266,306 results match your criteria AIDS Patient Care and STDs[Journal]


V2-Directed Vaccine-like Antibodies from HIV-1 Infection Identify an Additional K169-Binding Light Chain Motif with Broad ADCC Activity.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3123-3135.e6

National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg 2131, South Africa; Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa; Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban 4041, South Africa. Electronic address:

Antibodies that bind residue K169 in the V2 region of the HIV-1 envelope correlated with reduced risk of infection in the RV144 vaccine trial but were restricted to two ED-motif-encoding light chain genes. Here, we identify an HIV-infected donor with high-titer V2 peptide-binding antibodies and isolate two antibody lineages (CAP228-16H/19F and CAP228-3D) that mediate potent antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Both lineages use the IGHV5-51 heavy chain germline gene, similar to the RV144 antibody CH58, but one lineage (CAP228-16H/19F) uses a light chain without the ED motif. Read More

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December 2018

Development and Usability Testing of the Society for Pediatric Anesthesia Pedi Crisis Mobile Application.

Anesth Analg 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California.

When life-threatening, critical events occur in the operating room, the fast-paced, high-distraction atmosphere often leaves little time to think or deliberate about management options. Success depends on applying a team approach to quickly implement well-rehearsed, systematic, evidence-based assessment and treatment protocols. Mobile devices offer resources for readily accessible, easily updatable information that can be invaluable during perioperative critical events. Read More

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December 2018

Author Index to Volume 30.

Authors:

AIDS Educ Prev 2018 Dec;30(6):543-549

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December 2018

Nativity Homogeneity in Social Networks and Prostitution Patronage Among Male Migrant Laborers.

AIDS Behav 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Previous studies have repeatedly found the association between network homogeneity based on native-place and sexual risk behaviors among migrants. However, it remains unclear why such a simple numerical property of network composition can be correlated with a sexual risk behavior. Using a dataset (n = 1591) with detailed information on the sexual behaviors among male migrant laborers in the two Chinese provinces with the highest migrant inflows, we confirmed network homogeneity is significantly associated with prostitution patronage. Read More

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December 2018

Mediating Effects of Depressive Symptoms on Perceived Social Support and HIV Disclosure: Assessing Moderation by Sex.

AIDS Behav 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Mental Health Law and Policy, College of Behavioral and Community Sciences, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.

People living with HIV may decide to disclose their HIV-positive status after considering the benefits and costs. Studies have shown associations between perceived social support, depressive symptoms and HIV disclosure among men and women; however, research assessing the mediating pathway among these variables and the associated disparities by sex are lacking. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the association between perceived social support from family and friends and HIV disclosure to sexual partners; assess the mediating effects of depressive symptoms; and examine the disparities by sex. Read More

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December 2018

Trends in Attitudes to and the Use of HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis by Australian Gay and Bisexual Men, 2011-2017: Implications for Further Implementation from a Diffusion of Innovations Perspective.

AIDS Behav 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Centre for Social Research in Health, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Using repeated, national, online, cross-sectional surveys of Australian gay and bisexual men (GBM), we analysed trends related to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Specifically, we analysed trends in PrEP use, willingness to use PrEP, and concern about using PrEP during 2011-2017. We assessed support for GBM using PrEP and willingness to have sex with men taking PrEP between 2015 and 2017. Read More

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December 2018

Zoonotic impact and epidemiological changes of leishmaniasis in Ethiopia.

Open Vet J 2018 16;8(4):432-440. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Veterinary Public Health, Aksum University Shire Campus, College of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science, Shire, Ethiopia.

Leishmaniasis is one of the growing public health challenges in Ethiopia and estimated over 7,000 and 50,000 new cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) per year, respectively. The aim of the review is to address zoonotic impact and epidemiological changes of leishmaniasis in Ethiopia. VL is caused by and it is endemic in many parts of the country with one third of the country's landmass is highly suitable for VL. Read More

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November 2018

Concurrent Hairy Cell Leukemia and Metastatic Merkel Cell Carcinoma.

Case Rep Oncol Med 2018 14;2018:1736854. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Specialist Care Australia, Launceston, Tasmania, Australia.

Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) are two rare malignancies with distinct cells of origin. HCL is a lymphoid malignancy of mature B cells, and MCC derives from neuroendocrine cell origin. HCL has a favorable prognosis with most patients achieving long-term remission and potential cure. Read More

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November 2018
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Maintenance and reappearance of extremely divergent intra-host HIV-1 variants.

Virus Evol 2018 Jul 4;4(2):vey030. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA.

Understanding genetic variation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is clinically and immunologically important for patient treatment and vaccine development. We investigated the longitudinal intra-host genetic variation of HIV in over 3,000 individuals in the US National HIV Surveillance System with at least four reported HIV-1 polymerase () sequences. In this population, we identified 149 putative instances of superinfection (i. Read More

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The Role of Pneumococcal Virulence Factors in Ocular Infectious Diseases.

Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis 2018 13;2018:2525173. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216, USA.

is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic pathogen that can cause severe infections such as pneumonia, meningitis, septicemia, and middle ear infections. It is also one of the top pathogens contributing to bacterial keratitis and conjunctivitis. Though two pneumococcal vaccines exist for the prevention of nonocular diseases, they do little to fully prevent ocular infections. Read More

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November 2018
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Assessment of the effectiveness of PMTCT program in eight service delivery points in North Central Nigeria.

HIV AIDS (Auckl) 2018 20;10:253-259. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Hepatology Unit, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Background: Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV is one of the commonest avenues through which infants are infected with HIV. To achieve an HIV-free generation, MTCT of HIV should be eliminated. Nigeria began prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services 13 years ago, but it still contributes to over one-third of global MTCT burden. Read More

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November 2018

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) strain infection in macaques results in high bacilli burdens in airways, driving broad innate/adaptive immune responses.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2018 Dec 12;7(1):207. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Clinic and Research Center of Tuberculosis, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Tuberculosis, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Tuberculosis (TB) has become the most deadly infectious diseases due to epidemics of HIV/AIDS and multidrug-resistant/extensively drug-resistant TB (MDR-/XDR-TB). Although person-to-person transmission contributes to MDR-TB, it remains unknown whether infection with MDR strains resembles infection with drug-sensitive (DS) TB strains, manipulating limited or broad immune responses. To address these questions, macaques were infected with MDR strain V791 and a drug-sensitive Erdman strain of TB. Read More

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December 2018

Association between quantitative varicella-zoster virus antibody levels and zoster reactivation in HIV-infected persons.

AIDS Res Ther 2018 Dec 11;15(1):25. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Infectious Disease Service, San Antonio Military Medical Center, San Antonio, USA.

Background: Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) reactivation is common but difficult to predict in HIV-infected persons.

Objective: Since qualitative VZV antibodies can determine past VZV disease or vaccination, we evaluated whether quantitative VZV antibody levels over time can predict future zoster.

Study Design: US Military HIV Natural History (NHS) participants with a zoster diagnosis at least 5 years after HIV diagnosis (n = 100) were included. Read More

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December 2018

Characterizing HIV risk among cisgender men in Latin America who report transgender women as sexual partners: HIV risk in Latin America men.

Int J STD AIDS 2018 Dec 11:956462418802687. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

3 The Fenway Institute, Fenway Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Cisgender men (CM) who report transgender women (TW) as sexual partners are an understudied population in the HIV epidemic in Latin America. The current study sought to characterize this group in a 2012 cross-sectional online survey of Latin American CM who were members of a sexual networking website for men who have sex with men (N = 11,847). Multivariable logistic regression models were fit to estimate demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial correlates of having a TW sexual partner and engaging in condomless sex. Read More

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December 2018

Geographical-level contributions of risk factors for HIV infections using generalized additive models: results from a cohort of South African women.

AIDS Care 2018 Dec 11:1-9. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

b HIV Prevention Research Unit , South African Medical Research Council , Westville , South Africa.

South Africa has the highest burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in the world with significant geographical variations. We identified the predictors of HIV infections and their sub-geographical-level contributions to the epidemic using a decade long data (2002-2012) from 6484 South African women. Generalized additive models were used to uncover the most significant features of these estimates across the region. Read More

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December 2018

Molecular Evolution of Early-Onset Prostate Cancer Identifies Molecular Risk Markers and Clinical Trajectories.

Cancer Cell 2018 Dec;34(6):996-1011.e8

Finsen Laboratory, Rigshospitalet, DK-2200, Copenhagen, Denmark; Biotech Research & Innovation Centre (BRIC), University of Copenhagen, DK-2200, Copenhagen, Denmark; European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Genome Biology Unit, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany; Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, D-10117 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Identifying the earliest somatic changes in prostate cancer can give important insights into tumor evolution and aids in stratifying high- from low-risk disease. We integrated whole genome, transcriptome and methylome analysis of early-onset prostate cancers (diagnosis ≤55 years). Characterization across 292 prostate cancer genomes revealed age-related genomic alterations and a clock-like enzymatic-driven mutational process contributing to the earliest mutations in prostate cancer patients. Read More

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December 2018

Estimating marginal proportions and intraclass correlations with clustered binary data.

Biom J 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Biostatistics, Department of Basic Clinical Practice, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

A logistic regression with random effects model is commonly applied to analyze clustered binary data, and every cluster is assumed to have a different proportion of success. However, it could be of interest to obtain the proportion of success over clusters (i.e. Read More

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December 2018

HIV Disease Progression: Overexpression of the Ectoenzyme CD38 as a Contributory Factor?

Bioessays 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Laboratory of Integrative Immunology, National Institute of Respiratory Diseases (INER), Calzada de Tlalpan 4502, 14080 Mexico City, Mexico.

Despite abundant evidence associating CD38 overexpression and CD4 T cell depletion in HIV infection, no causal relation has been investigated. To address this issue, a series of mechanisms are proposed, supported by evidence from different fields, by which CD38 overexpression can facilitate CD4 T cell depletion in HIV infection. According to this model, increased catalytic activity of CD38 may reduce CD4 T cells' cytoplasmic nicotin-amide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), leading to a chronic Warburg effect. Read More

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December 2018
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The Effects of a Functional Three-dimensional (3D) Printed Knee Joint Simulator in Improving Anatomical Spatial Knowledge.

Anat Sci Educ 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Division of Industrial Design, School of Design and Environment, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

In recent decades, three-dimensional (3D) printing as an emerging technology, has been utilized for imparting human anatomy knowledge. However, most 3D printed models are rigid anatomical replicas that are unable to represent dynamic spatial relationships between different anatomical structures. In this study, the data obtained from a computed tomography (CT) scan of a normal knee joint were used to design and fabricate a functional knee joint simulator for anatomical education. Read More

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December 2018

Hearing preservation in small acoustic neuroma: observation or active therapy? Literature review and institutional experience.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Academic Neurosurgery, Department of Neurosciences, University Hospital of Padova, Via Giustiniani 2, 35128, Padova, Italy.

Background: Current imaging modalities enable early diagnosis of a large number of small acoustic neuromas in patients with well-preserved hearing, whose best management is still a debatable matter.

Methods: Comparing the hearing outcome of the various therapeutical approaches, including observation, radiosurgery, or resective surgery, is not easy because of the numerous classifications measuring hearing in different ways. In this review, a literature review was performed and papers selected dealing with small tumors, short- and long-term hearing, tumor control or radical resection, and effect of pre-treatment hearing and size on outcome. Read More

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December 2018

Barriers to Retention in Care are Overcome by Adolescent-Friendly Services for Adolescents Living with HIV in South Africa: A Qualitative Analysis.

AIDS Behav 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

To assess facilitators and barriers to retention in care for adolescents living with HIV, we conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with adolescents ages 13 to 24 years who were living with HIV and being cared for in either an adolescent-friendly or standard government-supported clinic in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We used inductive content analysis approach based on grounded theory derived from reviewing, coding, and interpreting data. We interviewed 28 adolescents living with HIV (16 in the adolescent clinic and 12 from the pediatric clinic) and 14 of their caregivers. Read More

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December 2018

Demand and Supply Motivations for Antiretroviral Drugs in Illicit Street Markets: The Case of Atlanta, Georgia.

AIDS Behav 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Stetson School of Business and Economics, Mercer University, 1501 Mercer University Drive, Macon, GA, 31207, USA.

We studied the motivations behind supply and demand of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) in the illicit street markets of the metropolitan statistical area of Atlanta, Sandy Springs, and Roswell, Georgia. We found that these two market actions were largely interdependent: 39.53% of participants said that they sold their ARVs to pay for personal needs, and 20. Read More

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December 2018

Drug Use Mediates the Relationship Between Depressive Symptoms and Adherence to ART Among Recently Incarcerated People Living with HIV.

AIDS Behav 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Psychology, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX, USA.

Depression is a known risk factor for antiretroviral therapy (ART) non-adherence, but little is known about the mechanisms explaining this relationship. Identifying these mechanisms among people living with HIV (PLHIV) after release from prison is particularly important, as individuals during this critical period are at high risk for both depression and poor ART adherence. 347 PLHIV recently released from prison in North Carolina and Texas were included in analyses to assess mediation of the relationship between depressive symptoms at 2 weeks post-release and ART adherence (assessed by unannounced telephone pill counts) at weeks 9-21 post-release by the hypothesized explanatory mechanisms of alcohol use, drug use, adherence self-efficacy, and adherence motivation (measured at weeks 6 and 14 post-release). Read More

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December 2018

Diffusion-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging as adjuncts to conventional MRI for the diagnosis and management of peripheral nerve sheath tumors: current perspectives and future directions.

Eur Radiol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Radiology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, 75022, USA.

Peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs) account for ~ 5% of soft tissue neoplasms and are responsible for a wide spectrum of morbidities ranging from localized neuropathy to fulminant metastatic spread and death. MR imaging represents the gold standard for identification of these neoplasms, however, current anatomic MR imaging markers do not reliably detect or differentiate benign and malignant lesions, and therefore, biopsy or excision is required for definitive diagnosis. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) serves as a useful tool in the evaluation and management of PNSTs by providing functional information regarding the degree of diffusion, while diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) aids in determining the directional information of predominant diffusion and has been shown to be particularly useful for pre-operative planning of these tumors by delineating healthy and pathologic fascicles. Read More

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December 2018

How Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials Incorporate Behavioral and Social Sciences Research: A Typology of Approaches.

AIDS Behav 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Social Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

In the field of biomedical HIV prevention, researchers have meaningfully incorporated behavioral and social sciences research (BSSR) into numerous clinical trials, though the timing and degree of integration have been highly variable. The literature offers few frameworks that systematically characterize these collaborations. To fill this gap, we developed a typology of BSSR approaches within biomedical HIV prevention research. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

HIV exposed uninfected infants: surviving and thriving or overlooked by success?

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Family Clinical Research Unit (FAMCRU), Department of Paediatrics & Child Health, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa.

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December 2018

Does smoking intensity predict cessation rates? A study of light-intermittent, light-daily, and heavy smokers enrolled in two telephone-based counseling interventions.

Nicotine Tob Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY.

Introduction: Though many interventions have been shown to be effective in helping smokers quit, outcomes may differ between light and heavy smokers. We identified differences in baseline characteristics and post-intervention cessation rates among smoker groups at two safety-net hospitals.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed cessation rates in 1,604 patients randomized to either a quitline referral (1-2 telephone counseling sessions) or intensive counseling program (7 telephone sessions). Read More

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December 2018
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Impact of the mutational load on the virological response to a first-line rilpivirine-based regimen.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

INSERM U1043 - CNRS UMR5282 - Toulouse University Paul Sabatier, CPTP, Toulouse, France.

Objectives: To determine how the load of rilpivirine-resistant variants (mutational load) influences the virological response (VR) of HIV-1-infected patients to a rilpivirine-based first-line regimen.

Patients And Methods: Four hundred and eighty-nine patients infected with HIV-1 whose reverse transcriptase gene had been successfully resistance genotyped using next-generation sequencing were given a first-line regimen containing rilpivirine. Variables associated with the VR at 12 months were identified using a logistic model. Read More

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December 2018

A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Sitagliptin for Reducing Inflammation and Immune Activation in Treated and Suppressed HIV Infection.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Background: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have pleotropic anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory effects in addition to their glucoregulatory actions. We evaluated inflammation and immune markers in suppressed HIV infection during treatment with the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin.

Methods: Virologically suppressed adults with HIV without diabetes mellitus on stable ART with ≥100/mm 3 CD4 cells were randomized to 16 weeks of sitagliptin 100 mg/d vs. Read More

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December 2018

The Effect of Memory Span and Manual Dexterity on Hearing Aid Handling Skills in New and Experienced Hearing Aid Users.

Am J Audiol 2018 Dec 10:1-11. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Syracuse University, NY.

Purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of memory function and manual dexterity on new and experienced hearing aid users' abilities to use and care for their hearing aids.

Method: New and experienced hearing aid users were administered the Practical Hearing Aid Skills Test-Revised (PHAST-R; Doherty & Desjardins, 2012), a measure of a hearing aid user's ability to use and care for their hearing aids. The test was administered during their 30-day hearing aid check or yearly hearing evaluation appointment. Read More

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December 2018

Determining the origins of HIV-1 drug-resistant minority variants in people who are recently infected using phylogenetic reconstruction.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Institute for Global Health, University College London, London, UK.

Background: Drug-resistant minority variants (DRMinVs) detected in patients who recently acquired HIV-1 can be transmitted, generated de novo through virus replication, or technical errors. The first are likely to persist and result in treatment failure while the latter two could be stochastic and transient.

Methods: Ultra-deep sequencing of plasma samples from 835 individuals with recent HIV-1 infection in the UK was performed to detect DRMinVs at mutation frequency between 2-20%. Read More

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December 2018

[Persons living with HIV/AIDS: ethnic and sociocultural differences in Chile].

Rev Chilena Infectol 2018 ;35(3):276-282

Fundación Arriarán, Hospital San Borja Arriarán, Temuco, Chile.

Background: The association between ethnicity and HIV/AIDS is an emerging and unexplored issue in Chile.

Aim: To determine the profile of patients with HIV/AIDS by ethnicity and socioeconomic factors associated with diagnostic-therapeutic opportunity in the Araucania and Metropolitan regions.

Methods: Cross-sectional study with 558 patients from two centers of HIV/AIDS in Chile. Read More

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January 2018
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Emergency health education in a conflict stricken environment: A situational analysis.

Afr J Emerg Med 2018 Dec 21;8(4):129-133. Epub 2018 May 21.

Department of Nursing, Bossaso General Hospital, Bossaso, Puntland, Somalia.

Introduction: Bosasso General Hospital is located in Puntland Somalia, an area affected by prolonged civil conflict, terrorism, clan fighting and piracy. International evidence highlights that staff skills and competence may have a significant impact on patient outcomes however there has been little research on emergency education in such an austere and volatile environment. The purpose of this study therefore was to identify current practices and gaps in delivering emergency medicine education in this resource-deprived environment. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Severe tinnitus in a patient with acquired deafness for over 50 years: a case report.

Biopsychosoc Med 2018 26;12:17. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

2Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinamomachi, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 1608582 Japan.

Background: There have been many reports on the treatment effect of cochlear implantation and hearing aids in the treatment of tinnitus in patients with severe hearing loss. However, as far as we are aware, there are no reports of investigation of treatment approaches for the tinnitus of deaf patients whose communication is solely carried out in sign language due to a long duration of deafness.

Case Presentation: We experienced a case of severe tinnitus with bilateral deafness for more than 50 years. Read More

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November 2018

Harmonic Devices: The Workhorse for Surgical Resection of Vascular Malformations.

J Cutan Aesthet Surg 2018 Jul-Sep;11(3):157-160

Department of Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Management of vascular malformations is multimodal with documented role of surgical resection in specific facets of this condition. Surgical resection of these lesions is technically challenging owing to diffuse and relatively ill-defined extent with involvement of multiple tissue planes limitation of access and excessive intra-operative bleeding. An observational study was conducted in 24 cases taken up for surgical resection of vascular malformations. Read More

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December 2018

Real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection of .

PeerJ 2018 4;6:e5993. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Fisheries College of Jimei University, Xiamen, China.

Background: (EHP) is a newly emerged microsporidian parasite that causes retarded shrimp growth in many countries. But there are no effective approaches to control this disease to date. The EHP could be an immune risk factor for increased dissemination of other diseases. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Polymorphisms in KSHV-encoded microRNA sequences affect levels of mature viral microRNA in Kaposi Sarcoma lesions.

Oncotarget 2018 Nov 9;9(88):35856-35869. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

AIDS and Cancer Virus Program, Leidos Biomedical Research, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD, USA.

Background: We previously reported Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) microRNA sequence variants in clinical samples correlated with increased risk of multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). We then demonstrated that microRNAs with variant sequence have different maturation and mature microRNA expression . Here, we illustrate the association between microRNA sequence and changes in mature microRNA levels within Kaposi sarcoma (KS) lesions. Read More

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November 2018

Coinfections between Persistent Parasitic Neglected Tropical Diseases and Viral Infections among Prisoners from Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America.

J Trop Med 2018 6;2018:7218534. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Division of Prison Health, Geneva University Hospitals and University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

In Swiss prisons, more than 70% of detained people are foreigners and over one-third originate from sub-Saharan Africa or Latin America. These two regions are endemic for various tropical diseases and viral infections, which persist after migration to nonendemic countries. Parasitic infections (schistosomiasis; strongyloidiasis) and cooccurrent viral infections (HIV, hepatitis B (HBV), and hepatitis C (HCV)) are especially of concern for clinical care but have been neglected in empirical research. Read More

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November 2018
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Cognitive Deficit-Related Interhemispheric Asynchrony within the Medial Hub of the Default Mode Network Aids in Classifying the Hyperthyroid Patients.

Neural Plast 2018 8;2018:9023604. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Psychosomatics and Psychiatry, Affiliated Zhongda Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, China.

Background And Purpose: Recent studies suggest that abnormal structure and function in the brain network were related to cognitive and emotional impairment in hyperthyroid patients (HPs). The association between altered voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) and neuropsychological impairment in HPs remains unclear. This study is aimed at investigating the association between the disrupted functional coordination and psychological dysfunction in hyperthyroidism. Read More

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November 2018

Knowledge and risk perception of sexually transmitted infections and relevant health care services among high school students in the Platfontein San community, Northern Cape Province, South Africa.

Adolesc Health Med Ther 2018 16;9:189-197. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Health Information Systems Program, Waterkloof Ridge, Pretoria, South Africa.

Background: The historically marginalized Platfontein San youths have a high rate of teenage pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and perception of male and female school-going youths in Platfontein of STIs and HIV/AIDS, and the health care services that are available to them.

Participants And Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey with a sample of 201 learners in grades 6-12 at the !Xunkwesa Combined School in Platfontein was conducted in July 2007. Read More

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November 2018

Aging with HIV: what effect on mortality and loss to follow-up in the course of antiretroviral therapy? The IeDEA West Africa Cohort Collaboration.

HIV AIDS (Auckl) 2018 16;10:239-252. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

INSERM, Centre INSERM U1219-Epidémiologie-Biostatistique, Bordeaux, France,

Background: Reporting mortality and lost to follow-up (LTFU) by age is essential as older HIV-positive patients might be at risk of long-term effects of living with HIV and/or taking antiretroviral therapy (ART). As age effects might not be linear and might impact HIV outcomes in the oldest more severely, people living with HIV (PLHIV) aged 50-59 years and PLHIV aged >60 years were considered separately.

Setting: Seventeen adult HIV/AIDS clinics spread over nine countries in West Africa. Read More

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November 2018

The genetics of congenital central hypoventilation syndrome: clinical implications.

Appl Clin Genet 2018 15;11:135-144. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Division of Pediatric Pulmonology and Sleep Medicine, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA,

Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is a rare genetic disorder of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and respiratory control. This disorder, formerly referred to as Ondine's curse, is due to a mutation in the gene that affects the development of the neural crest cells. CCHS has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Read More

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November 2018

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism-based Genotyping of from Autopsy-Proven Cases of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome-associated Cerebral Toxoplasmosis.

Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2018 Oct-Dec;21(4):250-255

Department of Microbiology, Kidwai Cancer Institute, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Context: Published data on genetic characterization of () from clinical cases of toxoplasmosis from India is lacking.

Aims: The present study was aimed at identifying genetic types of in fatal cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis (CT) associated with HIV, from India.

Settings And Design: Archived tissues of CT were obtained postmortem from 25 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients between 2000 and 2014. Read More

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December 2018

Knowledge, interest, and anticipated barriers of pre-exposure prophylaxis uptake and adherence among gay, bisexual, and men who have sex with men who are incarcerated.

PLoS One 2018 7;13(12):e0205593. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America.

Criminal justice (CJ) settings disproportionately include populations at high risk for acquiring HIV, and CJ-involved individuals are often at the intersection of multiple overlapping risk factors. However, few studies have examined attitudes about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among incarcerated men who have sex with men (MSM). This study explored interest in, knowledge of, and barriers to PrEP uptake among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men at the Rhode Island Department of Corrections. Read More

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December 2018

The DREAMS core package of interventions: A comprehensive approach to preventing HIV among adolescent girls and young women.

PLoS One 2018 7;13(12):e0208167. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Office of the U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator and Health Diplomacy, U.S. Department of State, Washington, DC, United States of America.

In sub-Saharan Africa, adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) are 5 to 14 times more likely to be infected with HIV than their male peers. Every day, more than 750 AGYW are infected with HIV. Many factors make girls and young women particularly vulnerable to HIV, including gender-based violence, exclusion from economic opportunities, and a lack of access to secondary school. Read More

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December 2018

Low dose aspirin blocks breast cancer-induced cognitive impairment in mice.

PLoS One 2018 10;13(12):e0208593. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Drug Discovery Biology Theme, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Cancer patients with non-central nervous system tumors often suffer from cognitive impairment. While chemotherapy has long been attributed as the cause of these memory, learning and concentration difficulties, we recently observed cognitive impairment in cancer patients prior to treatment. This suggests the cancer alone may be sufficient to induce cognitive impairment, however the mechanisms are unknown. Read More

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December 2018

Bisphenol A as an environmental pollutant with dual genotoxic and DNA-protective effects.

Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2018 Oct 12;39(4):294-298. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Department of Genetics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Objectives: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor which has been shown to be a harmful compound for living organisms. It is the main component of the most commonly used plastic products such as plastic bottles, food cans and containers or dental fillings, and other medical aids. Recently, it has become a new environmental pollutant. Read More

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October 2018

The Utility of Preoperative Arteriography for Free Flap Planning in Patients with Chronic Lower Extremity Wounds.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Center for Wound Healing and Hyperbaric Medicine, Department of Plastic Surgery, MedStar Georgetown University Hospital, Washington DC, United States of America.

Background: In patients with lower extremity wounds, free tissue transfer is often the last option before amputation, making it crucial to optimize preoperative planning in order to prevent flap breakdown. No consensus exists regarding preoperative vascular work ups before lower extremity free tissue transfer. Here we analyzed the utility of using arteriography for lower extremity free flap planning. Read More

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November 2018

Determinants of Restoration of CD4 and CD8 Cell Counts and their Ratio in HIV-1 Positive Individuals with Sustained Virological Suppression on Antiretroviral Therapy.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: An increasing number of HIV-positive individuals now start antiretroviral therapy (ART) with high CD4 cell counts. We investigated whether this makes restoration of CD4 and CD8 cell counts and the CD4:CD8 ratio during virologically suppressive ART to median levels seen in HIV uninfected individuals more likely and whether restoration depends on gender, age and other individual characteristics.

Methods: We determined median and quartile reference values for CD4 and CD8 cell count and their ratio using cross-sectional data from 2,309 HIV-negative individuals. Read More

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December 2018