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    1 OF 262

    Post treatment controllers after treatment interruption in chronically HIV infected patients.
    AIDS 2018 Jan 13. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Virology Laboratory, ASST PG-23, Bergamo, Italy.
    Objective: Control HIV replication requires continuous combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) as discontinuation of cART results in a rapid viral rebound. However, a few individuals exist who took cART for several years and did not show the expected viral rebound after treatment cessation. Most post-treatment controllers (PTCs) are early treated individuals. Read More

    Effect of HIV self-testing on the number of sexual partners among female sex workers in Zambia: A randomized controlled trial.
    AIDS 2018 Jan 13. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
    Objectives: To assess the effect of two health systems approaches to distribute HIV self-tests on the number of female sex workers' client and non-client sexual partners in a randomized controlled trial of HIV self-testing among female sex workers (FSW) in Zambia.

    Design: Cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Methods: Peer educators recruited 965 participants. Read More

    Rapid decline of HIV-1 DNA and RNA in infants starting very early ART may pose a diagnostic challenge.
    AIDS 2018 Jan 13. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Division of Medical Virology, Stellenbosch University.
    Objective: Birth diagnosis of HIV-1 infection offers an ideal opportunity for early antiretroviral treatment (ART) to limit HIV-1 reservoir size and limit disease progression. Although data on cellular HIV-1 DNA decay exist for children commencing treatment from 2-3 months of age, data is lacking for starting shortly after birth.

    Design: We studied infants who initiated ART within 8 days after birth to assess HIV-1 DNA levels longitudinally. Read More

    Chronic hepatitis C virus infection and subsequent HIV viral load among women with HIV initiating antiretroviral therapy.
    AIDS 2018 Jan 13. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC.
    Objective(s): One in four persons living with HIV is coinfected with HCV. Biological and behavioral mechanisms may increase HIV viral load among coinfected persons. Therefore, we estimated the longitudinal effect of chronic HCV on HIV suppression after ART initiation among women with HIV (WWH). Read More

    Cost-effectiveness of alternative strategies for provision of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis for people who inject drugs.
    AIDS 2018 Jan 13. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Department of Management Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
    Background: Oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been recommended as a means of HIV prevention among people who inject drugs (PWID) but, at current prices, is unlikely to be cost-effective for all PWID.

    Objective: To determine the cost-effectiveness of alternative strategies for enrolling PWID in PrEP.

    Design: Dynamic network model that captures HIV transmission and progression among PWID in a representative US urban center. Read More

    Plasma and Intracellular Pharmacokinetics of Tenofovir in Patients Switched from Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate to Tenofovir Alafenamide.
    AIDS 2018 Jan 13. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Antiviral Pharmacology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC) Center for Drug Discovery and Lozier Center for Pharmacy Sciences and Education, College of Pharmacy (COP), Omaha, NE, USA.
    Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare the intra-individual plasma and intracellular peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) pharmacokinetics (PK) of tenofovir (TFV) and its intracellular metabolite, tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP) in patients switched from a fixed dose combination (FDC) tablet of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/ emtricitabine (FTC)/ elvitegravir (EVG)/ cobicistat (COBI) to a FDC containing tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)/FTC/EVG/COBI.

    Design: A single arm, prospective, non-randomized, cross-over, PK study in patients receiving a TDF-containing regimen (TDF 300 mg/ FTC 200 mg/ EVG 150 mg/ COBI 150 mg) switched to a TAF-containing FDC regimen (TAF 10 mg/ FTC 200 mg/ EVG 150 mg/ COBI 150 mg).

    Methods: Single, sparse plasma and PBMC samples were collected during TDF therapy and 4 to 8 weeks post-switch to the TAF-containing regimen. Read More

    Quality of life improvement in resource-limited settings after one year of second-line antiretroviral therapy use among adult men and women.
    AIDS 2018 Jan 13. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Center for Biostatistics in AIDS Research, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
    Objective: We evaluated improvement of quality of life (QoL) after one year of second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) use in resource-limited settings (RLS) among adult men and women, comparing two randomized treatment arms.

    Design: ACTG A5273 was a randomized clinical trial of second-line ART comparing lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) + raltegravir (RAL) with LPV/r + nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in participants failing a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-containing regimen at 15 sites in 9 RLS. Participants completed the ACTG SF-21 which has 8 QoL domains with a standard score ranging from 0 (worst) to 100 (best). Read More

    Impact of early antiretroviral therapy eligibility on HIV acquisition: Household-level evidence from rural South Africa.
    AIDS 2018 Jan 13. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Africa Health Research Institute, UKZN, Somkhele, South Africa.
    Objectives: We investigate the effect of immediate ART eligibility on HIV incidence among HIV-uninfected household members.

    Design: Regression discontinuity study arising from a population-based cohort.

    Methods: Household members of patients seeking care at the Hlabisa HIV Treatment and Care Programme in rural KwaZulu-Natal South Africa between January 2007 and August 2011 with CD4 counts up to 350 cells/μl were eligible for inclusion if they had at least two HIV tests and were HIV-uninfected at the time the index patient linked to care (N = 4,115). Read More

    Bacterial vaginosis modifies the association between hormonal contraception and HIV acquisition.
    AIDS 2018 Jan 13. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group, Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine and Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Objective: To examine BV as an effect modifier for the association between hormonal contraception (HC) and incident HIV infection DESIGN:: Serodiscordant couples enrolled in an open longitudinal cohort in Lusaka, Zambia from 1994-2012. This analysis was restricted to couples with an HIV-positive man enrolled between1994-2002 when a quarterly genital tract examination and HIV testing was performed.

    Methods: Multivariate Cox models evaluated the association between contraceptive method and HIV-acquisition, stratified by time-varying BV status. Read More

    Blood biomarkers of expressed and inducible HIV-1.
    AIDS 2018 Jan 13. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Objective: To define the relationships between molecular measures of viral persistence in blood (i.e., plasma viremia, cellular HIV-1 DNA, and mRNA) and expressed or inducible virus from resting CD4 + T-cells of individuals on suppressive ART. Read More

    Relationship between untimed plasma lopinavir concentrations and virological outcome on second-line antiretroviral therapy.
    AIDS 2018 Jan;32(3):357-361
    The Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
    Background: Resource constraints in low and middle-income countries necessitate practical approaches to optimizing antiretroviral therapy outcomes. We hypothesised that an untimed plasma lopinavir concentration (UPLC) at week 12 would predict loss of virological response in those taking lopinavir as part of a second-line antiretroviral regimen.

    Methods: We measured plasma lopinavir concentration at week 12 on stored samples from the SECOND-LINE study. Read More

    Interferon-free therapy for treating hepatitis C virus in difficult-to-treat HIV-coinfected patients.
    AIDS 2018 Jan;32(3):337-346
    Infectious Diseases Department, Consorcio Hospital General Universitario de Valencia.
    Background/aims: Data regarding the use of all-oral direct-acting antivirals in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients with advanced liver fibrosis are required, because they are generally under-represented in clinical trials. This study sought to evaluate the use of these drugs in a cohort of coinfected patients, mostly with factors that have previously been recognized as predictors of treatment failure.

    Methods: COINFECOVA-2 is an observational, multicenter study conducted in Eastern Spain. Read More

    Brentuximab vedotin with AVD shows safety, in the absence of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, in newly diagnosed HIV-associated Hodgkin lymphoma.
    AIDS 2017 Dec 26. Epub 2017 Dec 26.
    Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY. All in the USA.
    Objective: Brentuximab vedotin (BV) is an FDA approved anti-CD30 antibody drug conjugate potently active in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Trials of BV with doxorubicin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (AVD-BV) excluded patients with HIV. We studied the safety of (AVD-BV) in newly diagnosed HIV-associated classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HIV-cHL). Read More

    A baseline metabolomic signature is associated with immunological CD4+ T-cell recovery after 36 months of ART in HIV-infected patients.
    AIDS 2017 Dec 26. Epub 2017 Dec 26.
    Hospital Universitari Joan XXIII. IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain.
    Objectives: Poor immunological recovery in treated HIV-infected patients is associated with greater morbidity and mortality. To date, predictive biomarkers of this incomplete immune reconstitution have not been established. We aimed to identify a baseline metabolomic signature associated with a poor immunological recovery after ART in order to envisage the underlying mechanistic pathways that influence the treatment response. Read More

    The HIV-1 Tat protein affects human CD4+ T cell programming and activation, and favors the differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells.
    AIDS 2017 Dec 26. Epub 2017 Dec 26.
    Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.
    Objective: HIV infection is characterized by several immune dysfunctions, such as chronic activation of the immune system, premature ageing and loss of CD4 T cell, in particular within the naïve compartment. The Tat protein of HIV is released extracellularly and enters neighboring cells affecting their functionality, for instance impacting on CD8 T cell programs and activity. As the presence and/or induction of anti-Tat immune responses is associated with reduced T cell dysfunctions and CD4 T cell loss, we investigated whether Tat impacts human resting or activated CD4 T cells. Read More

    Phylogenetic analysis as a forensic tool in HIV transmission investigations: a literature review.
    AIDS 2017 Dec 26. Epub 2017 Dec 26.
    Global Health and Tropical Medicine (GHTM), Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical/Universidade Nova de Lisboa (IHMT/UNL), Rua da Junqueira, 100, 1349-008 Lisboa, Portugal.
    : Because HIV is a fast-evolving virus, HIV genomic sequences of several individuals can be used to investigate whether they belong to a transmission network. Since the infamous 'Florida dentist case' in the beginning of the 90 s, phylogenetic analyses has been recurrently used in court settings as a forensic tool in HIV transmission investigations, e.g. Read More

    Changes in Insulin Sensitivity over Time and Associated Factors in HIV-Infected Adolescents.
    AIDS 2017 Dec 26. Epub 2017 Dec 26.
    Section of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.
    Objective: To compare prevalence of IR between perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) and perinatally HIV-exposed, but uninfected adolescents (PHEU), determine incidence of and contributory factors to new and resolved cases of IR in PHIV+, and evaluate glucose metabolism.

    Design: Cross-sectional design for comparison of prevalence among PHIV+ and PHEU. Longitudinal design for incidence and resolution of IR among PHIV+ at risk for these outcomes. Read More

    KIR3DL1 alleles and their Epistatic Interactions with HLA Class I Influence Resistance and Susceptibility to HIV-1 acquisition in the Pumwani Sex Worker cohort.
    AIDS 2017 Dec 26. Epub 2017 Dec 26.
    National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
    Objective: To determine the associations of KIR3DL1/S1(3DL1/S1) and its epistatic interactions with HLA class I(HLA-I) alleles with resistance and susceptibility to HIV-1.

    Design: Despite repeated exposure to HIV-1 a subset of women enrolled in the Pumwani sex worker cohort remain HIV uninfected. Previous studies have shown that specific HLA class I and II alleles were associated with this natural immunity. Read More

    Ex vivo expression of chemokine receptors on cells surrounding cutaneous nerves in patients with HIV-associated sensory neuropathy.
    AIDS 2017 Dec 12. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    School of Biomedical Sciences, Curtin University, Bentley, Australia.
    Objective: HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) remains common in HIV+ individuals receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART), even though neurotoxic anti-retroviral drugs (e.g. stavudine) have been phased out of use. Read More

    Ex vivo antiretroviral potency of newer integrase strand transfer inhibitors cabotegravir and bictegravir in HIV-1 non-B subtypes.
    AIDS 2017 Dec 12. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Objective: To determine the antiretroviral activity of the integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs), raltegravir, elvitegravir, dolutegravir, cabotegravir and bictegravir, against different subtypes as well as primary and acquired drug resistance mutations (DRM) in a patient-cohort infected with diverse subtypes.

    Design: Biochemical and virological drug sensitivity analysis using patient derived HIV-1 genes and cross-sectional/longitudinal clinical study.

    Methods: Assays for inhibition of 3'-end processing (IC50-3P), strand transfer (IC50-ST) and drug sensitivity (DSA) for five INSTIs were done using patient-derived integrase or gag-pol genes from subtypes A1, B, C, 01_AE and 02_AG. Read More

    Development of broad neutralization activity in SHIV-infected rhesus macaques after long-term infection.
    AIDS 2017 Dec 12. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    National Engineering Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine, School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130012, China.
    Objective: Non-human primates (NHPs) are the only animal model that can be used to evaluate protection efficacy of HIV-1 Env vaccines. However, whether broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) can be elicited in NHPs infected with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) has not been fully understood. The objective of this study is to investigate whether broad neutralization activities were developed in SHIV-infected macaques after long-term infection as in humans. Read More

    Temporal variation in HIV-specific IgG subclass Abs during acute infection differentiates spontaneous controllers from chronic progressors.
    AIDS 2017 Dec 12. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard, Boston, MA, USA.
    Objective: Given the emerging appreciation for the role of antibody-dependent effector functions and IgG subclass distribution among spontaneous controllers of HIV, we sought to determine whether antibody-associated features diverged in early HIV infection between subjects who ultimately became controllers versus those who became progressors.

    Methods: IgG was purified from plasma from nine acutely infected subjects who subsequently controlled HIV spontaneously (controllers) and ten acutely infected individuals who did not control viremia (progressors). Antibody profiles were compared at weeks 4, 12, 24 and 48 post-infection. Read More

    Switch from tenofovir disoproxil fumarate combination to dolutegravir plus rilpivirine improves parameters of bone health.
    AIDS 2017 Dec 12. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    ViiV Healthcare, Brentford, United Kingdom.
    Objective: Bone mineral density (BMD) loss, a risk factor for osteoporosis, has been attributed to HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART), including regimens containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate.

    Design: Study 202094 is an open-label, parallel-group, sub-study of the phase III SWORD-1 and SWORD-2 studies (ClincialTrials.gov identifier, NCT02478632). Read More

    Cancer burden attributable to cigarette smoking among HIV-infected people in North America.
    AIDS 2017 Dec 12. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Rockville, MD.
    Objective: With combination-antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected individuals live longer with an elevated burden of cancer. Given the high prevalence of smoking among HIV-infected populations, we examined the risk of incident cancers attributable to ever smoking cigarettes.

    Design: Observational cohort of HIV-infected participants with 270,136 person-years of follow-up in the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design consortium. Read More

    Omega-3 decreases interleukin-6 levels in HIV and HHV-8 co-infected patients: results from a randomized supplementation trial in Uganda.
    AIDS 2017 Dec 12. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA.
    Objective: Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is an HIV-associated malignancy caused by human herpesvirus-8 that occurs at highest incidence in sub-Saharan Africa. KS patients often present with inflammatory symptoms associated with higher mortality.

    Design: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study in Uganda to test whether omega-3 (ω-3) supplementation could reduce inflammation in HIV and HHV-8 co-infected adults ≥ 18 years of age. Read More

    Are trajectories of psychosocial risk in adolescence linked to HIV vulnerability in emerging and young adulthood? an eighteen-year longitudinal study.
    AIDS 2017 Dec 12. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    School of Public Health, Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States.
    Objectives: To examine trajectories of adolescent psychosocial risk-drug use, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and violence victimization and observation-and the longitudinal relationship between psychosocial risk trajectories during adolescence and HIV risk behaviors in adulthood.

    Methods: The eighteen-year longitudinal study was conducted from September 1994 through May 2013, in Michigan. Eight-hundred and fifty predominantly (80%) African American adolescents completed demographics and measures of drug use, depressive and anxiety symptoms, violence victimization and observation at Times 1-4, sexual risk behaviors at Times 5 and 6, and social conditions (i. Read More

    Eleven-year incident glucose disorders in treated HIV-infection. The St Vincent's HIV and Diabetes Study.
    AIDS 2017 Dec 12. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    Diabetes & Metabolism Division, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Objectives: To determine the long-term incidence of glucose disorders in treated HIV-infection, associations with traditional and HIV-specific risk factors and whether glycemic status predicts mortality.

    Methods: Observational cohort of 104 men with treated HIV-infection and without diabetes, aged 43 ± 8y at baseline, with (mean ± SD) 11 8 ± 3 5y follow-up, with ascertainment of glucose status by fasting glucose or, in a subset (n = 33), a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test by 10-12 years follow-up. A subset underwent sequential body composition measures (n = 58) to determine changes in total body and central abdominal adiposity. Read More

    Incidence of sexually transmitted infections before and after Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV: a cohort study.
    AIDS 2017 12 12. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    Clinique médicale l'Actuel, Montréal, Canada.
    Objective: Use of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV raises concerns about sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence due to decreased condom use among men who have sex with men (MSM). This study examines whether PrEP is associated with STIs in the 12-months following PrEP prescription relative to the 12-months prior to PrEP and if STI rates are higher among PrEP users relative to individuals receiving Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP).

    Design: Retrospective cohort study including PrEP users with >12 months of follow-up before PrEP prescription and individuals receiving PEP from 2010-2015 at Clinique l'Actuel (Montréal, Canada). Read More

    Costs and benefits of on-demand HIV preexposure prophylaxis in MSM.
    AIDS 2018 Jan;32(1):95-102
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Hôpital Saint-Louis, AP HP.
    Objectives: We undertook the economic evaluation of the double-blind randomized ANRS-IPERGAY trial, which showed the efficacy of on-demand preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-emtricitabine (FTC) in preventing HIV infection among high-risk MSM.

    Design And Methods: The economic evaluation was prospective. Counseling, drugs (TDF-FTC at &OV0556;500. Read More

    Improving postpartum retention in care for women living with HIV in the United States.
    AIDS 2018 Jan;32(2):133-142
    Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
    : Research findings have consistently demonstrated that women living with HIV in the United States and globally experience declines in medication adherence and retention in care after giving birth. A number of studies have identified factors associated with postpartum retention in care, but the evidence base for interventions to address the problem and close this gap in the HIV care continuum is limited. Furthermore, the majority of studies have been conducted in low-resource or moderate-resource countries and may be less applicable or require adaptation for use in high resource countries. Read More

    HIV-infected cannabis users have lower circulating CD16+ monocytes and IP-10 levels compared to non-using HIV patients.
    AIDS 2017 Nov 30. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Michigan State University.
    Objective: Chronic immune activation and elevated numbers of circulating activated monocytes (CD16) are implicated in HIV-associated neuroinflammation. The objective was to compare the level of circulating CD16 monocytes and interferon-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) between HIV-infected cannabis users (HIV+MJ+) and non-cannabis users (HIV+MJ-), and determine whether in vitro Δ-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a constituent of cannabis, affected CD16 expression as well as IP-10 production by monocytes.

    Design: The levels of circulating CD16 monocytes and IP-10 from HIV+MJ- and HIV+MJ+ donors were examined. Read More

    Experiences using and organizing HIV self-testing.
    AIDS 2018 Jan;32(3):371-381
    University of North Carolina Project-China, Guangzhou, China.
    Objective: HIV self-testing (HIVST) is now officially recommended by the WHO, yet much of HIVST evidence to date has focused on quantitative data and hypothetical concerns. Effective scale-up of HIVST in diverse local contexts requires qualitative data from experiences using and organizing HIVST. This qualitative systematic review aims to appraise and synthesize research evidence on experiences using and organizing HIVST. Read More

    Pulmonary disease in HIV-infected adults in the era of antiretroviral therapy.
    AIDS 2018 Jan;32(3):277-292
    Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
    : HIV in the antiretroviral therapy era is characterized by multimorbidity and the frequent occurrence of HIV-associated non-AIDS chronic health conditions. Respiratory symptoms and chronic pulmonary diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and cardiopulmonary dysfunction, are among the conditions that may present in persons living with HIV. Tobacco smoking, which is disproportionately high among persons living HIV, strongly contributes to the risk of pulmonary disease. Read More

    Trends in antiretroviral therapy prescription, durability and modification: new drugs, more changes, but less failure.
    AIDS 2018 Jan;32(3):347-355
    Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.
    Objective: To evaluate the real world durability of contemporary ART for treatment-naïve people living with HIV (PLWH).

    Design: A retrospective follow-up study in a multisite cohort.

    Methods: This study of the CNICS (CFAR Network of Integrated Clinical Systems) cohort integrates data from eight Center for AIDS Research (CFARs). Read More

    Non-small cell lung cancer from HIV-infected patients expressed PD-L1 with marked inflammatory infiltrates.
    AIDS 2017 Nov 30. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, GRC n°04, Theranoscan, F-75252, Paris, France.
    Objective: Immunotherapy techniques targeting the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) to PD ligand 1 (PD-L1) checkpoint have improved prognosis in lung cancer. PD-1/PD-L1 status, however, has not been investigated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. This study sought to assess PD-L1 status and tumor immune-cell infiltration in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in HIV patients. Read More

    Preexposure prophylaxis guidelines have low sensitivity for identifying seroconverters in a sample of young Black MSM in Chicago.
    AIDS 2018 Jan;32(3):383-392
    Department of Medicine, University of Chicago.
    Background: Identification of clients at greatest risk of acquiring HIV is critical for preexposure prophylaxi (PrEP) implementation. Young black MSM (YBMSM) have high incidence of HIV. We examined published guidelines in identifying eligible PrEP candidates, including seroconverters, in a representative cohort of YBMSM. Read More

    The validity of self-reported antiretroviral use in persons living with HIV: a population-based study.
    AIDS 2018 Jan;32(3):363-369
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.
    Objective: To assess the validity of self-reported antiretroviral therapy use (ART) using population-based cohort data.

    Methods: Self-reported ART use and nonuse was compared with a validated laboratory assay in 557 HIV-positive participants in the Rakai Community Cohort Study surveyed between September and December 2011 in Rakai, Uganda. The study population included participants from seven communities, including one fishing community with high HIV prevalence (∼41%). Read More

    HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus selection bottleneck in Chinese people who inject drugs.
    AIDS 2018 Jan;32(3):309-320
    State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing.
    Objectives: For both HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus (HCV), assessing the stringency of the transmission process is a scientific priority. Enumerations of transmitted/founder (TF) viruses have shown a strict transmission bottleneck in sexual transmission of HIV-1 and a wide range in the multiplicity of infection in HCV. Here, we aim to determine the stringency of parenteral transmission for HIV-1 and HCV in people who inject drugs (PWID). Read More

    Concomitant medication polypharmacy, interactions and imperfect adherence are common in Australian adults on suppressive antiretroviral therapy.
    AIDS 2018 Jan;32(1):35-48
    aSt Vincent's Centre for Applied Medical Research, St Vincent's Hospital, SydneybCentre for Social Research in HealthcNeuroscience Research Australia, University of New South Wales, SydneydNational Association of People with HIV Australia, NewtowneSchool of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South WalesfDepartment of Infectious Diseases, Alfred Hospital and Monash UniversitygDepartment of Infectious Diseases, The Royal Women's HospitalhMonash Infectious Diseases, Monash Health, Melbourne, VictoriaiAlbion Centre, South Eastern Sydney Local Hospital Network, Sydney, New South WalesjCentre for Population Health, Burnet InstitutekMelbourne Sexual Health Centre, Alfred HealthlCentral Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VictoriamWestern Sydney Sexual Health Centre, University of Sydney, ParramattanWestmead Clinical School, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Westmead, New South WalesoCentre Clinic, St Kilda, Melbourne, VictoriapHoldsworth House Medical PracticeqThe Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliarDepartment of Interdisciplinary Social Science, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Objectives: We quantified concomitant medication polypharmacy, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions, adverse effects and adherence in Australian adults on effective antiretroviral therapy.

    Design: Cross-sectional.

    Methods: Patients recruited into a nationwide cohort and assessed for prevalence and type of concomitant medication (including polypharmacy, defined as ≥5 concomitant medications), pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions, potential concomitant medication adverse effects and concomitant medication adherence. Read More

    Effect of immediate initiation of antiretroviral treatment on the risk of acquired HIV drug resistance.
    AIDS 2018 Jan;32(3):327-335
    Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Objective: We estimated and compared the risk of clinically identified acquired drug resistance under immediate initiation [the currently recommended antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation strategy], initiation with CD4 cell count less than 500 cells/μl and initiation with CD4 cell count less than 350 cells/μl.

    Design: Cohort study based on routinely collected data from the HIV-CAUSAL collaboration.

    Methods: For each individual, baseline was the earliest time when all eligibility criteria (ART-naive, AIDS free, and others) were met after 1999. Read More

    HIV is associated with airway obstruction: a matched controlled study.
    AIDS 2018 Jan;32(2):227-232
    Infectious and Tropical Diseases Department, University Hospital Montpellier.
    Objective: To explore whether airway obstruction is associated with HIV in a cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected smokers.

    Methods: People living with HIV (PLWHIV) participated in the ANRS EP48 HIV CHEST study, an early lung cancer diagnosis study with low-dose chest tomography. HIV-uninfected study participants were from the CONSTANCES cohort. Read More

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