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    5842 results match your criteria AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses[Journal]

    1 OF 117

    Depletion of gut-resident CCR5+ cells for HIV cure strategies.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Sep 17. Epub 2017 Sep 17.
    University of California Davis Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 272916, Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Davis, California, United States.
    The HIV reservoir forming at the earliest stages of infection is likely composed of CCR5+ cells, because these cells are the targets of transmissible virus. Restriction of the CCR5+ reservoir, particularly in gut, may be needed for subsequent cure attempts. Strategies for killing or depleting CCR5+ cells have been described, but none have been tested in vivo in non-human primates and the extent of achievable depletion from tissues is not known. Read More

    A 2-4-amino-acid deletion in the V5 region of HIV-1 Env gp120 confers viral resistance to the broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibody, VRC01.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Department of International Health , 7-10-2 Tomogaoka, Suma-ku, , Kobe, Hyogo, Japan , 654-0142 ;
    The envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) plays a critical role in viral entry into host cells. The broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibody VRC01, which recognizes the CD4 binding site on gp120, neutralizes more than 90% of HIV-1 isolates. However, some of the CRF01_AE viruses prevalent in Southeast Asia are resistant to VRC01-mediated neutralization. Read More

    High levels of viral suppression among East African HIV-infected women and men in serodiscordant partnerships initiating antiretroviral therapy with high CD4 counts and during pregnancy.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    University of Washington, Department of Epidemiology, Seattle, United States ;
    Background: People who are asymptomatic and feel healthy, including pregnant women, may be less motivated to initiate ART or achieve high adherence. We assessed whether ART initiation, and viral suppression 6, 12 and 24-months after ART initiation, were lower in HIV-infected members of serodiscordant couples who initiated during pregnancy or with higher CD4 counts.

    Methods: We used data from the Partners Demonstration Project, an open-label study of the delivery of integrated PrEP and ART (at any CD4 count) for HIV prevention among high-risk HIV serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda. Read More

    A summary of the second annual HIV Microbiome workshop.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Rush University Medical Center, Immunology and Microbiology, Chicago, Illinois, United States ;
    Commensal organisms appear to play significant roles in normal homeostasis as well as in the pathogensis of HIV infection in a number of different organ systems. On November 17th and 18th 2016, leading researchers from around the world met to discuss their insights on advances in our understanding of HIV and the microbiome at the NIH in Bethesda. Read More

    Therapeutic vaccine against HIV, viral variability, CTL epitopes and genetics of patients.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    laboratoire de virologie UMR5234, CHU Universite Bordeaux , 146 rue Leo Saignat , Bordeaux, France , 33076 ;
    The scientific and medical community is seeking to cure HIV. Several pathways have been or are being explored including therapeutic vaccination. Viro-immunological studies on primary infection as well as on elite controllers have demonstrated the importance of the cytotoxic CD8 response and have mainly oriented research on vaccine constructs towards this type of response. Read More

    Community Based Antiretroviral Treatment in Rural Zimbabwe.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    African Institute of Biomedical Science and Technology, Molecular Biology, Harare, Zimbabwe ;
    Introduction: Treatment of HIV has reduced HIV/AIDS-related mortality. Sustaining >90% virologic suppression in sub-Saharan Africa requires decentralized care and prevention services to rural communities. In Zimbabwe, the number of people receiving ART has increased rapidly. Read More

    'What Would an HIV Cure Mean to You?': Qualitative Analysis from a Crowdsourcing Contest in Guangzhou, China.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Sep 11. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Institute of Global Health and Infectious Diseases, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States.
    Much HIV cure social science research has focused on high-income countries. Local key population perspectives, especially from people living with HIV (PLHIV), are needed in low-and middle-income countries (LMIC). We organized an open contest soliciting responses from key populations, including PLHIV, about what a cure would mean in their lives. Read More

    Differentiating Immune Cell Targets in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue for HIV Cure.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Gladstone Institutes, 40292, Virology and Immunology , 1650 Owens Street , San Francisco, California, United States , 94158.
    The single greatest challenge to an HIV cure is the persistence of latently-infected cells containing inducible, replication-competent proviral genomes that constitute only a small fraction of total or infected cells in the body. Although resting CD4+ T cells in the blood are a well-known source of viral rebound, more than 90% of the body's lymphocytes reside elsewhere. Many are in gut tissue, where HIV DNA levels per million CD4+ T cells are considerably higher than in the blood. Read More

    Multiscale imaging of HIV-1 transmission in humanized mice.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    California Institute of Technology, 6469, Biology and Biological Engineering, Pasadena, California, United States ;
    HIV transmission within lymphoid tissues remains incompletely characterized at the level of individual cells and virions. Here we visually describe our approach to understanding HIV-1 dissemination at different levels of volume and resolution within lymphoid tissues from HIV-1-infected humanized mice. We combined tissue clearing techniques, immunostaining, and light sheet fluorescence microscopy to visualize large-volumes of intact tissue with single-cell resolution from HIV-1-infected humanized mice. Read More

    An Optimized and Validated Method for Isolation and Characterization of Lymphocytes from HIV+ Human Gut Biopsies.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Gladstone Institutes, 40292, Virology and Immunology, San Francisco, California, United States.
    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbors most of the body's immune cells and is also a major HIV reservoir in ART-treated patients. To achieve a cure, most HIV-infected cells must be identified and eliminated. While obtaining gut biopsies is a relatively non-invasive method of sampling relevant tissue for monitoring HIV activity, immune cell isolation from these limited tissue samples has proven to be challenging. Read More

    Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in Turkey: Results from the ACTHIV-IST Study Group.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Aug 30. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Istanbul, Turkey ;
    Objectives: Maintaining optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is essential for optimizing the management of HIV infection. The aim of this study is to explore ART adherence rates in Turkey.

    Methods: Included in this study were a total of 263 HIV-infected patients followed-up by the ACTHIV-IST (ACTion against HIV in Istanbul) Study Group affiliated with four tertiary hospitals. Read More

    The California HIV/AIDS Research Program: History, Impact, and HIV Cure Initiative.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Aug 29. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    University of California, California HIV/AIDS Research Program, Oakland, California, United States ;
    This Special Issue of AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses features results from the HIV Cure Initiative, funded by the California HIV/AIDS Research Program (CHRP). As a publicly-funded grant maker, CHRP has served for more than three decades as a unique resource for innovative researchers in California whose work seeks to address all aspects of the HIV epidemic and the communities affected by it. Early initiatives at CHRP pioneered what would become enduring cornerstones of HIV science: isolation of the virus; efficacy and toxicities of the first HIV treatments; the emergence of drug resistance; the first biospecimen banks for HIV-related research; the first community-based laboratory service for HIV diagnostic serology; and the first population-based longitudinal cohort study of persons living with HIV - The Gay Men's Health Study. Read More

    Evidence for altered glutamine metabolism in HIV-1 infected primary human CD4+ T cells.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Aug 26. Epub 2017 Aug 26.
    King's College London, Infectious Diseases , 2nd floor Borough Wing , Guy's Hospital , Great Maze pond , London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland , SE1 9RT ;
    Glutamine is a conditionally essential amino acid that is an important metabolic resource for proliferating tissues by acting as a proteinogenic amino acid, a nitrogen donor for biosynthetic reactions and as a substrate for the citric acid, or tricarboxylic acid (TCA), cycle. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) productively infects activated CD4+ T cells that are known to require glutamine for proliferation and for carrying out effector functions. As a virus, HIV-1 is furthermore entirely dependent on host metabolism to support its replication. Read More

    A novel recombinant form of HIV-1 CRF01_AE/CRF07_BC identified by near full-length genome in Shaanxi, China.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Aug 26. Epub 2017 Aug 26.
    Shaanxi Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 425040, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China ;
    Recently multiple kinds of unique recombinant forms (URFs) of HIV-1 CRF01_AE/CRF07_BC were identified in China. In this study, we report another near full-length genome of a novel recombinant form (SN121) between CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC from an HIV-1 infected male through heterosexual behavior in Shaanxi province, China. The analysis of SN121 showed that the genome composed of 7 interlaced segments, including 3 CRF07_BC and 4 CRF01_AE segments with CRF01_AE as the backbone. Read More

    Mortality and Health Service Use Following Acute Myocardial Infarction Among Persons with HIV: A Population-Based Study.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    1 Department of Family and Community Medicine, St. Michael's Hospital , Toronto, Canada .
    People with HIV have higher rates of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) than HIV-negative individuals. We compared mortality risk and health service use following AMI among people with and without HIV between January 1, 2002, and March 31, 2015. We conducted a population-based study using Ontario's administrative databases. Read More

    Reduced Expression of Siglec-7, NKG2A, and CD57 on Terminally Differentiated CD56(-)CD16(+) Natural Killer Cell Subset Is Associated with Natural Killer Cell Dysfunction in Chronic HIV-1 Clade C Infection.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    1 HIV Pathogenesis Programme, Doris Duke Medical Research Institute, University of KwaZulu-Natal , Durban, South Africa .
    HIV-1 viremia has been shown to induce several phenotypic and functional abnormalities in natural killer (NK) cells. To assess immune defects associated with HIV viremia, we examined NK cell function, differentiation status, and phenotypic alterations based on expression of inhibitory and activating receptors on NK cells in HIV-1 subtype C chronically infected participants from Durban, South Africa. NK cell phenotypic profiles were characterized by assessing sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin-7 (Siglec-7), NKG2A, and NKG2C markers on frozen peripheral blood mononuclear cells from viremic, antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive HIV-1 chronically infected participants (n = 23), HIV-1 chronically infected participants who had been on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for at least 12 months (n = 23) compared with healthy donors (n = 23). Read More

    Late Presentation HIV/AIDS Is Still a Challenge in Brazil and Worldwide.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    2 Retrovirology Laboratory, Federal University of São Paulo , São Paulo, Brazil .
    Despite all the efforts to contain the HIV/AIDS epidemics, there still are individuals of unknown diagnosis. These present high risk of mortality and after diagnosis respond very poorly to treatment. Late testing also represents a reduced opportunity in controlling the transmission of HIV and causes an indirect increase in the transmission rates of other diseases, such as tuberculosis. Read More

    HIV Resistance with Correlation to PMTCT Regimen in HIV-Infected Infants in Northern Tanzania.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Aug 11. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    ViiV Healthcare US, 326929, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, United States ;
    Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) guidelines recommend that all HIV-infected pregnant woman receive antiretroviral therapy (Option B) and HIV-infected infants should initiate therapy with a protease inhibitor based regimen; however, implementation of these guidelines has lagged in many resource-limited settings. Tanzania only recently implemented these guidelines with little country specific data to inform whether HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance was present among infected infants under the Option A guidelines. This study aimed to identify primary resistance mutations in HIV-infected infants and to identify risk of NVP resistance based on maternal and infant NVP exposure. Read More

    Analysis of clinical HIV-1 strains with resistance to maraviroc reveals strain-specific resistance mutations, variable degrees of resistance, and minimal cross-resistance to other CCR5 antagonists.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Aug 11. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    RMIT University , Plenty Road , Bundoora, Victoria, Australia , 3083 ;
    Maraviroc (MVC) is an allosteric inhibitor of HIV-1 entry, and is the only CCR5 antagonist licensed for use as an anti-HIV-1 therapeutic. It acts by altering the conformation of the CCR5 extracellular loops, rendering CCR5 unrecognizable by the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env). This study aimed to understand the mechanisms underlying the development of MVC resistance in HIV-1-infected patients. Read More

    Characterization of a Novel HIV-1 Second-Generation Recombinant Form in Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beijing, China.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Sep 8. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    1 State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Division of Virology and Immunology, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention , Beijing, People's Republic of China .
    Cocirculation of multiple subtypes in the same population contributes significantly to the emergence of recombinant viruses. BJ2015EU19, a novel CCR5-tropic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1, second-generation recombinant virus, was isolated from a man who has sex with men in Beijing, China. Phylogenetic analysis of the near full-length genome showed that BJ2015EU19 consisted of seven fragments from CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC. Read More

    Second-Line Antiretroviral Therapy in Sub-Saharan Africa: It Is Time to Mind the Gaps.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Sep 8. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    3 Division of Infectious Diseases, University of KwaZulu-Natal , Durban, South Africa .
    The delay between first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure and initiation of second-line ART in resource-limited settings can be prolonged. Increasing evidence links delayed antiretroviral switch with increased risk for opportunistic infection (OI) and death, particularly in patients with advanced HIV at the time of first-line failure. As access to viral load (VL) monitoring widens beyond a few countries, mechanisms are needed to optimize the use of routine virologic monitoring and assure that first-line regimen failure results in prompt second-line switch. Read More

    Comparative susceptibility of rhesus macaques of Indian and Chinese origin to vaginal SHIV transmission as models for HIV prevention research.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Aug 10. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Tulane National Primate Research Center , 18703 Three Rivers Road , Covington, Louisiana, United States , 70433 ;
    Historically, Indian origin rhesus macaques (iRM) have been preferred for SIV/HIV prevention, pathogenesis, and treatment studies, yet their supply is limited. Chinese origin rhesus macaques (cRM) are currently more available yet little is known regarding the relative susceptibility of this subspecies to vaginal transmission of SIV or SHIV. Here we compared the susceptibility of 40 cRM and 21 iRM to a single vaginal challenge with SHIVsf162P. Read More

    Mycobacterium avium Complex Infection and Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Remain a Challenge in the Era of Effective Antiretroviral Therapy.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Alfred Hospital and Monash University , Melbourne, Victoria, Australia .
    A 10-year review of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection and MAC-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-positive patients (2004-2014) at a state-wide tertiary referral HIV service demonstrates that despite advances in antiretroviral therapy, MAC infection remains a therapeutic challenge, particularly intra-abdominal disease. Read More

    Vitamin D Status and Kidney Function Decline in HIV-Infected Men: A Longitudinal Study in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Sep 5. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    1 Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health , Baltimore, Maryland.
    Vitamin D may play an important role in a range of disease processes. In the general population, lower vitamin D levels have been associated with kidney dysfunction. HIV-infected populations have a higher risk of chronic kidney disease. Read More

    HECT Domain and RCC1-Like Domain-Containing Protein 5 (HERC-5) Gene Polymorphisms in HIV-1-Infected Individuals: A Study from India.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Jul 24. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Department of Immunology and Serology, National AIDS Research Institute , Pune, India .
    HECT domain and RCC1-like domain-containing protein 5 (HERC-5) is one of the novel host restriction factors that is known to inhibit HIV release in vitro. Polymorphisms in other host restriction factors have been associated with HIV infection and disease progression. However, no report is available on the HERC-5 polymorphism in HIV-infected individuals. Read More

    Near Full-Length Genome Sequence of a Novel HIV-1 Second-Generation Recombinant Form (CRF01_AE/CRF07_BC) Detected Among Blood Donors in North China.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Aug 16. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    1 Key Laboratory of AIDS Immunology of National Health and Family Planning Commission, Department of Laboratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University , Shenyang, People's Republic of China .
    In this study, a novel CRF01_AE/07_BC HIV-1 recombinant form, with five breakpoints in the pol, vpr, env, and nef gene regions, was identified from a voluntary blood donor in North China. Our study showed that this HIV-1 recombinant form might be a second-generation recombinant form from two predominant strains in the men who have sex with men (MSM) population, with the CRF07_BC fragments belonging to a CRF07_BC lineage specific to Chinese MSM and the CRF01_AE fragments belonging to the CRF01_AE lineage 5 common among MSM in northern China. Our findings supported the high-risk blood donation behaviors of MSM, implied the increasing complexity of the HIV-1 epidemic among the Chinese MSM population, and called more attention to the effectiveness of the screening test for the growing number of new HIV-1 recombinant forms. Read More

    Eradication of HIV from Tissue Reservoirs: Challenges for the Cure.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Aug 7. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    5 The AIDS and Cancer Specimen Resource , San Francisco, California.
    The persistence of HIV infection, even after lengthy and successful combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), has precluded an effective cure. The anatomical locations and biological mechanisms through which the viral population is maintained remain unknown. Much research has focused nearly exclusively on circulating resting T cells as the predominant source of persistent HIV, a strategy with limited success in developing an effective cure strategy. Read More

    Malnutrition in HIV-Infected Children Is an Indicator of Severe Disease with an Impaired Response to Antiretroviral Therapy.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    8 King Edward VIII Hospital , Durban, South Africa .
    This observational study aimed to describe immunopathogenesis and treatment outcomes in children with and without severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and HIV-infection. We studied markers of microbial translocation (16sDNA), intestinal damage (iFABP), monocyte activation (sCD14), T-cell activation (CD38, HLA-DR) and immune exhaustion (PD1) in 32 HIV-infected children with and 41 HIV-infected children without SAM prior to initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and cross-sectionally compared these children to 15 HIV-uninfected children with and 19 HIV-uninfected children without SAM. We then prospectively measured these markers and correlated them to treatment outcomes in the HIV-infected children at 48 weeks following initiation of ART. Read More

    False Recent Ratio of the Limiting-Antigen Avidity Assay and Viral Load Testing Algorithm Among Cameroonians with Long-Term HIV Infection.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Aug 7. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    1 Division of Intramural Research, NIAID, NIH , Baltimore, Maryland.
    Current serological assays that are used for cross-sectional HIV incidence estimation have been shown to misclassify individuals with chronic infection. Limited information exists on the performance of cross-sectional incidence assays in Central Africa. HIV-positive individuals from Cameroon who were infected for at least 1 or 2 years were evaluated to determine the false recent ratio (FRR) of a two-assay algorithm, which includes the Limiting Antigen Avidity (LAg-Avidity) assay (normalized optical density units, ODn <1. Read More

    Lubricant Provides Poor Rectal Mucosal HIV Coverage.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Aug 24;33(8):784-787. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    1 Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine , Baltimore, Maryland.
    Given the rising HIV incidence in men who have sex with men (MSM) despite repeatedly proven effectiveness of oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis, behaviorally congruent periodic dosing strategies, such as dosing microbicides as lubricants, are now in demand. Rectal microbicide gel studies largely administer gels using vaginal applicators, which have not been well received and do not mimic lubricant use. We compared rectal gel manually dosed as lubricant with applicator dosing in five healthy, HIV-negative MSM who received 10 or 3. Read More

    HIVR4P 2016, Partnering for Prevention: Conference Summary and Highlights.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Aug 26;33(8):749-759. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    17 Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise , New York, New York.
    HIV Research for Prevention: AIDS Vaccine, Microbicide, and ARV-based Prevention Science (HIVR4P) was built on a growing consensus that effective HIV prevention requires a combination of approaches and that understanding, analyzing, and debating the cross-cutting issues that impact prevention research are all essential to combat the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. To that end, the biennial HIVR4P conference is dedicated to all biomedical HIV prevention research approaches, including HIV vaccines, microbicides, pre-exposure prophylaxis, and treatment as prevention. The HIVR4P 2016 conference was held in Chicago, Illinois (USA), on October 17-21, and included more than 700 scientific presentations and 21 satellite sessions covering the latest and most promising advances across the HIV prevention research field. Read More

    The Clinical Value of Cystatin C as a Marker of Renal Function in HIV Patients Receiving Dolutegravir.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Jul 24. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Teikyo University School of Medicine , Tokyo, Japan .
    Dolutegravir (DTG) is an integrase strand transfer inhibitor that is used for the treatment of HIV infection. DTG inhibits organic cation transporter 2 on the basolateral side of proximal tubule cells of the kidney and leads to increased serum creatinine levels without true renal function deterioration. In HIV patients who receive DTG, an alternative test to serum creatinine measurement is needed to determine the correct renal function. Read More

    Mediators Go Together: High Production of CXCL9, CXCL10, IFN-γ, and TNF-α in HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Jul 25. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    1 Department of Virology and Experimental Therapy (LaViTE), Aggeu Magalhães Institute (IAM), Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz) , Recife, Brazil .
    HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic demyelinating and disabling syndrome caused by human T lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1). Although the pathogenic mechanisms that lead to HAM/TSP outcome have not been elucidated, genetic and immunological factors may be involved in the myelopathy occurrence. This study aimed to compare cytokines, chemokines, and nitric oxide (NO) levels in asymptomatic and HAM/TSP HTLV-1-infected patients. Read More

    Immunogenicity of AGS-004 Dendritic Cell Therapy in Patients Treated During Acute HIV Infection.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    1 University of North Carolina HIV Cure Center , Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
    AGS-004 consists of matured autologous dendritic cells co-electroporated with in vitro transcribed RNA encoding autologous HIV antigens. In an open-label, single arm sub-study of AGS-004-003, AGS-004 was administered monthly to suppressed participants who started antiretroviral therapy (ART) during acute HIV infection. HIV-1 specific T cell responses were measured by multicolor flow cytometry after 3-4 doses. Read More

    Evidence of Noncompetent HIV after Ex Vivo Purging Among ART-Suppressed Individuals.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Jun 20. Epub 2017 Jun 20.
    1 Retrovirology Laboratory, Infectious Diseases Division, Paulista School of Medicine, Federal University of Sao Paulo , Sao Paulo, Brazil .

    Revisiting the AIDS Epidemic in Pakistan: Where We Stand and What We Must Aim for.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Jul 11. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Department of Healthcare Biotechnology, Atta-ur-Rahman School of Applied Biosciences (ASAB), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan .
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the major cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans, where the immune system totally succumbs to the virus. A large proportion of the AIDS infected belong to developing countries and AIDS prevalence is intensified by severe poverty, malnutrition, and famine; fatal illnesses with a scorn shortage of medical amenities complemented with the lack of education and development. Current Pakistani health system setting is in a dire need of improvement. Read More

    Conserved HIV-1 Gag p24 Epitopes Elicit Cellular Immune Responses That Impact Disease Outcome.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Aug 3;33(8):832-842. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Division of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo, Brazil .
    Although the breadth of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific cellular immune response and its impact on the control of viral replication have already been addressed, reported data have proven controversial. We hypothesize that the nature of targeted epitopes, rather than the simple breadth or magnitude of responses, correlates with disease outcome. In this study, we explore the occurrence of patterns of Gag p24 recognition among untreated HIV-1-infected patients by identifying the epitopes that compose such patterns and how they distinctly associate with disease progression. Read More

    Characterization of a New HIV-1 CRF01_AE/CRF07_BC Recombinant Virus in Guangxi, China.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Jul 10. Epub 2017 Jul 10.
    1 State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Division of Virology and Immunology, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention , Beijing, People's Republic of China .
    Currently, more and more kinds of circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and unique recombinant forms (URFs) were identified in China. A novel second-generation CCR5-tropic HIV-1 recombinant virus (GX2016EU09) was identified here, which was isolated from a HIV-1-infected man who had sex with men (MSM) in Guangxi, China. Phylogenetic analysis of near full-length genome (NFLG) showed that the novel HIV-1 recombinant GX2016EU09 clustered with CRF01_AE reference sequences, but set up a distinct branch. Read More

    A Unique Second-Generation Recombinant Form of HIV-1 Identified Among Men Who Have Sex with Men Population in Beijing, China.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Jul 5. Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    Institute for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention , Beijing Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing Center for Preventive Medical Research, Beijing, China .
    In China, CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC are the most circulating strains of HIV-1, more and more second-generation recombinant forms have been isolated around the two strains. The same situation happened in Beijing in recent years. In our study, we have isolated a new second-generation recombinant form of HIV-1 from a male patient who was infected by homosexual behavior. Read More

    Ultra-Deep Sequencing Analysis on HIV Drug-Resistance-Associated Mutations Among HIV-Infected Individuals: First Report from the Philippines.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Jul 5. Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    1 Hawaii Center for AIDS, Medical Microbiology and Pharmacology, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii Manoa , Honolulu, Hawaii.
    A sharp increase in the number of people living with HIV has been documented in the Philippines. In response, the government has instituted antiretroviral therapy (ART) nationwide through HIV treatment hubs. However, no data presently exist on the status of ART drug-resistance-associated mutations (DRMs). Read More

    Phylodynamic Analysis Revealed That Epidemic of CRF07_BC Strain in Men Who Have Sex with Men Drove Its Second Spreading Wave in China.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    1 Anhui Medical University , Hefei, China .
    CRF07_BC was originally formed in Yunnan province of China in 1980s and spread quickly in injecting drug users (IDUs). In recent years, it has been introduced into men who have sex with men (MSM) and become the most dominant strain in China. In this study, we performed a comprehensively phylodynamic analysis of CRF07_BC sequences from China. Read More

    "We Need to Deploy Them Very Thoughtfully and Carefully": Perceptions of Analytical Treatment Interruptions in HIV Cure Research in the United States-A Qualitative Inquiry.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Jul 10. Epub 2017 Jul 10.
    11 UNC Project China , Guangzhou, China .
    Strategies to control HIV in the absence of antiretroviral therapy are needed to cure HIV. However, such strategies will require analytical treatment interruptions (ATIs) to determine their efficacy. We investigated how U. Read More

    Hypertension in HIV-Infected Adults Compared with Similar but Uninfected Adults in China: Body Mass Index-Dependent Effects of Nadir CD4 Count.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Jul 5. Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    1 Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, and the Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education, Fudan University , Shanghai, China .
    Hypertension is a growing problem in the HIV population. The relationship between low nadir CD4 count and hypertension in the HIV-infected population has been reported. However, the effect of nadir CD4 on hypertension due to a different body mass index (BMI) is yet to be fully elucidated. Read More

    Genome Sequence of a Novel HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Form (CRF79_0107) Identified from Shanxi, China.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 May 30. Epub 2017 May 30.
    1 State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention , Beijing, China .
    We report a novel HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF79_0107) from three epidemiologically unlinked patients through sexual contact in Shanxi province of China. This is the first second-generation circulating recombinant form identified in China. The breakpoint analysis of recombinants showed that CRF79_0107 was composed of CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC, with three CRF07_BC segments inserted into the CRF01_AE backbone. Read More

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