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    5868 results match your criteria AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses[Journal]

    1 OF 118

    HIV, HBV and HCV prevalence among high risk populations in South India.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Nov 22. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    YRG Centre for AIDS Research and Education (YRG CARE), Chennai, India ;
    HBV and HCV coinfection with HIV has become a major concern for the survival of HIV patients. HBV, HCV coinfection with HIV is less reported in risk population especially in India. Persons presenting for HIV testing at a large testing center in Chennai, India were screened for HIV, HBV, and HCV infections with serologic testing. Read More

    Recruitment of underrepresented minority researchers into HIV prevention research: The HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) Scholars Program.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Nov 16. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    University at Albany State University of New York, 1084, School of Social Welfare, Albany, New York, United States ;
    Most US investigators in the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) have been of majority race/ethnicity and sexual orientation. Research participants, in contrast, have been disproportionately from racial/ethnic minorities and men who have sex with men (MSM), reflecting the US epidemic. We initiated and subsequently evaluated the HPTN Scholars Program that mentors early career investigators from underrepresented minority groups. Read More

    A Cohort Approach to Real Time Detection of Acute HIV infections among People who Inject Drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Nov 16. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2331, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States ;
    Objectives: To detect acute HIV infections (AHI) in real time among people who inject drugs (PWID) in St. Petersburg, Russia and to test the feasibility of this approach.

    Design: Prospective cohort study. Read More

    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Nov 16. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    National Institutes of Health, Division of AIDS, Bethesda, Maryland, United States ;
    Advances in imaging technologies have greatly increased our understanding of cellular and molecular interactions in humans and their corresponding animal models of infectious diseases. In the HIV/SIV field, imaging has provided key insights into mucosal viral transmission, local and systemic virus spread, host-virus dynamics, and chronic inflammation/immune activation and the resultant immunopathology. Recent developments in imaging applications are yielding physical, spatial, and temporal measurements to enhance insight into biological functions and disease processes, while retaining important cellular, microenvironmental, organ and intact organism contextual details. Read More

    Purging Exhausted Virus-Specific CD8 T Cell Phenotypes by Somatic Cell Reprogramming.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Nov;33(S1):S59-S69
    1 Division of Hematology and Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA , Los Angeles, California.
    Cytotoxic T cells are critical in controlling virus infections. However, continuous antigen stimulation and negative regulatory factors cause CD8 T cells to enter a dysfunctional state (T cell exhaustion), resulting in viral persistence. We hypothesized that the exhausted T cell state could be molecularly rejuvenated using a somatic cell reprogramming technology, which is technically able to convert any types of cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), to regenerate functional T cells capable of purging chronic infection. Read More

    IL-21 Therapy Controls Immune Activation and Maintains Antiviral CD8(+) T Cell Responses in Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Nov;33(S1):S81-S92
    1 California National Primate Research Center, University of California , Davis, California.
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replicate during acute infection in lymphocytes of the gastrointestinal tract, before disseminating systemically. Localized replication and associated loss of gut-resident CD4(+) T cells occur regardless of the portal of entry of the virus (e.g. Read More

    Host Methyltransferases and Demethylases: Potential New Epigenetic Targets for HIV Cure Strategies and Beyond.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Nov;33(S1):S8-S22
    1 Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology , San Francisco, California.
    A successful HIV cure strategy may require reversing HIV latency to purge hidden viral reservoirs or enhancing HIV latency to permanently silence HIV transcription. Epigenetic modifying agents show promise as antilatency therapeutics in vitro and ex vivo, but also affect other steps in the viral life cycle. In this review, we summarize what we know about cellular DNA and protein methyltransferases (PMTs) as well as demethylases involved in HIV infection. Read More

    Cytomegalovirus and HIV Persistence: Pouring Gas on the Fire.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Nov;33(S1):S23-S30
    1 University of California San Diego , Center for AIDS Research, La Jolla, California.
    The inherent stability of a small population of T cells that are latently infected with HIV despite antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains a stubborn obstacle to an HIV cure. By exploiting the memory compartment of our immune system, HIV maintains persistence in a small subset of quiescent cells with varying phenotypes, thus evading immune surveillance and clinical detection. Understanding the molecular and immunological mechanisms that maintain the latent reservoir will be critical to the success of HIV eradication strategies. Read More

    Proteomic profiling of a primary CD4+ T cell model of HIV-1 latency identifies proteins whose differential expression correlates with reactivation of latent HIV-1.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Oct 30. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    Baylor College of Medicine, Molecular Virology and Microbiology , One Baylor Plaza , Houston , Houston, Texas, United States , 77030 ;
    The latent HIV-1 reservoir of memory CD4+ T cells that persists during combination antiviral therapy prevents a cure of infection. Insight into mechanisms of latency and viral reactivation are essential for the rationale design of strategies to reduce the latent reservoir. In this study, we quantified the levels of over 2,600 proteins in the CCL19 primary CD4+ T cell model of HIV-1 latency. Read More

    The spleen is an HIV-1 sanctuary during cART.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Oct 30. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    The AIDS and Cancer Specimen Resource, San Francisco, California, United States.
    Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) does not eradicate HIV, which persists for years and can re-establish replication if treatment is stopped. The current challenge is identifying those tissues harboring virus through cART. Here, we used HIV env-nef single genome sequencing (SGS) and HIV gag digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) to survey 50 tissues from five subjects on cART with no detectable plasma viral load at death. Read More

    Distinct pattern of TAMs with K65R in patients failing tenofovir-based antiretroviral therapy.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Oct 30. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Boston, Massachusetts, United States ;
    Historically, in HIV patients, the K65R mutation and thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs) have been reported to rarely coexist. We retrospectively reviewed genotype data from paired samples in a cohort of HIV-1-infected Nigerian patients failing first-line antiretroviral therapies containing zidovudine (AZT) or tenofovir (TDF). Samples for each patient were taken at initial confirmed virological failure ≥1000 copies/mL (S1) and then at the latest available sample with viral load ≥1000 copies/mL prior to switch to second-line (S2). Read More

    Perinatally HIV-Infected Youths After Transition from Pediatric to Adult Care, a Single-Center Experience from Northern Italy.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Nov 17. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    1 University Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, University of Brescia and Spedali Civili General Hospital , Brescia, Italy .
    With the development of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), the first generation of perinatally HIV-infected children has reached young adulthood. A retrospective study was conducted on perinatally HIV-infected young adults after transition to adult care in Brescia (Northern Italy). Twenty-four patients were transferred to Infectious Disease outpatient Clinic from Pediatric Clinic between 2004 and 2016. Read More

    T Regulatory Cell Induced Foxp3 Binds the IL2, IFNγ, and TNFα Promoters in Virus-Specific CD8(+) T Cells from Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Cats.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Nov 17. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    2 Department of Population Health and Pathobiology, North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine , Raleigh, North Carolina.
    Polyfunctional CD8(+) T cells play a critical role in controlling viremia during AIDS lentiviral infections. However, for most HIV-infected individuals, virus-specific CD8(+) T cells exhibit loss of polyfunctionality, including loss of IL2, TNFα, and IFNγ. Using the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) model for AIDS lentiviral persistence, our laboratory has demonstrated that FIV-activated Treg cells target CD8(+) T cells, leading to a reduction in IL2 and IFNγ production. Read More

    Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Increases Blood Ethanol Concentration Duration After Both Acute and Chronic Administration.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Nov 21. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    1 Department of Physiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center , New Orleans, Louisiana.
    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a frequent comorbidity among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Alcohol consumption is a significant predictor of nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), as well as worsening immunological and virological indicators among PLWHA. Clinical studies indicate that higher viral loads increase sensitivity to alcohol in PLWHA. Read More

    Immunization with Clinical HIV-1 Env Proteins Induces Broad Antibody Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity-Mediating Antibodies in a Rabbit Vaccination Model.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Nov 17. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    1 Department of Virology and Special Microbial Diagnostic, Statens Serum Institut , Copenhagen, Denmark .
    The induction of both neutralizing antibodies and non-neutralizing antibodies with effector functions, for example, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), is desired in the search for effective vaccines against HIV-1. In the pursuit of novel immunogens capable of inducing an efficient antibody response, rabbits were immunized with selected antigens using different prime-boost strategies. We immunized 35 different groups of rabbits with Env antigens from clinical HIV-1 subtypes A and B, including immunization with DNA alone, protein alone, and DNA prime with protein boost. Read More

    Heterogeneity of HIV-1 replication in ectocervical and vaginal tissue ex vivo.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Oct 6. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    University of Pittsburgh Department of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, 204912, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States ;
    In clinical trials evaluating HIV-1 prevention products, ex vivo exposure of mucosal tissue to HIV-1 is performed to inform drug levels needed to suppress viral infection. Understanding assay and participant variables that influence HIV-1 replication will help with assay implementation. Demographic and behavioral data were obtained from 61 healthy women aged 21-45. Read More

    Comparison of the Hepatitis C Continua of Care Between Hepatitis C Virus/HIV Coinfected and Hepatitis C Virus Mono-Infected Patients in Two Treatment Eras During 2008-2015.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Nov 8. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    2 Veterans Affairs Medical Center, The George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences , Washington, District of Columbia.
    Treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection included use of pegylated interferon-based regimens before 2014 and direct-acting agents (DAA) since 2014 at the VA Medical Center in Washington, DC. We compared the continua of care between our HCV/HIV coinfected and HCV mono-infected patients during 2008-2015. A review of summary data from our local HCV Clinical Case Registry was conducted for the interferon treatment era (2008-2013) and the DAA era (2014-2015). Read More

    The Effect of Rosuvastatin on Vascular Disease Differs by Smoking Status in Treated HIV Infection.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Nov 17. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    2 Case Western Reserve University , Cleveland, Ohio.
    Smoking is an important contributor to cardiovascular disease risk and is highly prevalent in the HIV population. In the Stopping Atherosclerosis and Treating Unhealthy Bone with Rosuvastatin in HIV trial (SATURN-HIV), a 96-week, randomized placebo-controlled study testing the effect of rosuvastatin on subclinical vascular disease and immune activation in HIV-infected adults, rosuvastatin improved immune activation and arrested common carotid artery intima media thickness (CCA IMT) progression. In this exploratory analysis, ANOVA was used to test for effect modification by smoking. Read More

    High prevalence of drug resistance mutations among patients failing first-line antiretroviral therapy and predictors of virological response 24 weeks after switch to second-line therapy in São Paulo State, Brazil.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Oct 2. Epub 2017 Oct 2.
    Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Virology, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Introduction: Universal antiretroviral treatment with sustained viral suppression benefits patients and reduces HIV transmission. Effectiveness of therapy may be limited by antiretroviral drug resistance. Information on the resistance profile at treatment failure and its impact on antiretroviral drugs may subsidize subsequent treatment strategies. Read More

    HIV Self-Testing in Lusaka Province, Zambia: Acceptability, Comprehension of Testing Instructions, and Individual Preferences for Self-Test Kit Distribution in a Population-Based Sample of Adolescents and Adults.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Nov 17. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    6 Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
    We assessed attitudes and preferences toward HIV self-testing (HIVST) among Zambian adolescents and adults. We conducted a population-based survey of individuals aged 16-49 years old in Lusaka Province, Zambia. HIVST was shown to participants through a short video on oral fluid-based self-testing. Read More

    Intradermal HIV-1 DNA immunization using needle-free ZetajetTM injection followed by HIV-modified vaccinia virus Ankara vaccination is safe and immunogenic in Mozambican young adults: a phase I randomized controlled trial.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Oct 2. Epub 2017 Oct 2.
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Education and Clinical Research, Stockholm, Sweden ;
    We assessed safety and immunogenicity of HIV-DNA priming using ZetajetTM, a needle-free device intradermally followed by intramuscular HIV-MVA boosts, in 24 healthy Mozambicans. Volunteers were randomized to receive three immunizations of 600 µg (n = 10; 2 x 0.1mL) or 1200 µg (n = 10; 2 x 0. Read More

    Is it possible to control HIV infection in a middle-income country through a multidisciplinary approach?
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Oct 2. Epub 2017 Oct 2.
    FMUSP, Dermatology, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil ;
    Despite the difficulties to follow and retain patients for a long time in the public health service, special programs may bring about increased chances of survival and better quality of life, as well as higher rates of retention in care; this is also true for middle-income developing countries such as Brazil. Our relatively small outpatient service (~500 HIV-infected patients) may not mirror the reality encountered in other settings, including São Paulo city, but retention and high quality of care may improve rates of virologic success, even in poorer settings. Furthermore, prevention of depression or anxiety, with discussion in groups of patients with the presence of a therapist, regular HIV RNA viral and CD4 cells counts, genotyping tests pre-HAART, and vigilance for drug failure, may explain this successful experience. Read More

    Improving Laboratory Efficiency in the Caribbean to Attain the World Health Organization HIV Treat All Recommendations.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Nov 1. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    3 Caribbean Regional Office, Division of Global HIV/AIDS, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) , US Embassy, Bridgetown, Barbados .
    Scientific evidence showing the benefits of early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) prompted World Health organization (WHO) to recommend that all persons diagnosed as HIV positive should commence ART irrespective of CD4 count and disease progression. Based on this recommendation, countries should adopt and implement the HIV "Treat All" policy to achieve the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets and ultimately reach epidemic control. Attaining this goal along the HIV treatment cascade depends on the laboratory to monitor progress and measure impact. Read More

    Regional Transmission Pattern of HIV-1 Non-CRF01_AE Strains Circulating in Hebei Province, China.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Oct 26. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Hebei Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention , Shijiazhuang, China .
    HIV-1 genetic diversity has recently been more and more complicated in Hebei province. To know about the transmission pattern of HIV-1 in Hebei, the phylogenetic analysis of non-CRF01_AE strains was performed using the maximum-likelihood (ML) method. Four clusters and two clusters were observed in the CRF07_BC and subtype B ML tree, respectively. Read More

    Depletion of Gut-Resident CCR5(+) Cells for HIV Cure Strategies.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Nov;33(S1):S70-S80
    1 Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology and California National Primate Research Center, University of California Davis , Davis, California.
    The HIV reservoir forming at the earliest stages of infection is likely composed of CCR5(+) cells, because these cells are the targets of transmissible virus. Restriction of the CCR5(+) reservoir, particularly in the gut, may be needed for subsequent cure attempts. Strategies for killing or depleting CCR5(+) cells have been described, but none have been tested in vivo in nonhuman primates, and the extent of achievable depletion from tissues is not known. Read More

    A 2-4-Amino Acid Deletion in the V5 Region of HIV-1 Env gp120 Confers Viral Resistance to the Broadly Neutralizing Human Monoclonal Antibody, VRC01.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Oct 17. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    1 Department of International Health, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kobe University , Kobe, Japan .
    The envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) plays a critical role in viral entry into host cells. The broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibody VRC01, which recognizes the CD4 binding site on gp120, neutralizes more than 90% of HIV-1 isolates. However, some of the CRF01_AE viruses prevalent in Southeast Asia are resistant to VRC01-mediated neutralization. Read More

    High levels of viral suppression among East African HIV-infected women and men in serodiscordant partnerships initiating antiretroviral therapy with high CD4 counts and during pregnancy.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    University of Washington, Department of Epidemiology, Seattle, United States ;
    Background: People who are asymptomatic and feel healthy, including pregnant women, may be less motivated to initiate ART or achieve high adherence. We assessed whether ART initiation, and viral suppression 6, 12 and 24-months after ART initiation, were lower in HIV-infected members of serodiscordant couples who initiated during pregnancy or with higher CD4 counts.

    Methods: We used data from the Partners Demonstration Project, an open-label study of the delivery of integrated PrEP and ART (at any CD4 count) for HIV prevention among high-risk HIV serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda. Read More

    A Summary of the Second Annual HIV Microbiome Workshop.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Oct 26. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    14 Department of Immunology/Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center , Chicago, Illinois.
    Commensal organisms appear to play significant roles in normal homeostasis as well as in the pathogenesis of HIV infection in a number of different organ systems. On November 17th and 18th, 2016, leading researchers from around the world met to discuss their insights on advances in our understanding of HIV and the microbiome at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda. Dr. Read More

    Therapeutic Vaccine Against HIV, Viral Variability, Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Epitopes, and Genetics of Patients.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Laboratoire de Virologie, CHU de Bordeaux et CNRS UMR 5234, Université de Bordeaux , Bordeaux, France .
    The scientific and medical community is seeking to cure HIV. Several pathways have been or are being explored including therapeutic vaccination. Viroimmunological studies on primary infection as well as on elite controllers have demonstrated the importance of the cytotoxic CD8 response and have mainly oriented research on vaccine constructs toward this type of response. Read More

    Community Based Antiretroviral Treatment in Rural Zimbabwe.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Oct 26. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    5 African Institute of Biomedical Science and Technology , Harare, Zimbabwe .
    Treatment of HIV has reduced HIV/AIDS-related mortality. Sustaining >90% virologic suppression in sub-Saharan Africa requires decentralized care and prevention services to rural communities. In Zimbabwe, the number of people receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) has increased rapidly. Read More

    What Would an HIV Cure Mean to You: Qualitative Analysis from a Crowdsourcing Contest in Guangzhou, China.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    2 University of North Carolina Project-China , Guangzhou, China .
    Much HIV cure social science research has focused on high-income countries. Local key population perspectives, especially from people living with HIV (PLHIV), are needed in low- and middle-income countries. We organized an open contest soliciting responses from key populations, including PLHIV, about what a cure would mean in their lives. Read More

    Differentiating Immune Cell Targets in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue for HIV Cure.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Nov;33(S1):S40-S58
    1 Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, Gladstone Institutes, San Francisco, California.
    The single greatest challenge to an HIV cure is the persistence of latently infected cells containing inducible, replication-competent proviral genomes, which constitute only a small fraction of total or infected cells in the body. Although resting CD4(+) T cells in the blood are a well-known source of viral rebound, more than 90% of the body's lymphocytes reside elsewhere. Many are in gut tissue, where HIV DNA levels per million CD4(+) T cells are considerably higher than in the blood. Read More

    An Optimized and Validated Method for Isolation and Characterization of Lymphocytes from HIV+ Human Gut Biopsies.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Nov;33(S1):S31-S39
    1 Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, Gladstone Institutes , San Francisco, California.
    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbors most of the body's immune cells and is also a major HIV reservoir in ART-treated patients. To achieve a cure, most HIV-infected cells must be identified and eliminated. While obtaining gut biopsies is a relatively noninvasive method of sampling relevant tissue for monitoring HIV activity, immune cell isolation from these limited tissue samples has proven to be challenging. Read More

    Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in Turkey: Results from the ACTHIV-IST Study Group.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Oct 11. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    3 Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University , Istanbul, Turkey .
    Maintaining optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is essential for optimizing the management of HIV infection. The aim of this study is to explore ART adherence rates in Turkey. Included in this study were a total of 263 HIV-infected patients followed up by the ACTHIV-IST (ACTion against HIV in Istanbul) Study Group affiliated with four tertiary hospitals. Read More

    The California HIV/AIDS Research Program: History, Impact, and HIV Cure Initiative.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Nov;33(S1):S1-S5
    1 California HIV/AIDS Research Program, University of California , Office of the President, Oakland, California.
    This Special Issue of AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses features results from the HIV Cure Initiative, funded by the California HIV/AIDS Research Program (CHRP). As a publicly funded grant maker, CHRP has served for more than three decades as a unique resource for innovative researchers in California, whose work seeks to address all aspects of the HIV epidemic and the communities affected by it. Early initiatives at CHRP pioneered what would become enduring cornerstones of HIV science: isolation of the virus; efficacy and toxicities of the first HIV treatments; the emergence of drug resistance; the first biospecimen banks for HIV-related research; the first community-based laboratory service for HIV diagnostic serology; and the first longitudinal case-control study of progression from HIV to AIDS-The San Francisco General Hospital Cohort. Read More

    Evidence for Altered Glutamine Metabolism in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infected Primary Human CD4(+) T Cells.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Oct 4. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    1 Department of Infectious Diseases, King's College London , London, United Kingdom .
    Glutamine is a conditionally essential amino acid that is an important metabolic resource for proliferating tissues by acting as a proteinogenic amino acid, a nitrogen donor for biosynthetic reactions and as a substrate for the citric acid or tricarboxylic acid cycle. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) productively infects activated CD4(+) T cells that are known to require glutamine for proliferation and for carrying out effector functions. As a virus, HIV-1 is furthermore entirely dependent on host metabolism to support its replication. Read More

    A Novel Recombinant Form of HIV-1 CRF01_AE/CRF07_BC Identified by Near Full-Length Genome in Shaanxi, China.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Oct 23. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    1 AIDS Prevention and Control, Shaanxi Provincial Center for Disease Prevention and Control , Xi'an, China .
    Recently multiple kinds of unique recombinant forms of HIV-1 CRF01_AE/CRF07_BC were identified in China. In this study, we report another near full-length genome of a novel recombinant form (SN121) between CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC from an HIV-1-infected male through heterosexual behavior in Shaanxi province, China. The analysis of SN121 showed that the genome composed of seven interlaced segments, including three CRF07_BC and four CRF01_AE segments with CRF01_AE as the backbone. Read More

    Mortality and Health Service Use Following Acute Myocardial Infarction Among Persons with HIV: A Population-Based Study.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    1 Department of Family and Community Medicine, St. Michael's Hospital , Toronto, Canada .
    People with HIV have higher rates of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) than HIV-negative individuals. We compared mortality risk and health service use following AMI among people with and without HIV between January 1, 2002, and March 31, 2015. We conducted a population-based study using Ontario's administrative databases. Read More

    Reduced Expression of Siglec-7, NKG2A, and CD57 on Terminally Differentiated CD56(-)CD16(+) Natural Killer Cell Subset Is Associated with Natural Killer Cell Dysfunction in Chronic HIV-1 Clade C Infection.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    1 HIV Pathogenesis Programme, Doris Duke Medical Research Institute, University of KwaZulu-Natal , Durban, South Africa .
    HIV-1 viremia has been shown to induce several phenotypic and functional abnormalities in natural killer (NK) cells. To assess immune defects associated with HIV viremia, we examined NK cell function, differentiation status, and phenotypic alterations based on expression of inhibitory and activating receptors on NK cells in HIV-1 subtype C chronically infected participants from Durban, South Africa. NK cell phenotypic profiles were characterized by assessing sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin-7 (Siglec-7), NKG2A, and NKG2C markers on frozen peripheral blood mononuclear cells from viremic, antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive HIV-1 chronically infected participants (n = 23), HIV-1 chronically infected participants who had been on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for at least 12 months (n = 23) compared with healthy donors (n = 23). Read More

    Late Presentation HIV/AIDS Is Still a Challenge in Brazil and Worldwide.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    2 Retrovirology Laboratory, Federal University of São Paulo , São Paulo, Brazil .
    Despite all the efforts to contain the HIV/AIDS epidemics, there still are individuals of unknown diagnosis. These present high risk of mortality and after diagnosis respond very poorly to treatment. Late testing also represents a reduced opportunity in controlling the transmission of HIV and causes an indirect increase in the transmission rates of other diseases, such as tuberculosis. Read More

    HIV Resistance and Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission Regimen in HIV-Infected Infants in Northern Tanzania.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Nov 5;33(11):1107-1113. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    10 ViiV Healthcare, Research Triangle Park , North Carolina.
    Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) guidelines recommend that all HIV-infected pregnant women receive antiretroviral therapy (Option B) and HIV-infected infants should initiate therapy with a protease inhibitor-based regimen; however, implementation of these guidelines has lagged in many resource-limited settings. Tanzania only recently implemented these guidelines with little country-specific data to inform whether HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance was present among infected infants under the Option A guidelines. This study aimed to identify primary resistance mutations in HIV-infected infants and to identify risk of nevirapine (NVP) resistance based on maternal and infant NVP exposure. Read More

    Analysis of Clinical HIV-1 Strains with Resistance to Maraviroc Reveals Strain-Specific Resistance Mutations, Variable Degrees of Resistance, and Minimal Cross-Resistance to Other CCR5 Antagonists.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Sep 26. Epub 2017 Sep 26.
    1 School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, College of Science, Engineering and Health, RMIT University , Melbourne, Australia .
    Maraviroc (MVC) is an allosteric inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry, and is the only CCR5 antagonist licensed for use as an anti-HIV-1 therapeutic. It acts by altering the conformation of the CCR5 extracellular loops, rendering CCR5 unrecognizable by the HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycoproteins. This study aimed to understand the mechanisms underlying the development of MVC resistance in HIV-1-infected patients. Read More

    Characterization of a Novel HIV-1 Second-Generation Recombinant Form in Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beijing, China.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Nov 8;33(11):1175-1179. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    1 State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Division of Virology and Immunology, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention , Beijing, People's Republic of China .
    Cocirculation of multiple subtypes in the same population contributes significantly to the emergence of recombinant viruses. BJ2015EU19, a novel CCR5-tropic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1, second-generation recombinant virus, was isolated from a man who has sex with men in Beijing, China. Phylogenetic analysis of the near full-length genome showed that BJ2015EU19 consisted of seven fragments from CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC. Read More

    Second-Line Antiretroviral Therapy in Sub-Saharan Africa: It Is Time to Mind the Gaps.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Sep 8. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    3 Division of Infectious Diseases, University of KwaZulu-Natal , Durban, South Africa .
    The delay between first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure and initiation of second-line ART in resource-limited settings can be prolonged. Increasing evidence links delayed antiretroviral switch with increased risk for opportunistic infection (OI) and death, particularly in patients with advanced HIV at the time of first-line failure. As access to viral load (VL) monitoring widens beyond a few countries, mechanisms are needed to optimize the use of routine virologic monitoring and assure that first-line regimen failure results in prompt second-line switch. Read More

    Comparative Susceptibility of Rhesus Macaques of Indian and Chinese Origin to Vaginal Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission as Models for HIV Prevention Research.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 Nov 7. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    1 Tulane National Primate Research Center , Covington, Louisiana.
    Historically, Indian rhesus macaques (iRMs) have been preferred for simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/HIV prevention, pathogenesis, and treatment studies, yet their supply is limited. Chinese rhesus macaques (cRMs) are currently more available, yet little is known regarding the relative susceptibility of this subspecies to vaginal transmission of SIV or simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV). In this study, we compared the susceptibility of 40 cRMs and 21 iRMs with a single vaginal challenge with SHIVsf162P. Read More

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