Caribbean Expert Summit in Barbados, August 2017.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jun 5. Epub 2018 Jun 5.
    19 Caribbean Med Labs Foundation , Port of Spain , Trinidad.
    The CCAS EXPERT SUMMIT convened an array of international experts in Barbados on August 27-31, 2017 under the theme "From Care to Cure-Shifting the HIV Paradigm." The Caribbean Cytometry & Analytical Society (CCAS) partnered with the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) to deliver a program that reviewed the advances in antiretroviral therapy and the public health benefits accruing from treatment as prevention. Particular emphasis was placed on reexamining stigma and discrimination through a critical appraisal of whether public health messaging and advocacy had kept pace with the advances in medicine. Read More

    Weighing the evidence of efficacy of oral PrEP for HIV prevention in women in southern Africa.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 May 6. Epub 2018 May 6.
    University of the Witwatersrand, Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, Perinatal HIV Research Unit, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    As oral tenofovir-based regimens for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) are adopted as standard of care for HIV prevention, their utilization in clinical trials among women in southern Africa will require an accurate estimate of oral PrEP efficacy in this population. This information is critical for women in choosing this prevention strategy, and in public health policy making. Estimates of the efficacy of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) regimens containing tenofovir have varied widely across trials that enrolled women, with some studies reporting high efficacy and others reporting no efficacy. Read More

    Characterization of a New HIV-1 CRF01_AE/CRF07_BC Recombinant Virus in Tianjin, China.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jun 5. Epub 2018 Jun 5.
    1 Nankai University Second People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Nankai University , Tianjin, China .
    HIV is notorious for its rapid evolution since its transmissions from monkey to human. Currently, HIV contains multiple subtypes, circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and unique recombinant forms (URFs). Here, from an HIV-positive mother and her child in Tianjin, China, we identified a novel HIV-1 second-generation recombinant virus (TJ20170316 and TJ20170317) between CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC. Read More

    Identification of a Novel HIV-1 B/C/CRF01_AE Recombinant Isolate in Guangxi, China.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 May 31. Epub 2018 May 31.
    1 State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention , Beijing, People's Republic of China .
    Continual generation of HIV-1 recombinant forms might contribute to its genetic diversity. In this study, a novel B/C/CRF01_AE recombinant virus (GX2016EU13) was identified, which was isolated from a HIV-positive man who was infected through heterosexual sex in Guangxi, China. GX2016EU13 was identified as CCR5-tropic. Read More

    Identification of a New HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Form CRF65_cpx Strain in Jilin, China.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jun 13. Epub 2018 Jun 13.
    2 Department of Infectious Diseases, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University , Harbin, China .
    This study reported a new HIV-1 circulating recombinant form CRF65_cpx virus isolated from a man who have sex with men (MSM) in Jilin, China. The near full-length genome of this virus was composed of 14 mosaic gene fragments derived from CRF01_AE, subtype B' (Thai B) and subtype C, highly similar to the CRF65_cpx viruses recently identified in Yunnan and Anhui of China. Phylogenetic tree analysis suggested that this CRF65_cpx strain was not generated among MSM in Jilin, but originated in southern regions of China and spread to Jilin by MSM population. Read More

    HIV-1-Induced miR-146a Attenuates Monocyte Migration by Targeting CCL5 in Human Primary Macrophages.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 May 30. Epub 2018 May 30.
    1 State Key Laboratory of Virology/Institute of Medical Virology/Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Allergy and Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University , Wuhan, People's Republic of China .
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are widely involved in immune regulation during virus infection. Several studies showed that the expression of miR-146a was increased in human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1)-infected cells, but the definitive function of miR-146a in HIV-1 infection remains obscure. The production of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) in macrophages has been reported to play an important role in HIV/AIDS-associated pathogenesis. Read More

    Low Rates of Vaccination for Herpes Zoster in Older People Living With HIV.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 May 21. Epub 2018 May 21.
    11 Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus , Aurora, Colorado.
    Herpes zoster (HZ) occurs at a higher age-specific rate in people living with HIV (PLWH) than in the general population. We implemented a quality improvement study to assess herpes zoster vaccine (HZV) usage among PLWH, assess HZV usage after additional reminders/prompts, and identify barriers to HZV among older PLWH. HZV rates in PLWH were determined in six institutions with varying payment structures. Read More

    Outcomes Among Persons with HIV Following a Mental Health Admission: A Population-Based Study.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 May 15. Epub 2018 May 15.
    1 Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences , Toronto, Canada .
    To compare outcomes following psychiatric hospitalization between people with and without HIV. Population-based study of people with (n = 1,089) and without (n = 280,888) HIV who were hospitalized for psychiatric illness between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2014. Overall, 9 (0. Read More

    Individuals with HIV-1 Subtype C Infection and Cryptococcal Meningitis Exhibit Viral Genetic Intermixing of HIV-1 Between Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid and a High Prevalence of CXCR4-Using Variants.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 May 23. Epub 2018 May 23.
    1 HIV Pathogenesis Programme, Doris Duke Medical Research Institute, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal , Durban, South Africa .
    The genotypic properties of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype C in individuals presenting with cryptococcal meningitis (CM) are not well established. Employing single-genome amplification as well as bulk PCR, cloning and sequencing strategies, we evaluated the genetic properties of HIV-1 subtype C env in 16 antiretroviral therapy-naive study participants with CM. Eleven of the 16 participants had matched blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) evaluated, with the rest having either a plasma or CSF sample evaluated. Read More

    Molecular Epidemiology of HIV-1 Virus in Puerto Rico: Novel Cases of HIV-1 Subtype C, D, and CRF-24BG.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jun 23;34(6):507-516. Epub 2018 May 23.
    1 AIDS Research Program, Ponce Health Sciences University-School of Medicine , Ponce Research Institute, Ponce, Puerto Rico .
    HIV-1 subtype B virus is the most prevalent subtype in Puerto Rico (PR), accounting for about 90% of infection in the island. Recently, other subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs), including F(12_BF), A (01_BF), and CRF-39 BF-like, have been identified. The purpose of this study is to assess the distribution of drug resistance mutations and subtypes in PR. Read More

    Prevalence of Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors Resistance Mutations in Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors-Naive and -Experienced HIV-1 Infected Patients: A Single Center Experience.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 May 9. Epub 2018 May 9.
    2 University Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, University of Brescia and Spedali Civili General Hospital , Brescia, Italy .
    Integrase strand transfer inhibitor (InSTI) resistance rates are low. However, genotypic resistance test (GRT) is not routinely performed in many centers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of InSTI-related mutations in our large cohort. Read More

    Comparative Assessment of Small and Large Intestine Biopsies for Ex Vivo HIV-1 Pathogenesis Studies.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 May 16. Epub 2018 May 16.
    1 Vatche and Tamar Manoukian Division of Digestive Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA , Los Angeles, California.
    Ex vivo mucosal explants have become a mainstay of HIV-1 studies using human tissue. In this study, we examine the baseline phenotypic and virologic differences between biopsies derived from the small intestine (SI) and large intestine (LI) for use in ex vivo explant studies. To do this, we collected endoscopic mucosal biopsies from both SI and LI from the same healthy, HIV-seronegative participants. Read More

    Factors Associated with Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jun 23;34(6):527-535. Epub 2018 Apr 23.
    5 Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health , Bethesda, Maryland.
    To identify factors that predispose human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed uninfected infants (HEUs) to higher incidence of severe infections, hospitalization, and death in the first 6-24 months of life compared with HEUs with and without lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in the first 6 months of life. Nested case-control study of 107 LRTI+ infants enrolled in the International Site Development Initiative (NISDI) Perinatal and Longitudinal Study in Latin American Countries (LILAC) studies with and 140 LRTI- in the first 6 months, matched by date and place of birth. Infants and mothers had plasma antibodies measured against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza (PIV) 1, 2, 3, influenza, and pneumococcus 1, 5, 6B, and 14. Read More

    Dynamics of Lymphocyte Reconstitution After Hematopoietic Transplantation During Chronic Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Infection.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 May 18;34(5):430-438. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Department of Microbiology-Immunology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University , Chicago, Illinois.
    Bone marrow transplantation is a treatment for various cancers and genetic diseases, and the only case of a cured HIV infection involved the use of this clinical procedure, highlighting the potential use of this therapy for curing many chronic diseases. However, little is known about how chronic viral infection influences lymphocyte reconstitution after bone marrow transplantation. To address this, we infected mice with chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, and performed bone marrow transplantation to assess lymphocyte reconstitution. Read More

    Clinical Benefits and Cost-Effectiveness of Laboratory Monitoring Strategies to Guide Antiretroviral Treatment Switching in India.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jun 3;34(6):486-497. Epub 2018 May 3.
    1 Division of General Internal Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital , Boston, Massachusetts.
    Current Indian guidelines recommend twice-annual CD4 testing to monitor first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART), with a plasma HIV RNA test to confirm failure if CD4 declines, which would prompt a switch to second-line ART. We used a mathematical model to assess the clinical benefits and cost-effectiveness of alternative laboratory monitoring strategies in India. We simulated a cohort of HIV-infected patients initiating first-line ART and compared 11 strategies with combinations of CD4 and HIV RNA testing at varying frequencies. Read More

    Prevalence of Drug Resistance Mutations in Protease, Reverse Transcriptase, and Integrase Genes of North Central Mexico HIV Isolates.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jun 23;34(6):498-506. Epub 2018 Apr 23.
    1 Laboratorio de Genómica Viral y Humana, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí , San Luis Potosí, México .
    This study set out to determine the frequency of antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in treatment-naive subjects of the north central Mexican state of San Luis Potosí. Mexican studies of antiretroviral drug resistance mutations have focused mainly on large metropolitan areas and border towns subjected to intense international migrations. This study set forth to describe the frequency of these mutations in a Mexican region less subjected to such migratory influences and more representative of smaller Mexican cities. Read More

    Antiviral Activity of Tenofovir Alafenamide Against HIV-1 Subtypes and Emergence of K65R.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 May 10;34(5):456-458. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Clinical Virology, Gilead Sciences, Inc. , Foster City, California.
    Differences in emergence of HIV resistance between subtypes B and C in vitro and potential implications on tenofovir alafenamide efficacy in vivo were evaluated. Dose escalation resistance selections showed K65R emerging earlier for subtype C viruses in vitro, as previously reported. Viral breakthrough experiments at therapeutic drug concentrations, however, showed no difference in time to breakthrough between these subtypes. Read More

    Short Communication: Long Noncoding RNA GAS5 Inhibits HIV-1 Replication Through Interaction with miR-873.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jun 10;34(6):544-549. Epub 2018 May 10.
    1 Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Allergy and Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University , Wuhan, China .
    HIV is the causative pathogen of AIDS, which has generated worldwide concern. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a rising star in virus-host cross-talk pathways; they are differentially expressed during many viral infections and are involved in multiple biological processes. Currently, lncRNA growth arrest-specific transcript 5 (GAS5) is known to be downregulated during HIV-1 infection. Read More

    Stable Caloric Intake and Continued Virologic Suppression for HIV-Positive Antiretroviral Treatment-Experienced Women After Switching to a Single-Tablet Regimen of Emtricitabine, Rilpivirine, and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jun 2;34(6):481-485. Epub 2018 May 2.
    1 Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
    Benefits of switching to a single-tablet regimen (STR) of emtricitabine/rilpivirine/tenofovir (FTC/RPV/TDF) in virologically suppressed antiretroviral treatment (ART) experienced HIV-positive women include pregnancy category B rating and lack of clinically significant drug interactions between RPV and oral contraceptives. Unfortunately, studies involving switching to FTC/RPV/TDF enrolled fewer than 25% women. We undertook this 48-week study to assess the ability of virologically suppressed HIV-positive women switching to RPV STR to remain virologically suppressed and comply with the caloric intake requirement. Read More

    Lower Concentrations of Circulating Medium and Long-Chain Acylcarnitines Characterize Insulin Resistance in Persons with HIV.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jun 2;34(6):536-543. Epub 2018 May 2.
    5 Division of Infectious Diseases, Vanderbilt University Medical Center , Nashville, Tennessee.
    In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative individuals, a plasma metabolite profile, characterized by higher levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), aromatic amino acids, and C3/C5 acylcarnitines, is associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of diabetes. We sought to characterize the metabolite profile accompanying insulin resistance in HIV-positive persons to assess whether the same or different bioenergetics pathways might be implicated. We performed an observational cohort study of 70 nondiabetic, HIV-positive individuals (50% with body mass index ≥30 kg/m) on efavirenz, tenofovir, and emtricitabine with suppressed HIV-1 RNA levels (<50 copies/mL) for at least 2 years and a CD4 count over 350 cells/μL. Read More

    Factors Associated with High-Grade Anal Intraepithelial Lesion in HIV-Positive Men in a Southern U.S. City.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 May 2. Epub 2018 May 2.
    3 Grady Ponce de Leon Center , Atlanta, Georgia .
    The incidence of anal cancer is increased in HIV-infected patients compared with the general population. Risk factors associated with the anal cancer precursor, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), have not been extensively studied in an urban black population with late-stage HIV disease. We performed a retrospective chart review of HIV-infected men at the Grady Ponce de Leon Center HIV Clinic (Atlanta, GA) referred for high-resolution anoscopy (HRA), a procedure where anal tissue is examined under magnification and abnormal areas are biopsied. Read More

    Characterization of a New HIV-1 CRF01_AE/CRF07_BC Recombinant Virus Form Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beijing, China.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jun 2;34(6):550-554. Epub 2018 May 2.
    1 State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Division of Virology and Immunology, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention , Beijing, China .
    Recent studies have revealed that three major viral strains (CRF07_BC, CRF01_AE, and subtype B) have been cocirculating among men who have sex with men in Beijing. Cocirculation of multiple subtypes in the same population contributes significantly to the emergence of recombinant viruses. This study reports a near full-length genome of a novel, second-generation HIV-1 recombinant (BJ2015EU16) between CRF07_BC and CRF01_AE. Read More

    Genotypic Characterization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Prevalent in Kepulauan Riau, Indonesia.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jun 24;34(6):555-560. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    2 Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine , Hyogo, Japan .
    Kepulauan Riau is a famous tourist destination in Indonesia. The epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is gradually increasing in this region. We collected peripheral blood samples from 62 antiretroviral therapy-experienced individuals. Read More

    HIV-1 Genetic Diversity in Recently Diagnosed Infections in Moscow: Predominance of A, Frequent Branching in Clusters, and Circulation of the Iberian Subtype G Variant.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 May 15. Epub 2018 May 15.
    2 HIV Biology and Variability Unit, Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III , Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain .
    HIV-1 protease-reverse transcriptase sequences from 62 HIV-1-infected individuals recently diagnosed in Moscow were analyzed. Subtype A former Soviet Union (FSU) (A) variant was the predominant clade (62.9%), followed by subtype B (22. Read More

    Characterization of a New HIV-1 Group N Isolate Originating from a Cameroonian Patient.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Apr 23. Epub 2018 Apr 23.
    1 Virology Department, Centre Pasteur of Cameroon , Yaounde, Cameroon .
    HIV-1 group N (HIV-1/N) remains rare and mainly restricted to Cameroon. In this study, we report a new HIV-1/N infected case identified during routine HIV screening activities in Yaounde. The genetic characterization of the near full-length genome of this virus strain revealed that it is genetically distinct to all HIV-1/N described to date. Read More

    Short Communication: Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors with Reduced Predicted Activity Do Not Impair Second-Line Therapy with Lopinavir/Ritonavir or Darunavir/Ritonavir.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jun 23;34(6):477-480. Epub 2018 Apr 23.
    1 Unité mixte Internationale Recherches Translationnelles sur le VIH et les Maladies Infectieuses (TransVIH-MI, UMI 233 IRD/U1175 Inserm), Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Université de Montpellier , Montpellier, France .
    Second-line therapy randomized trials with lopinavir/ritonavir question the value of resistance testing to guide nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) selection. In this study, we investigated the association between baseline drug resistance and treatment outcome after 104 weeks of second-line therapy with NRTIs and either darunavir/ritonavir or lopinavir/ritonavir in West-central Africa. We did an observational analysis of data from 387 individuals in a randomized, open-label 2LADY trial in Burkina Faso, Cameroon, and Senegal. Read More

    Efficient ZFN-Mediated Stop Codon Integration into the CCR5 Locus in Hematopoietic Stem Cells: A Possible Source for Intrabone Marrow Cell Transplantation.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 May 15. Epub 2018 May 15.
    1 Molecular and Cellular Biology Unit, Department of Medicine, Lerdsin General Hospital , Bang-Rak Bangkok, Thailand .
    We reported a simple genome editing approach that can generate human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV) coreceptor defective cells, which may be useful for latent viral eradication treatment. Samples of bone marrow leftover after diagnostic procedures and crude bone marrow from aviremic HIV patients were subjected to zinc finger nuclease-mediated stop codon insertion into chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) loci. Locked nucleic acid-based polymerase chain reaction was used to estimate the amount of insertion in the expandable CD34 cells. Read More

    Pathways to Retention in HIV Care Among U.S. Veterans.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Jun 29;34(6):517-526. Epub 2018 Mar 29.
    1 Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University , Atlanta, Georgia .
    Retaining HIV patients in clinical care is a critical component of the HIV care continuum, impacting not only patients' virologic suppression, but their overall health and wellbeing. Understanding reasons for patient drop-out is therefore important to improve HIV outcomes and reduce transmission. This study used qualitative in-depth interviews with patients who dropped out of HIV care (n = 16) from the Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, to explore their reasons for drop-out and how they negotiate barriers to return to care. Read More

    Short Communication: Apoptotic Membrane Microparticles Quantified by Fluorescent Bead-Based Assay Are Elevated in HIV and SIV Infections.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 May 27;34(5):446-448. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
    1 Division of Immunology, New England Primate Research Center , Harvard Medical School, Southborough, Massachusetts.
    Apoptotic membrane microparticles (MMPs) derived from dying cells of multiple cell origins are highly immunostimulatory and are indicative of global immune activation and cell death in a variety of diseases. In this study, we developed a flow cytometric bead assay to quantify annexin-V apoptotic (MMPs) in plasma from humans and rhesus macaques. With a combination of flow cytometry and pan-fluorescent beads, MMPs were enumerated in plasma specimens by adding a constant ratio of beads to initial fluid volumes and then calculating MMP/mL based on MMP-to-bead ratios. Read More

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