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    Concomitant medication polypharmacy, interactions and imperfect adherence are common in Australian adults on suppressive ART.
    AIDS 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    aSt Vincent's Centre for Applied Medical Research, St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, Australia bCentre for Social Research in Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia cNeuroscience Research Australia, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia dNational Association of People with HIV Australia eSchool of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia fDepartment of Infectious Diseases, Alfred Hospital and Monash University, Melbourne, Australia gDepartment of Infectious Diseases, the Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia hMonash Infectious Diseases, Monash Health, Melbourne, Australia iAlbion Centre, South Eastern Sydney Local Hospital Network, Sydney, Australia jCentre for Population Health, Burnet Institute, Melbourne, Australia kMelbourne Sexual Health Centre, Alfred Health, Melbourne, Australia lCentral Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University mWestern Sydney Sexual Health Centre, University of Sydney, Parramatta, Australia nWestmead Clinical School, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Westmead, Australia oCentre Clinic, St Kilda (Melbourne), Australia pHoldsworth House Medical Practice, Sydney, Australia qThe Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia rDepartment of Interdisciplinary Social Science, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Objectives: We quantified concomitant medication (CM) polypharmacy, pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) interactions, adverse effects and adherence in Australian adults on effective ART.

    Design: Cross-sectional.

    Methods: Patients recruited into a nation-wide cohort and assessed for prevalence and type of CM (including polypharmacy, defined as ≥5 CMs), PK or PD interactions, potential CM adverse effects and CM adherence. Read More

    Effect of immediate initiation of antiretroviral treatment on the risk of acquired HIV drug resistance.
    AIDS 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    aHarvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, US bDivision of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Switzerland cInstitute of Medical Virology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland dUniversity College London, United Kingdom eUniversidad de Granada, Spain fBasel Institute for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Switzerland gCommunity pharmacy, Department of ambulatory care & community medicine, University of Lausanne, Switzerland hCommunity pharmacy, School of pharmaceutical sciences, University of Geneva, Switzerland iInstitute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Switzerland jSwiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland kUniversity of Basel, Basel, Switzerland lStichting HIV Monitoring, Amsterdam, the Netherlands mAcademic Medical Centre, Department of Global Health and Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands nAmsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, Amsterdam, the Netherlands oChelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, United Kingdom pRamón y Cajal Hospital, IRYCIS, Madrid, Spain qUniversity of Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain rNational Centre of Epidemiology - ISCIII, Madrid, Spain sNational and Kapodistrian University of Athens Medical School, Greece tAristotle Univerisity of Thessaloniki, Greece uHarvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Boston, US.
    Objective: We estimated and compared the risk of clinically identified acquired drug resistance under i) immediate initiation (the currently recommended ART initiation strategy), ii) initiation with CD4 < 500, and iii) initiation with CD4 < 350 cells/mm.

    Design: Cohort study based on routinely collected data from the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration.

    Methods: For each individual, baseline was the earliest time when all eligibility criteria (ART-naïve, AIDS-free, and others) were met after 1999. Read More

    HIV is associated with airway obstruction: a matched controlled study.
    AIDS 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    aInfectious and Tropical Diseases Department, University Hospital Montpellier, Montpellier bUMI 233/InsermU1175, IRD, University Montpellier, Montpellier cINSERM U-1046, University Hospital Montpellier 1, Department of Clinical Physiology, University of Montpellier I and II, Montpellier dUMS 11 Inserm-UVSQ, "Cohortes épidémiologiques en population", Villejuif eInfectious and Tropical Diseases Department, CIC 1413, INSERM, University Hospital, Nantes fInfectious and Tropical Diseases Department, University Hospital Tenon, UPMC, Paris gAP-HP, HIV Department, Foch Hospital Suresnes hAix-Marseille University/Inserm U912 (SESSTIM), APHM Sainte-Marguerite Hospital, Immuno-Hematology Clinic, Marseille iInternal Medicine and Infectious Diseases Department, University Hospital Bordeaux, INSERM U1219, Bordeaux jAP-HP, Antoine Béclère Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, F-92140 Clamart kInfectious Diseases and Intensive Care Unit, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes lInfectious Diseases Department, Tourcoing Hospital, Tourcoing mInfectious and Tropical Disease Unit, University Hospital de la Croix Rousse, Lyon nInfectious and Tropical Diseases Unit, Nîmes University Hospital, Nîmes oFrance Recherche Nord et Sud Sida-HIV et Hépatites, Paris pAP-HP, Necker-Enfants malades Hospital, Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Infectiology Centre Necker-Pasteur, Paris, all in France.
    Objective: to explore whether airway obstruction (AO) is associated with HIV in a cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected smokers.

    Methods: People living with HIV (PLWHIV) participated in the ANRS EP48 HIV CHEST study, an early lung cancer diagnosis study with low dose Chest Tomography. HIV-uninfected subjects were from the CONSTANCES cohort. Read More

    High rates of hypertension, diabetes, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in HIV-infected patients: results from a cross-sectional survey in Malawi.
    AIDS 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    aMédecins Sans Frontières, Chiradzulu bQueen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi cMédecins sans Frontières, Paris, France dMédecins sans Frontières eHIV and AIDS Department, Ministry of Health Malawi, Lilongwe, Malawi fEpicentre, Paris, France.
    Objectives: Data on cardiovascular disease risks among HIV-infected patients taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) over long periods of time are lacking in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Chiradzulu, Malawi from December 2015 to June 2016. HIV-infected persons on ART for more than 10 years (patients) and HIV-negative individuals (controls) from selected clinics participated. Read More

    Wake me up before you go: A strategy to reduce the latent HIV reservoir.
    AIDS 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    aResearch Centre of the Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CRCHUM), Montreal, Quebec, Canada bDepartment of microbiology, infectiology and immunology, Faculty of Medicine. Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada cVaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Beaverton, Oregon, USA dOregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Beaverton, Oregon, USA eGlaxoSmithKline, Durham, North Carolina, USA fU.S. Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA gHenry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
    : In the quest to eliminate or reduce the HIV reservoir, shock and kill strategies require the combined administration of a latency reversing agent (LRA) to reactivate the latent reservoir and an intervention to boost effector functions to clear this reservoir. Both parts of this strategy are quite inefficient when LRAs are administered to HIV-infected individuals on suppressive ART for several years, possibly due to low levels of induced antigen expression, negative impact of LRAs on clearance mechanisms, and very low number of effective cytotoxic T cells (CTLs). Here we provide rationale for an approach that would require only the administration of an LRA at the time of ART initiation to significantly reduce the HIV reservoir. Read More

    Markers of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease are associated with mortality in people living with HIV.
    AIDS 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    aDepartment of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA bDepartment of Medicine, VA Connecticut Healthcare System and Yale University, West Haven, CT cDepartment of Medicine, James J. Peters VA Medical Center and Icahn School of Medicine at Mt. Sinai, New York, NY dDepartment of Medicine, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System and David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA eInfectious Diseases Section, Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center and Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX fDepartment of Medicine, Atlanta VA Medical Center, Decatur, GA and Emory University, Atlanta, GA.
    Objective: Aging people living with HIV (PLWH) face an increased burden of comorbidities, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The impact of COPD on mortality in HIV remains unclear. We examined associations between markers of COPD and mortality among PLWH and uninfected subjects. Read More

    When prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission fails: preventing pretreatment drug resistance in African children.
    AIDS 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    aDepartment of Global Health, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, Academic Medical Centre of the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands bEijkman-Oxford Clinical Research Unit, Jakarta, Indonesia cNuffield Department of Medicine, Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK dGlobal Child Health Group ePediatric Intensive Care, Emma Children's Hospital, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands fUS Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Kisumu, Kenya gJoint Clinical Research Centre, Kampala, Uganda hCollege of Medicine of the University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.
    : The scale-up of antiretroviral prophylaxis to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV has significantly reduced new pediatric infections in sub-Saharan Africa. However, among infants who become HIV-infected despite prevent mother-to-child transmission, more than 50% have drug-resistant HIV. Given high levels of resistance, WHO recommends the use of protease inhibitors as part of first-line pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) to optimize treatment response, but costs and logistic challenges restrict access. Read More

    Protease inhibitors and preterm delivery: another piece in the puzzle.
    AIDS 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    aUCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, University College London bSection of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London.
    Background: Questions remain regarding preterm delivery (PTD) risk in HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy (ART), including the role of ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PI/r), timing of ART initiation and immune status.

    Methods: We examined data from the UK/Ireland National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood on women with HIV delivering a singleton live infant in 2007-2015, including those pregnancies receiving PI/r-based (n=4184) or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI)-based regimens (n = 1889).We conducted logistic regression analysis adjusted for risk factors associated with PTD and stratified by ART at conception and CD4 count to minimise bias by indication for treatment and to assess whether PTD risk differs by ART class and specific drug combinations. Read More

    Assisted partner notification services are cost-effective for decreasing HIV burden in western Kenya: A mathematical modeling analysis.
    AIDS 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    aAssisted partner services is cost-effective for decreasing HIV burden in western Kenya: A mathematical modeling analysis. [Poster] Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI), Seattle, WA, February 2017. *Monisha Sharma, Jennifer A. Smith, Both authors contributed equally to this work.
    Background: Assisted partner services (aPS) or provider notification for sexual partners of persons diagnosed HIV-positive can increase HIV testing and linkage in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and is a high yield strategy to identify HIV-positive persons. However, its cost-effectiveness is not well-evaluated.

    Methods: Using effectiveness and cost data from an aPS trial in Kenya, we parameterized an individual-based, dynamic HIV transmission model. Read More

    Chronic kidney disease incidence and survival of Thai HIV-infected patients.
    AIDS 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    aDepartment of Medicine, Bamrasnaradura Infectious Diseases Institute, Nonthaburi, Thailand bDepartment of Preventive and Social Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand cDepartment of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA dThe HIV Netherlands Australia Thailand Research Collaboration (HIV-NAT), Bangkok, Thailand eSanpatong Hospital, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
    Objectives: As data on chronic kidney disease (CKD) incidence among Asian HIV patients has been limited, the present study aimed to estimate the CKD incidence in HIV-infected patients who received standard antiretroviral therapy in Thailand and to compare baseline demographics and clinical characteristics of the patients who developed CKD with those who do not.

    Design: A multicenter, observational prospective cohort of HIV patients with normal kidney functions who received standard antiretroviral therapy.

    Methods: CKD was diagnosed based on the KDIGO 2012 criteria, using Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration based estimated glomerular filtration rate with and without urine protein. Read More

    Interferon-free therapy for treating HCV in difficult-to-treat HIV-coinfected patients as implemented in routine medical practice.
    AIDS 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    aInfectious Diseases Unit. Hospital General Universitario de Castellón, Spain. bInfectious Diseases Department. Consorcio Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, Spain. cInternal Medicine Department. Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Valencia, Spain. dInfectious Diseases Unit. Hospital Clinico Universitario, Valencia, Spain. eInfectious Diseases Unit. Hospital Universitari i Politecnic La Fe, Valencia, Spain. fInfectious Diseases Unit. Hospital General Universitario de Alicante, Spain. gInfectious Diseases Unit. Hospital Universitario Dr Peset, Valencia, Spain. hInfectious Diseases Unit. Hospital General Universitario de Elche, Spain. iInfectious Diseases Unit. Hospital Marina Baixa, La Vila Joiosa (Alicante), Spain.
    Background/aims: Data regarding the use of all-oral direct-acting antivirals (DAA) in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with advanced liver fibrosis are required, because they are generally under-represented in clinical trials. This study sought to evaluate the use of these drugs in a cohort of coinfected patients, mostly with factors that have previously been recognised as predictors of treatment failure.

    Methods: COINFECOVA-2 is an observational, multicenter study conducted in Eastern Spain. Read More

    Evidence of inflammasome activation and formation of monocyte-derived apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-recruitment domain specks in HIV-1 positive patients.
    AIDS 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    aDepartment of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover bDepartment of Dermatology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg cDepartment of Medicine A, Section of Rheumatology, University Medicine Greifswald, Ferdinand-Sauerbruch-Strasse, Greifswald dInstitute of Innate Immunity, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany eDepartment of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA. *Fareed Ahmad and Neha Mishra contributed equally to the article.
    Objective: The formation of large intracellular protein aggregates of the inflammasome adaptor apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-recruitment domain (ASC) (PYCARD) is a hallmark of inflammasome activation. ASC speck-forming cells release the highly proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β in addition to ASC specks into the extracellular space during pyroptotic cell death. There ASC specks can propagate inflammation to other nonactivated cells or tissues. Read More

    Neutralizing antiinterferon-γ autoantibodies causing disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in an HIV-infected patient on successful combination antiretroviral therapy.
    AIDS 2017 Nov;31(18):2557-2559
    aDepartment of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital bDepartment of Parasitology cDepartment of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Medical Biotechnology dDepartment of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.

    Association of a 3' untranslated region polymorphism in proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 with HIV viral load and CD4+ levels in HIV/hepatitis C virus coinfected women.
    AIDS 2017 Nov;31(18):2483-2492
    aDepartment of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University at Albany, State University of New York, Rensselaer, New York bDepartment of Statistics. George Washington University, Washington, DC cDepartment of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx dDepartment of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx eDepartment of Neurology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York fDepartment of Medicine, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC gDepartment of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California hDepartment of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois iDepartment of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland jBluestone Center for Clinical Research kDepartment of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, New York University, New York, New York lDepartment of Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine, George Washington University, Washington, DC mDepartment of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA.
    Objective: To assess variation in genes that regulate cholesterol metabolism in relation to the natural history of HIV infection.

    Design: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of the Women's Interagency HIV Study.

    Methods: We examined 2050 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 19 genes known to regulate cholesterol metabolism in relation to HIV viral load and CD4 T-cell levels in a multiracial cohort of 1066 antiretroviral therapy-naive women. Read More

    Virologic suppression and CD4 cell count recovery after initiation of raltegravir- or efavirenz- containing HIV treatment regimens.
    AIDS 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    aDepartment of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA bDepartment of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA cDivision of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA dDepartment of Medicine, University of California San Diego, CA, USA eDepartment of Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA fDepartment of Medicine, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA gDepartment of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
    Objective: To explore the effectiveness of raltegravir-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) on treatment response among ART-naive patients seeking routine clinical care.

    Design: Cohort study of adults enrolled in HIV care in the United States.

    Methods: We compared virologic suppression and CD4 cell count recovery over a 2. Read More

    Consequences of a changing US strategy in the global HIV investment landscape.
    AIDS 2017 Nov;31(18):F19-F23
    aDepartment of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, UK bamfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research cFriends of the Global Fight Against AIDS, TB and Malaria, Washington DC, USA.
    Objective: The global fight against HIV/AIDS in Africa has long been a focus of US foreign policy, but this could change if the federal budget for 2018 proposed by the US Office of Management and Budget is adopted. We aim to inform public and Congressional debate around this issue by evaluating the historical and potential future impact of US investment in the African HIV response.

    Design/methods: We use a previously published mathematical model of HIV transmission to characterize the possible impact of a series of financial scenarios for the historical and future AIDS response across Sub-Saharan Africa. Read More

    Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) 9 polymorphism is associated with increased Epstein-Barr virus and Cytomegalovirus acquisition in HIV-exposed infants.
    AIDS 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    aDepartment of Global Health; University of Washington, Seattle, WA bDepartment of Paediatrics and Child Health; University of Nairobi, Kenya cDepartment of Medicine; University of Washington, Seattle, WA dDepartment of Pediatrics; University of Washington, Seattle, WA eUniversity of British Columbia, BC Children's Hospital, Vancouver, Canada fDepartment of Epidemiology; University of Washington, Seattle, WA gInfectious Disease Research Institute, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Polymorphisms in the Toll-Like Receptor (TLR9) 1635 locus have been associated with HIV-1 acquisition and progression. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) acquisition were compared between Kenyan HIV-exposed infants by 1635 genotype. Having 1 or more copies of the 1635A allele was associated with increased CMV acquisition in HIV-infected infants (42% vs 11%, p = 0. Read More

    Benefits and risks of rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    AIDS 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    aDepartment of HIV, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland bCentre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Research, University of Cape Town, South Africa cDivision of Infectious Diseases, HIV Unit, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland dMédecins sans Frontières, Mbabane, Swaziland eSchool of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada fHIV/AIDS & STIs Diseases Division, Rwanda Biomedical Centre, Kigali, Rwanda gBasel Institute for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland hUniversity of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda iDepartment of Medicine, University of Cape Town Health Sciences Faculty, Cape Town 7925, South Africa jDepartment of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Background: More recent attention has focused on the question of how quickly ART should be started once HIV diagnosis is confirmed. We assessed whether rapid ART initiation improves patient outcomes.

    Methods: We searched 5 databases from inception up to August 2017. Read More

    An advanced BLT-humanized mouse model for extended HIV-1 cure studies.
    AIDS 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    aLaboratory of Persistent Viral Diseases, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, NIAID, NIH, Hamilton, MT, USA bGilead Sciences, Foster City, CA, USA cInstitute for Virology, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany dDivision of Infectious Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
    Objective: Although BLT-humanized mice provide a robust model for HIV-1 infection and enable evaluation of cure strategies dependent on endogenous immune responses, most mice develop graft versus host disease (GVHD), limiting their utility for extended HIV cure studies. This study aimed to: 1) Evaluate the GVHD-resistant C57BL/6 Rag2γcCD47 triple knockout (TKO)-BLT mouse as a model to establish HIV-1 latency. 2) Determine whether TKO-BLT mice could be maintained on ART for extended periods of time. Read More

    The role of menopause in tenofovir diphosphate and emtricitabine triphosphate concentrations in cervical tissue.
    AIDS 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    aExperimental and Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN bPharmacotherapy and Experimental Therapeutics, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC.
    Objective: Although postmenopausal women have behavioral and biological risk factors for HIV infection, the activity of pre-exposure prophylaxis agents in older adults has not been well studied.

    Design: We used an ex-vivo approach to compare the tissue concentrations of tenofovir diphosphate (TFVdp) and emtricitabine triphosphate (FTCtp) in cervical tissues from premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    Method: Cervical explants from 16 premenopausal and 11 postmenopausal women were incubated in 10-300 μg/mL tenofovir or emtricitabine for 24 hours. Read More

    Switching from a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor to a dolutegravir-based regimen for maintenance of HIV viral suppression in patients with high cardiovascular risk.
    AIDS 2017 Nov;31(18):2503-2514
    aHospital Clinic/IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain bINSERM, Institut Pierre Louis d'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique (IPLESP UMRS 1136), Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Paris, France cSt Stephens AIDS Trust, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital dMortimer Market Center eRoyal Free Hospital, London, UK fHospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain gGuys and St. Thomas Hospital, London, UK hICH Study Centrum, Hamburg, Germany iUniversity of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy jHospital de Elche, Elche, Spain kSouthmead Hospital, Bristol, UK lSaint Pierre Hospital, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels mInstitute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium nUniversitatsklinikum, Essen, Germany oUniversity Hospital of Nantes, Nantes, France.
    Objective: To compare the efficacy, safety, and impact on lipid fractions of switching from a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r) to a dolutegravir (DTG) regimen.

    Methods: HIV type 1-infected adults more than 50 years or with a Framingham score more than 10% were eligible if plasma HIV RNA less than 50 copies per ml for at least 24 weeks while on a PI/r regimen. Patients were randomized to switch to DTG or to remain on PI/r. Read More

    Neuropsychological performance in African children with HIV enrolled in a multi-site anti-retroviral clinical trial.
    AIDS 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    aMichigan State University bMakerere University-Johns Hopkins University cHarvard University dStellenbosch University eFrontier Science fUniversity of Witwatersrand gUniversity of Zimbabwe hWits RHI Shandukani Clinic, Johannesburg RSA iChris Hani HIV Unit, Soweto RSA jUniversity of North Carolina - Lilongwe Clinical Research Institute kFHI360; l NIH/NIAID mHitchcock Medical School of Dartmouth University.
    Objective & Design: Children with HIV infection (HIV+) are at neuropsychological risk, but few studies have evaluated this at multiple sites in low and middle income countries (LMICs). We compared neuropsychological outcomes at enrollment (>5 yrs age) among HIV+, HIV-uninfected perinatally-exposed (HEU), and HIV unexposed (HU) children from 4 sub-Saharan countries.

    Methods: IMPAACT P1060 compared Nevirapine (NVP) versus Lopinavir/Ritonavir (LPVr)-based ART in HIV-infected children 6 to 35 months of age. Read More

    Initial treatment response among HIV subtype F infected patients who started antiretroviral therapy based on integrase inhibitors.
    AIDS 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    aGrupo de Virología Clínica, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de A Coruña (INIBIC)-Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de A Coruña (CHUAC), Sergas. Universidade da Coruña (UDC), Spain bServicio de Farmacia - XXIAC, Sergas cUnidad de Epidemiología Clínica y Bioestadística, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de A Coruña (INIBIC)-Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de A Coruña (CHUAC), Sergas. Universidade da Coruña (UDC), Spain dInfectious Diseases Service and "Fight AIDS" Foundation, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Spain.
    HIV-1 subtype B (54.4%) and subtype F (27.2%) are the most prevalent variants in patients who started antiretroviral therapy including an integrase inhibitor (INI) in the last two years in Northwest Spain. Read More

    Memory B cell dysregulation in HIV-1 infected Individuals.
    AIDS 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    aIrsiCaixa AIDS Research Institute -HIVACAT. Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol. Ctra. del Canyet, s/n. 08916 Badalona (Barcelona), Catalonia, Spain bFundació Lluita contra la Sida, Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, 08916 Badalona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain cInfectious Diseases Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, 08035, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain dInfectious Diseases Unit. Internal Medicine Department. Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Vigo. IIS Galicia Sur, Spain eHematology Department, Institut Català D'Oncología (ICO), Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, 08916 Badalona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain fJosep Carreras Leukaemia Research Institute, 08916 Badalona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain gGermans Trias i Pujol Research Institute (IGTP). 08916 Badalona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain hUniv Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain iChair on AIDS and related diseases, Universitat de Vic - Universitat Central de Catalunya (UVic-UCC), 08500 Vic, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Objective: To characterize the effect of the HIV-1 infection and antiretroviral treatment (ART) in the human memory B (MEB) cell compartment.

    Design: A cross-sectional study was designed to analyze MEB cells of HIV-1+ ART-treated and ART-naïve subjects, and uninfected individuals.

    Methods: Frequency and absolute counts of MEB cell subsets in blood were determined by multicolor flow cytometry. Read More

    Emulating a target trial of antiretroviral therapy regimens started before conception and risk of adverse birth outcomes.
    AIDS 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    aDepartment of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA bBeth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Division of Infectious Disease, Boston, MA cCenter for Biostatistics in AIDS Research, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA dBotswana Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership, Gaborone, Botswana eBrigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA fMassachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA gDepartment of Biostatistics, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health hHarvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Boston, MA iDepartment of Immunology and Infectious Disease, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA.
    Objective: To compare the effect of pre-conception initiation of zidovudine, lamivudine, nevirapine (ZDV/3TC/NVP) versus tenofovir, emtricitabine, efavirenz (TDF/FTC/EFV) on adverse birth outcomes.

    Design: Emulation of a hypothetical (target) trial using a birth surveillance study in Botswana during an era of CD4-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation.

    Methods: In women who initiated ART < 3 years from HIV diagnosis, conceived 0. Read More

    The effects of HIV and smoking on aortic and splenic inflammation.
    AIDS 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    aCase Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA bUniversity Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA cMetroHealth Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA.
    Objective: To determine the association of smoking and HIV status with tissue specific inflammation measured by flurodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET).

    Design: Cross-sectional.

    Methods: We prospectively enrolled 55 HIV+ subjects on stable antiretroviral therapy and 19 age-matched HIV-uninfected controls without known CVD. Read More

    Placental transfer of elvitegravir and cobicistat in an Ex Vivo human cotyledon double perfusion model.
    AIDS 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    aAssistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Louis Mourier, Service de Gynécologie-Obstétrique, Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris-Nord Val de Seine, Colombes, France bUniversité Paris-Diderot, Université Sorbonne Paris-Cité, Paris, France cDépartement Hospitalier Universitaire Risques et Grossesse, Paris, France dINSERM U1018, Kremlin-Bicêtre, France eAgence Nationale de Recherches sur le Sida et Hépatites Virales (Inserm-ANRS), 75013-Paris, France fAssistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bichat-Claude Bernard, gPharmaco-Toxicology Department, Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris-Nord Val de Seine, Paris, France gIAME, UMR 1137, INSERM, F-75018 Paris, France. *Laurent Mandelbrot, The authors report no conflict of interest.
    Objective: To determine the transplacental pharmacokinetics of the HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitor elvitegravir and of cobicistat, a cytochrome P450 inhibitor used as a pharmacoenhancer in antiretroviral therapy.

    Design And Methods: Maternal-to-fetal transfer across the term human placenta was investigated with the ex-vivo dually perfused cotyledon model, in 7 open-circuit experiments and 10 closed-circuit (recirculating) experiments. Elvitegravir and cobicistat were added to a maternal perfusate containing 2 g/L of human serum albumin and antipyrine, as a marker to validate the cotyledon's viability. Read More

    Sex based differences in neurocognitive functioning in HIV infected young adults.
    AIDS 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    aHIV Department, "Dr. Victor Babes" Hospital for Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Bucharest, Romania bDepartment of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA cDepartment of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA dDepartment of Virology, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania eEmerging Viral Diseases Department, Stefan S. Nicolau Virology Institute, Bucharest, Romania. Bucharest, Romania. fSdjfjg.
    Introduction: Sex differences in cognition of HIV positive (HIV+) patients are controversial. We aimed to investigate the relationship between cognition, HIV status, and sex, in a highly homogenous cohort of young Romanians parenterally infected during early childhood.

    Methods: 250 HIV+ participants were compared to age-matched HIV negative (HIV-) controls (n = 72) in a cross-sectional study. Read More

    Health-related quality of life of people with HIV: an assessment of patient related factors and comparison with other chronic diseasess.
    AIDS 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    aDepartment of Internal, Division of Infectious Diseases, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands bStichting HIV Monitoring, Amsterdam, The Netherlands cIsala Diabetes Centre, Zwolle, The Netherlands dUniversity of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Internal Medicine, Groningen, The Netherlands eDepartment of Rheumatology, Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands fDepartment of Rheumatology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam gJulius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands; h (Current address:) Janssen Prevention Center, Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson, Leiden, the Netherlands iSection Methodology and Applied Biostatistics, Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands jDepartment of Internal Medicine, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam, The Netherlands kDepartment of Medical Psychology, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Objectives: The health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of people with HIV is lower than in the general population, but it is unknown how it compares to that of persons with other chronic medical conditions. We compared HRQOL in HIV with HRQOL in diabetes mellitus (DM) type 1, DM type 2 and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Additionally, we investigated factors associated with HRQOL in HIV. Read More

    Temporal trends of transmitted HIV drug resistance in a multinational seroconversion cohort.
    AIDS 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    aUniversity College London, London, UK bDivision of HIV and Other Retroviruses, Robert Koch Institute, Nordufer 20, 13353 Berlin cUnit of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden dDepartment of Internal Medicine, Puerta de Hierro Research Institute and University Hospital, Majadahonda, Madrid eInternational AIDS Vaccine Initiatve, NY, NY, USA and Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCSF, SF, CA, USA fDepartment of Dermatology and Venerology, Innsbruck Medical University, Austria gUniversité Paris Descartes, EA 3620, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris, France hPublic Health Service of Amsterdam, Cluster of Infectious Diseases, Amsterdam, the Netherlands iDepartment of Microbiology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway jInstitute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Norway kUniversity of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada lDepartment of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School, University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Background: The rate of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) may increase with wider use of ART and can contribute to therapeutic failure. We analysed time trends in TDR among HIV seroconverters.

    Methods: Using CASCADE data of individuals with well-estimated dates of HIV seroconversion, we examined HIV nucleotide sequences collected prior to ART use from 1996-2012. Read More

    Where is the greatest impact of uncontrolled HIV infection on AIDS and non-AIDS events in HIV?
    AIDS 2017 Nov 3. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    aDept Infection and Population Health, University College London, London UK bCHIP, Department of Infectious Diseases, Section 2100, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark cAcademic Medical Center, Div. of Infectious Diseases and Department of Global Health, University of Amsterdam, and Stichting HIV Monitoring, Amsterdam, The Netherlands dHospital Clinic Universitari de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain eOslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Oslo Norway fUniversity Hospital Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland gKlinicki Centar Univerziteta Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina hCentro Hospitalar Lisboa Ocidental,EPE/Hospital de Egas Moniz, Lisbon Portugal iHôpital de l'Archet, Nice, France jLuhansk State Medical University, Luhansk, Ukraine kGomel State Medical University, Gomel, Belarus lUniversity Ziekenhuis Gent, Belgium mAarhus universitetshospital, Skejby, Denmark nRoyal Sussex County Hospital, UK oUniversity Clinic Hamburg Eppendorf, Germany pSt. James' Hospital, Ireland qOspedale San Raffaele, Italy rAIDS Center (Neve Or), Israel sSkåne University Hospital, Sweden tCharles University Hospital Plzeň, Czech Republic uPoznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland vDirettore Scuola di Specializzazione in Malattie Infettive e Tropicali, Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milano wResponsabile Unità Funzionale, Divisione Malattie Infettive, Istituto Scientifico San Raffaele, Milano.
    Objective: The extent to which controlled and uncontrolled HIV interact with ageing, European region of care and calendar year of follow-up is largely unknown.

    Methods: EuroSIDA particpants were followed after 1/1/2001 and grouped according to current HIV progression risk; high risk [CD4 ≤350/mm, viral load ≥10,000 copies/ml], low risk [CD4 ≥500/mm, viral load <50 copies/ml], and intermediate [other combinations]. Poisson regression investigated interactions between HIV progression risk, age, European region of care, and year of follow-up and incidence of AIDS or non-AIDS events. Read More

    HIV criminalization exacerbates subpar diagnosis and treatment across the United States: response to the 'Association of HIV diagnosis rates and laws criminalizing HIV exposure in the United States'.
    AIDS 2017 Nov;31(17):2437-2439
    aDepartment of Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia bCenter for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland cCenter for Infectious Disease Modeling and Analysis, Yale School of Public Health dDepartment of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

    Reaching people with undiagnosed HIV infection through assisted partner notification.
    AIDS 2017 Nov;31(17):2436-2437
    aDepartment of HIV/AIDS, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland bDepartment of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina cDepartment of International Health, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA dIndependent Clinical Epidemiologist, Cape Town, South Africa.

    Need to include couples' HIV counselling and testing as a strategy to improve HIV partner notification services.
    AIDS 2017 Nov;31(17):2435-2436
    aDepartment of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, California bDivision of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa cDepartment of Epidemiology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

    Serum suppression of tumorigenicity 2 level is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in HIV-infected patients.
    AIDS 2017 Nov;31(17):2355-2365
    aBordeaux University, INSERM U1219, Bordeaux Population Health Research Center, INRIA Sistm bCentre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux, Bordeaux cINSERM U955, Paris Est Créteil University dGroupe Hospitalier Henri-Mondor Albert-Chenevier, Créteil, France. *Rodolphe Thiébaut and Sophie Hue cocontributing authors.
    Objective: To evaluate the predictive value of soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2), a decoy receptor of IL-33 involved in several inflammatory and immune diseases, for death in HIV infection.

    Design: Patients enrolled in the ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort, a prospective hospital-based cohort of HIV-1-infected patients, who had a plasma sample available in the biobank were systematically eligible.

    Methods: sST2, soluble CD14 (sCD14) and IL-6 were measured using Luminex multiplex bead-based technology (R&D Systems) and a Bio-Plex 200 instrument (BioRad). Read More

    Gynecologic cancer in HIV infected women: treatment and outcomes in a multi-institutional cohort.
    AIDS 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    aKelly Gynecologic Oncology Service, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA bInstitute of Human Virology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD cDepartment of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD dProgram in Oncology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.
    Objective: To evaluate gynecologic cancer treatments in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected women for adherence to National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines and to describe survival by adherence to guidelines.

    Design: Beyond cervical cancer, there is little data on treatment and outcomes for these women. This is a retrospective cohort study of HIV infected women with gynecologic cancers. Read More

    Abacavir use and risk of recurrent myocardial infarction: the D: A: D Study.
    AIDS 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    aResearch Department of Infection and Population Health, Royal Free Campus, University College London, London, UK bCHIP, Department of Infectious Diseases Section 2100, Finsencentret, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark cDipartimento di Scienze della Salute, Clinica di Malattie Infettive e Tropicali, Azienda Ospedaliera-Polo Universitario San Paolo, Milan, Italy dDepartment of Public Health, Nice University Hospital, Nice, France eICAP-Columbia University and Harlem Hospital, New York, USA fDivision of infectious diseases and hospital epidemiology, University hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Switzerland gCHU de Bordeaux and INSERM U897, Université de Bordeaux, Talence, France hKirby Institute, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, Australia iDivision of Infectious Diseases, Saint Pierre University Hospital, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium jAcademic Medical Center, Department of Global Health and Div. of Infectious Diseases, University of Amsterdam, and HIV Monitoring Foundation, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Objective: To investigate the association between abacavir (ABC) use and recurrent myocardial infarction (MI) among HIV-positive people with a prior MI.

    Design: International multi-cohort collaboration with follow-up from 1999-2016.

    Methods: The rate of recurrent MI was described among D:A:D participants who experienced an index MI whilst in the study, and who remained under follow-up beyond 28 days after this MI. Read More

    Stool Xpert MTB/RIF and urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) for diagnosing tuberculosis in hospitalized HIV-infected children.
    AIDS 2017 10 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    aDepartments of Medicine, Division of Allergy and Infectious Diseases bGlobal Health cPediatrics dEpidemiology eBiostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA fDepartment of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, Georgia, USA gKenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya hDepartment of Pediatrics and Child Health, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya iSchool of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya . *lSylvia M. Lacourse and Patricia B. Pavlinac contributed equally to this work.
    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) causes substantial morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected children. Sample collection and paucibacillary nature of TB in children makes diagnosis challenging. Rapid diagnostic tools using easily obtained specimens are urgently needed. Read More

    Changes in viral suppression status among US HIV-infected patients receiving care.
    AIDS 2017 Nov;31(17):2421-2425
    aDivision of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention bICF International, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
    Objective: To examine changes in viral suppression status among HIV patients receiving care in 2014 and the extent of viral suppression among persons with infrequent care visits.

    Methods: Using data reported to the National HIV Surveillance System from 33 jurisdictions with complete reporting of CD4 and viral load tests, we created four viral suppression status groups based on their first and last viral loads in 2014: both suppressed, first unsuppressed and last suppressed (improved), first suppressed and last unsuppressed (worsened), and both unsuppressed. We also calculated the number and percentage of persons whose sole viral load in 2014 was suppressed and had a suppressed viral load at their last test in 2013. Read More

    Cumulative exposure of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is associated with kidney tubulopathy whether it is currently used or discontinued in HIV-infected patients.
    AIDS 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    aAIDS Clinical Center, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan bDepartment of Drug Evaluation & Informatics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan. *The ACC (AIDS Clinical Center) study team members are listed in the Acknowledgments section.
    Objective: TDF increases the risk of kidney tubular dysfunction (KTD). This study was conducted to elucidate whether KTD persists after discontinuation of TDF.

    Design: A prospective cross-sectional study which enrolled 941 HIV-1-infected patients. Read More

    Differences in acute retroviral syndrome by HIV-1 subtype in a multicentre cohort study in Africa.
    AIDS 2017 Nov;31(18):2541-2546
    aCentre for Geographic Medicine Research-Coast, Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), Kilifi, Kenya bUniversity of Oxford, Headington, UK cInternational AIDS Vaccine Initiative, New York City, New York dDepartment of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA eProject San Francisco, Kigali, Rwanda fUganda Research Unit on AIDS, Medical Research Council/Uganda Virus Research Institute, Entebbe, Uganda gZambia Emory Research Project, Lusaka, Zambia hDesmond Tutu HIV Centre, University of Cape Town, South Africa iKenya AIDS Vaccine Initiative, Nairobi, Kenya jDepartment of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
    Objective: Symptoms of acute retroviral syndrome (ARS) may be used to identify patients with acute HIV-1 infection who seek care. ARS symptoms in African adults differ by region. We assessed whether reporting of ARS was associated with HIV-1 subtype in a multicentre African cohort study representing countries with predominant HIV-1 subtypes A, C, and D. Read More

    Immunologic response to ART by age among treatment-naïve patients in sub-Saharan Africa.
    AIDS 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    aDivision of Clinical Care & Research, Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD bDepartment of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. *Co-last author.
    Objective: To estimate the association between age at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and immunologic response over time by stratum of baseline CD4 cell counts.

    Design: Retrospective cohort analysis of data pooled from four PEPFAR funded countries in sub-Saharan Africa METHODS:: General linear models were used to estimate the mean CD4 cell count by age group within groups defined by baseline CD4 cell count. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to estimate time to achieving a CD4 cell count of at least 500 cells/mm3 by age group and stratified by baseline CD4 cell count. Read More

    Combinations of interventions to achieve a national HIV incidence reduction goal: insights from an agent-based model.
    AIDS 2017 Nov;31(18):2533-2539
    aDepartment of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Commonwealth Honors College, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts bDivision of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
    Objective: Analyzing HIV care service targets for achieving a national goal of a 25% reduction in annual HIV incidence and evaluating the use of annual HIV diagnoses to measure progress in incidence reduction.

    Design: Because there are considerable interactions among HIV care services, we model the dynamics of 'combinations' of increases in HIV care continuum targets to identify those that would achieve 25% reductions in annual incidence and diagnoses.

    Methods: We used Progression and Transmission of HIV/AIDS 2. Read More

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