13,432 results match your criteria AIDS[Journal]


Relevance of the drug-drug interactions between lidocaine and the pharmacokinetic enhancers ritonavir and cobicistat.

AIDS 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Groningen, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002162DOI Listing
February 2019

Predictors of faster virological suppression in early treated infants with perinatal HIV from Europe and Thailand.

AIDS 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL, Institute of Clinical Trials & Methodology, University College London (UCL), London, UK.

Objective: To identify predictors of faster time to virological suppression among infants starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) early in infancy.

Design: Cohort study of infants from Europe and Thailand included in studies participating in the European Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration (EPPICC).

Methods: Infants with perinatal HIV starting cART aged <6 months with ≥1 viral load (VL) measurement within 15 months of cART initiation were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002172DOI Listing
February 2019

Age-related comorbidities and mortality in people living with HIV in rural Tanzania: data from a prospective cohort study.

AIDS 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Ifakara Health Institute, Ifakara, United Republic of Tanzania.

Objective: Causes of morbidity and mortality of people living with HIV are changing with access to antiretroviral therapy and increased life expectancy. Age-related data on comorbidities and their impact on mortality in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce.

Design: This prospective analysis evaluated comorbidities, assessed by means of International Classification of Diseases and Related Health problems 10th revision codes and clinical variables, derived from data collected from the Kilombero & Ulanga antiretroviral cohort of people living with HIV in rural Tanzania. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002171DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Low rates of NRTI and NNRTI drug resistance among participants in the Botswana combination prevention program (BCPP) trial.

AIDS 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership, Gaborone, Botswana.

Background: Scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and introduction of treat-all strategy necessitates population-level monitoring of acquired HIV drug resistance (ADR) and pre-treatment drug resistance (PDR) mutations.

Methods: Blood samples were collected from 4,973 HIV-positive individuals residing in 30 communities across Botswana who participated in the Botswana Combination Prevention Project (BCPP) in 2013-2018. HIV sequences were obtained by long-range HIV genotyping. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002166DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

A high mucosal blocking score is associated with HIV protection.

AIDS 2019 Mar;33(3):411-423

Groupe Immunité des Muqueuses et Agents Pathogènes - GIMAP EA 3064, CIC 1408, Université de Saint-Etienne, Université de Lyon, Lyon, France.

Background: Early steps of HIV infection are mediated by the binding of the envelope to mucosal receptors as α4β7 and the C-type lectins DC-SIGN and langerin. Previously Env-specific B-cell responses have been reported in highly exposed seronegative individuals (HESN).

Method: Here, we studied gp120-specific antibodies ability to block HIV interaction with α4β7, DC-SIGN and/or langerinin HESN. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002099DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads
5.554 Impact Factor

Optimizing HIV prevention and care for transgender adults.

AIDS 2019 Mar;33(3):363-375

David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

: Transgender women have recently been acknowledged as a unique and important risk group in HIV research and care. Although transgender men also face specific problems related to HIV infection, less is known about the risk behaviours and HIV prevalence of this important population. This article highlights key issues relating to the epidemiology, prevention, treatment and management of complications of HIV infection in transgender adults living with HIV, and explores future areas for HIV-related research, with the ultimate goal of improving healthcare provision and quality of life for transgender persons worldwide. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00002030-201903010-0000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002095DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Further complexities in interpreting the serologic responses in HIV-negative recipients of HIV-positive organs.

AIDS 2019 Mar;33(3):595-596

Division of Infectious Diseases, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002109DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Intersection of immune checkpoints and CD8+ T cell noncytolytic suppression of HIV-1 infection: putting on the brakes versus the nuclear option.

Authors:
John Zaunders

AIDS 2019 Mar;33(3):581-583

Centre for Applied Medical Research, St. Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002069DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Improving health outcomes for women with HIV: the potential impact of addressing internalized stigma and depression.

AIDS 2019 Mar;33(3):577-579

Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002072DOI Listing

Longitudinal association between internalized HIV stigma and antiretroviral therapy adherence for women living with HIV: the mediating role of depression.

AIDS 2019 Mar;33(3):571-576

Department of Psychology, UAB, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.

Objective: We investigated whether internalized HIV-related stigma predicts adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) longitudinally in women living with HIV in the United States, and whether depression symptoms mediate the relationship between internalized stigma and suboptimal ART adherence.

Design: Observational longitudinal study utilizing data from the Women's Interagency HIV Study cohort.

Methods: A measure of internalized HIV-related stigma was added to the battery of Women's Interagency HIV Study measures in 2013. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6362840PMC

Sociobehavioral and community predictors of unsuppressed HIV viral load: multilevel results from a hyperendemic rural South African population.

AIDS 2019 Mar;33(3):559-569

Africa Health Research Institute.

Objective: Extensive antiretroviral therapy scale-up is expected to prevent onward transmission of HIV by reducing the overall community viral load. Despite multiple studies about predictors of detectable viral load derived from clinical setting, to date, no study has established such predictors using a population-based viral load survey in a sub-Saharan African hyperendemic setting to inform interventions designed to halt HIV transmission. We used one of Africa's largest prospective cohorts in rural KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, to establish the key sociodemographic, behavioral and community predictors of unsuppressed viral load at the population level. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002100DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Sialic acid levels in breast milk from HIV-positive Tanzanian women and impact of maternal diet.

AIDS 2019 Mar;33(3):509-514

Section of Infectious Disease and International Health, Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, USA.

Objective: To quantify total sialic acid in milk from HIV-positive Tanzanian mothers and to determine the impact of maternal diet on milk sialic acid levels.

Design: Milk samples were analyzed from 74 HIV-positive, Tanzanian women enrolled in a randomized, controlled clinical study of a dietary macronutrient supplement. Women were provided with a daily protein-calorie supplement and a micronutrient supplement or micronutrient supplement only during the last trimester of pregnancy and up to the first 6 months of breastfeeding. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002081DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Vaccination with Fendrix of prior nonresponding patients with HIV has a high success rate.

AIDS 2019 Mar;33(3):503-507

Rijnstate Arnhem.

Background: Patients with HIV have a poor serological conversion rate with the standard vaccination strategy against hepatitis B virus (HBV) of around 50%. Vaccination with Fendrix confers much better results in these patients. In this study, we tested the effect of revaccination with Fendrix in prior nonresponding patients with HIV and aimed to determine which factors are associated with seroconversion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002085DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Randomized clinical trial on efficacy of fixed-dose efavirenz/tenofovir/emtricitabine on alternate days versus continuous treatment.

AIDS 2019 Mar;33(3):493-502

National Institute for Infectious Diseases - INMI - Lazzaro Spallanzani IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Objective: Antiretrovirals with long half-lives, such as tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) and efavirenz (EFV), are suitable for reduced frequency dosing, with potential for improved adherence and reduced toxicity and costs. The objective of this study was to investigate the noninferiority of the TDF/FTC/EFV fixed-dose combination on alternate-days versus standard regimen in virologically suppressed patients.

Design: A randomized-controlled open-label noninferiority trial enrolling HIV-1-infected patients treated for at least 6 months with TDF/FTC/EFV fixed-dose combination, virologically suppressed (<40 HIV-RNA copies/ml) with EFV plasma concentrations greater than 1000 ng/ml, were randomized to maintain TDF/FTC/EFV standard-of-care regimen (SOC, Arm A) or to switch to TDF/FTC/EFV on AlTernAte Days (ATAD, Arm B). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002067DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Cerebrospinal fluid viral escape in aviremic HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy: prevalence, risk factors and neurocognitive effects.

AIDS 2019 Mar;33(3):475-481

University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California.

Background: During antiretroviral therapy, HIV RNA can be detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) when it is undetectable in plasma, a condition termed 'CSF viral escape'. The aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for CSF viral escape in two large cohorts in the USA.

Methods: A total of 1264 HIV-infected volunteers enrolled in two US cohorts at their most recent visit between 2003 and 2011 were included in this cross-sectional analysis if their HIV RNA level in plasma was less than 50 copies/ml while receiving stable antiretroviral therapy (ART) (>6 months) and if they had HIV RNA measured in CSF at their most recent visit between 2003 and 2011. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6361539PMC

Hepatitis B virus coinfection is associated with high early mortality in HIV-infected Tanzanians on antiretroviral therapy.

AIDS 2019 Mar;33(3):465-473

Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Objectives: There is limited data on the effect of antiviral therapies on clinical outcomes in HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa.

Design: Single center, prospective longitudinal cohort study at Management and Development for Health supported HIV Care and Treatment clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Methods: Between April 2014 and December 2015, HIV-infected, HBV-infected and HIV/HBV-coinfected, treatment naïve, Tanzanian adults more than 18 years of age were eligible for enrollment and followed for 10-18 months after initiating antivirals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002073DOI Listing

Frailty predicts fractures among women with and at-risk for HIV.

AIDS 2019 Mar;33(3):455-463

Division of Infectious Diseases, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.

Objective: To determine associations between frailty and fracture in women with and without HIV infection.

Design: Prospective longitudinal cohort study evaluating associations between baseline frailty status and frailty components, with first and second incident fractures.

Methods: We evaluated associations of frailty with fracture among 1332 women with HIV and 532 uninfected women without HIV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6361531PMC
March 2019
3 Reads

In-vitro viral suppressive capacity correlates with immune checkpoint marker expression on peripheral CD8+ T cells in treated HIV-positive patients.

AIDS 2019 Mar;33(3):387-398

Departments of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp.

Objective: To determine whether viral suppressive capacity (VSC) of CD8 T cells can be boosted by stimulation with HIV-1 peptides and whether the ability to control HIV-1 replication correlates with immunological (cytokine production and CD8 T-cell phenotype) and viral reservoir measures (total HIV-1 DNA and cell-associated RNA) in well treated HIV-infected chronic progressors.

Design: We compared VSC of peripheral CD8 T cells to cytokine production profile in response to peptide stimulation, detailed phenotype (17-color flow-cytometry), reservoir size (total HIV-1 DNA), basal viral transcription (unspliced cell-associated RNA) and inducible viral transcription (tat/rev induced limiting dilution assay) in 36 HIV+ patients on cART and six healthy donors.

Results: We found that the VSC of CD8 T cells can be increased by prior stimulation with a pool of consensus HIV-1 gag peptides in a significant proportion of progressor patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002068DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

U=U gains strength with release of PARTNER2 data.

Authors:
Stacey C Tobin

AIDS 2019 Mar;33(3):N1

Arlington Heights, Illinois, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002098DOI Listing

Applying the 'no-one worse off' criterion to design Pareto efficient HIV responses in Sudan and Togo.

AIDS 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Burnet Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Introduction: Globally, there is increased focus on getting the greatest impact from available health funding. However, the pursuit of overall welfare maximization may mean some are left worse off than before. Pareto efficiency takes welfare shifts into account by ruling out funding reallocations that worsen outcomes for any person or group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002155DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Metabolic syndrome and endocrine status in HIV-infected transwomen.

AIDS 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Infectious and Tropical Diseases Department, Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris Nord Val de Seine (HUPNVS), AP-HP, Paris, France.

Background: HIV-infected transwomen face multiple specific issues. Economic and social marginalization, sex work, substance abuse, hormonal consumption and silicone injection may affect the course of HIV infection and lead to metabolic and endocrine complications.

Methods: A matched case-control study was performed between 2013 and 2015 in a University Hospital and compared metabolic syndrome, thyroid and adrenal functions in HIV-infected transwomen (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002152DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Associations between lipids and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis.

AIDS 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. 600 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287.

Objective: Whether HIV modifies the relationship of serum lipids with coronary atherosclerosis and coronary plaque subtypes is uncertain. We examined the associations between traditional lipids and coronary atherosclerosis among HIV-infected (HIV+) and HIV-uninfected (HIV-) men.

Design: The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) is an observational cohort with a total of 429 HIV+ and 303 HIV- men who had non-contrast cardiac computed tomography (CT) performed to measure coronary artery calcium (CAC) and coronary CT angiography to measure coronary stenosis, coronary plaque presence, and composition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002151DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Minority and majority pre-treatment HIV-1 drug resistance associated with failure of 1st-line NNRTI ART in Kenyan women.

AIDS 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, USA, 98101, University of Washington, Departments of.

Objectives: Among women initiating 1-line non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor-(NNRTI)-based-ART with-and-without a history of single-dose-nevirapine-(sdNVP)±zidovudine±lamivudine (ZDV±3TC) for prevention-of-mother-to-child-HIV-transmission (PMTCT), we hypothesized that pre-ART HIV-drug-resistance would be associated with virologic failure DESIGN/METHODS:: In a prospectively enrolled study, three genotypic drug-resistance assays (oligonucleotide-ligation-assay (OLA), consensus sequencing, and next-generation-sequencing by Illumina) were retrospectively performed to detect pre-ART drug-resistance. Minority or majority drug-resistant variants identified in pre-ART RNA and/or DNA, a history of antiretrovirals for PMTCT, and other risk factors were assessed for association with virologic failure.

Results: Failure occurred in 38/169 (22. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002134DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Emtricitabine-associated red cell aplasia.

AIDS 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

: Emtricitabine is structurally similar to lamivudine, which has been associated with red cell aplasia. We describe four patients with severe anaemia presenting soon after starting emtricitabine-containing antiretroviral therapy. Bone marrow biopsy in three patients confirmed red cell aplasia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002136DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

The influence of constraints on the efficient allocation of resources for HIV prevention: a modelling study.

AIDS 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Objective: To investigate how 'real-world' constraints on the allocative and technical efficiency of HIV prevention programmes affect resource allocation and the number of infections averted.

Design: Epidemiological modelling and economic analyses in Benin, South Africa and Tanzania.

Methods: We simulated different HIV prevention programmes, and first determined the most efficient allocation of resources, in which the HIV prevention budget is shared between specific interventions, risk-groups and provinces to maximise the number of infections averted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002158DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with inflammation and physical activity in HIV+ adults.

AIDS 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine.

Objective: Our objective was to examine the effect of a lifestyle diet and exercise intervention on CRF and to examine predictors of change in CRF.

Design: People living with HIV (PLHIV) are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a better predictor of CVD-related mortality than established risk factors yet very little is known about CRF in PLHIV. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00002030-900000000-9701
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002154DOI Listing
January 2019
11 Reads

Vedolizumab-mediated integrin α4β7 blockade does not control HIV-1SF162 rebound after cART interruption in humanized mice.

AIDS 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

AIDS Institute and Department of Microbiology, State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, 21 Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, People's Republic of China.

Objective: The combined cART and anti-α4β7 RM-Act-1 antibody therapy allows macaques to durably control SIV rebound after withdrawal of the interventions. Here, we aimed to investigate whether vedolizumab (VDZ), a clinical-grade humanized anti-α4β7 antibody, would have similar effects in controlling live HIV-1 infection in humanized mice.

Design And Methods: The integrin α4β7 blockade by VDZ was evaluated on human primary memory CD4 T cells and retinoic acid (RA)-induced gut-homing α4β7 memory CD4 T cells (α4β7MEMT) in vitro. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002149DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Distinct gut microbiota profile in ART-treated perinatally HIV-infected patients associated with cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers.

AIDS 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Academic Department of Pediatrics Research Unit of Congenital and Perinatal Infection, Children's Hospital Bambino Gesù.

Objective: Persistent inflammation and higher risk to develop cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) still represent a major complication for HIV-infected patients despite effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). We investigated the correlation between the gut microbiota (GM) profile, markers of inflammation, vascular endothelial activation (VEA) and microbial translocation (MT) in perinatally HIV-infected patients (PHIV) under ART.

Design: Cross-sectional study including sixty-one ART-treated PHIV (age range 3-30 years old) and seventy-one age-matched healthy controls (CTRL). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002131DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Plasma acylcarnitines and progression of carotid artery atherosclerosis in HIV infection.

AIDS 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA 10461.

Objective: To evaluate plasma acylcarnitine profiles and their relationships with progression of carotid artery atherosclerosis among individuals with and without HIV-infection.

Design: Prospective cohort studies of 499 HIV-positive and 206 HIV-negative individuals from the Women's Interagency HIV Study and the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.

Methods: Twenty-four acylcarnitine species were measured in plasma samples of participants at baseline. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002142DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Differences in the rate of nicotine metabolism among smokers with and without HIV.

AIDS 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine.

Objective: HIV-infected smokers lose more life years to tobacco use than to HIV infection. The nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), a biomarker of CYP2A6, represents individual variation in the rate at which nicotine is metabolized and is associated with response to smoking cessation treatments. We evaluated whether HIV-infected smokers metabolize nicotine faster than HIV-uninfected smokers, which may contribute to the disproportionate smoking burden and may have important treatment implications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002127DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

Screening for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in perinatally infected adolescents: y-IHDS validation.

AIDS 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Context: Perinatal HIV-infection has adverse cognitive consequences into adolescence. However, there are no screening tools that assess risk for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in adolescent populations. Such screening tools are needed urgently for clinical care in resource-poor settings with a high prevalence of HIV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002144DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads
5.554 Impact Factor

Improved discrimination of mortality with Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index 2.0 in HIV-positive individuals.

AIDS 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

VA Connecticut Health Systems, 950 Campbell Ave; West Haven, CT 06516.

Objective: Despite viral suppression and immune response on antiretroviral therapy (ART), people with HIV infection experience excess mortality compared to uninfected individuals. The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index incorporates clinical biomarkers of general health with age, CD4 count, and HIV-1 RNA to discriminate mortality risk in a variety of HIV positive populations. We asked whether additional biomarkers further enhance discrimination. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00002030-900000000-9700
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002140DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Point-of-care C-reactive protein and risk of early mortality among adults initiating antiretroviral therapy.

AIDS 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Objectives: In resource-limited settings, mortality in the initial months following antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation remains unacceptably high. Novel tools to identify patients at highest risk of poor outcomes are needed. We evaluated whether elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations predict poor outcomes among people living with HIV (PLWH) initiating ART. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002130DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

HIV-exposed uninfected infants have increased inflammation and monocyte activation.

AIDS 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center.

Background: HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants have increased infectious morbidity and mortality; little is known about their levels of inflammation and monocyte activation.

Methods: Plasma samples obtained at birth and 6 months from 86 HEU mother-infant pairs enrolled in the NICHD cohorts in Brazil were compared to 88 HIV-unexposed (HU) mother-infant pairs. HIV-infected mothers received antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy, their infants received zidovudine prophylaxis and were not breastfed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002128DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

Epstein-Barr virus biomarkers have no prognostic value in HIV-related Hodgkin lymphoma in the modern cART era.

AIDS 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

INSERM U1184, Center for Immunology of Viral Infections and Autoimmune Diseases, Le Kremlin Bicêtre Unité d'Hémato-Oncologie, Centre Hospitalier de Versailles, Le Chesnay, France.

Objectives: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been implicated in lymphomagenesis of HIV-related classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HIV-cHL). The utility of EBV molecular and serological biomarkers has scarcely been examined in HIV-cHL in the recent combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) era.

Design: We evaluated EBV DNA load and a panel of EBV antibodies in HIV-cHL patients prospectively enrolled in the French ANRS-CO16 Lymphovir cohort between 2008 and 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002129DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads
5.554 Impact Factor

Monocyte-Macrophage activation is associated with NAFLD and liver fibrosis in HIV mono-infection independently of the gut microbiome and bacterial translocation.

AIDS 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Hepatology Unit, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London UK.

Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is common among people living with HIV. There is limited data available on the pathophysiology of NAFLD and the development of fibrosis in this population.

Objectives: to investigate the association of bacterial translocation, adipose tissue dysfunction, monocyte activation and gut dysbiosis in patients with HIV mono-infection and NAFLD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002133DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Undisclosed HIV infection among men who have sex with men in National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 2014.

AIDS 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

Objective: As a proxy for undiagnosed HIV, CDC's National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) monitors participants who report being unaware of their infection, defined as self-reporting an HIV-negative or unknown status during the interview but testing positive for HIV infection. We validated the NHBS measure of awareness among men who have sex with men (MSM) in 2014.

Design: We tested dried blood spots (DBS) from MSM who reported being unaware of their infection for seven antiretrovirals (ARVs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002147DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Effects of HIV viremia on the gastrointestinal microbiome of young men who have sex with men.

AIDS 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Department of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public Health at the University of California, Los Angeles.

Objective: We employed a high-dimensional covariate adjustment method in microbiome analysis to better control for behavioral and clinical confounders, and in doing so examine the effects of HIV on the rectal microbiome.

Design: Three hundred eighty-three men who have sex with men were grouped into four HIV viremia categories: HIV negative (n = 200), HIV+ undetectable (HIV RNA < 20 copies/mL; n = 66), HIV+ suppressed (RNA 20-200 copies/mL; n = 72) and HIV+ viremic (RNA > 200 copies/mL; n = 45).

Methods: We performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing on rectal swab samples and used inverse probability of treatment-weighted marginal structural models to examine differences in microbial composition by HIV viremia category. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002132DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Low tenofovir level in urine by a novel immunoassay is associated with seroconversion in a PrEP demonstration project.

AIDS 2018 Aug 14. Epub 2018 Aug 14.

Division of HIV, ID, and Global Medicine, University of California, San Francisco.

Objective: We examined the relationship between urine tenofovir (TFV) levels measured with a novel immunoassay, which permits point-of-care (POC) testing, with HIV seroconversion and objective adherence metrics in a large PrEP demonstration project.

Design: Secondary analysis of stored specimens from an open-label PrEP cohort study METHODS:: We examined the association between undetectable urine TFV levels and HIV seroconversion in iPrEx-OLE using generalized estimating equations. We examined rank correlations between levels of TFV and emtricitabine (FTC) in urine, dried blood spots (DBS), and hair and determined the sensitivity and specificity of undetectable urine TFV for predicting dosing cut-offs in DBS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6375797PMC
August 2018
5 Reads

Progression of liver fibrosis following acute hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-positive MSM.

AIDS 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Amsterdam Infection and Immunity Institute.

Background: Whether continued, accelerated liver fibrosis progression occurs following acute hepatitis C virus infection (AHCVI) in HIV-positive MSM is unknown.

Design And Methods: HIV-positive MSM from the AIDS Therapy Evaluation in the Netherlands and MSM Observational Study for Acute Infection with Hepatitis C-cohorts with primary AHCVI and at least one fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) measurement less than 2 years before and 1 year after estimated AHCVI were included. Mixed-effect linear models were used to evaluate (time-updated) determinants of FIB-4 levels over time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002138DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Long-term effects of unintended pregnancy on antiretroviral therapy outcomes among South African women living with HIV.

AIDS 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Division of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, School of Public Health & Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Objective: Unintended pregnancies are common among women living with HIV, but there are no data on their long-term impact on treatment outcomes. In a cohort of women initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy, we examined the association between the intendedness of the current pregnancy, measured antenatally, and elevated viral load (VL) up to five years postpartum.

Design: Prospective study with enrolment at entry into antenatal care and follow-up at study visits separate from routine care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002139DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

A setback for kick and kill?

Authors:
Stacey C Tobin

AIDS 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Arlington Heights, IL United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002148DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

PrEP use continues to evolve.

Authors:
Stacey C Tobin

AIDS 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Arlington Heights, IL United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002141DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Intranasal insulin therapy reverses hippocampal dendritic injury and cognitive impairment in a model of HAND in EcoHIV-infected mice.

AIDS 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029.

Objective: Almost half of HIV-positive people on antiretroviral therapy (ART) have demonstrable mild neurocognitive impairment (HIV-NCI), even when virologically suppressed. Intranasal (IN) insulin therapy improves cognition in Alzheimer's disease and diabetes. Here we tested IN insulin therapy in a model of HIV-NCI in EcoHIV-infected conventional mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002150DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Trends in cause-specific mortality in HIV-Hepatitis C co-infection following hepatitis C treatment scale-up.

AIDS 2019 Jan 12. Epub 2019 Jan 12.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Chronic Viral Illness Service, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Objective: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment may reduce liver-related mortality but with competing risks, other causes of mortality may undermine benefits. We examined changes in cause-specific mortality among HIV-HCV co-infected patients before and after scale-up of HCV treatment.

Design: Prospective multicentre HIV-HCV cohort study in Canada. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002156DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

Increased IL-17 and/or IFN-γ producing T cell subsets in gut mucosa of long-term treated HIV-1-infected women.

AIDS 2019 Jan 2. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Laboratory of Virology, Department of Molecular Medicine, affiliated to Istituto Pasteur Italia - Cenci Bolognetti Foundation, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Objective: The influence of gender on gut mucosal T cell response in HIV-1 infection remains largely unknown. We explored whether the frequencies of IFN-[Latin Small Letter Gamma] and/or IL-17 producing naïve, central (TCM) and effector (TEM) memory CD4+ (Th1, Th17) and CD8+ T (Tc1, Tc17) cells measured in gut and peripheral districts differed between female and male HIV-1-infected patients.

Methods: Thirty long-term treated HIV-infected individuals were enrolled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002122DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

No effect of test and treat on sexual behaviours at population level in rural South Africa.

AIDS 2019 Jan 2. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

University Bordeaux, ISPED, Inserm, Bordeaux Population Health Research Center, UMR 1219, F-33000 Bordeaux, France.

Context: Within the community-randomised ANRS 12249 Treatment-as-Prevention (TasP) trial conducted in rural South Africa, we analysed sexual behaviours stratified by sex over time, comparing immediate ART irrespective of CD4 count vs CD4-guided ART (start at CD4>350 then >500) arms.

Methods: As part of the 6-monthly home-based trial rounds, a sexual behaviour questionnaire (IQ) was administered to all residents ≥16 years. We considered seven indicators: sexual intercourse in the past month; at least one regular sexual partner in the past six months; at least one casual sexual partner in the past six months and more than one sexual partner in the past six months; condom use at last sex (CLS) with regular partner, CLS with casual partner, and point prevalence estimate of concurrency. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002104DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

HIV-1 detection in the olfactory mucosa of HIV-1 infected participants.

AIDS 2019 Jan 2. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Unit of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Torino, Torino, Italy.

Objective: Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection chronically affects the central nervous system (CNS). Olfactory mucosa (OM) is a unique site in the respiratory tract that is directly connected to the CNS, thus we wanted to evaluate OM as a surrogate of CNS sampling.

Design: We conducted a preliminary study examining HIV populations and susceptible cells in the OM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002102DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read
5.554 Impact Factor