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    1 OF 263

    Neuropsychological phenotypes among men with and without HIV disease in the multicenter AIDS cohort study.
    AIDS 2018 May 11. Epub 2018 May 11.
    Department of Neurology.
    Objective: Mild forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remain prevalent in the combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) era. This study's objective was to identify neuropsychological subgroups within the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) based on the participant-based latent structure of cognitive function and to identify factors associated with subgroups.

    Design: The MACS is a four-site longitudinal study of the natural and treated history of HIV disease among gay and bisexual men. Read More

    Transactional sex and incident HIV infection in a cohort of young women from rural South Africa enrolled in HPTN 068.
    AIDS 2018 May 11. Epub 2018 May 11.
    University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
    Objective: In sub-Saharan Africa, young women who engage in transactional sex (the exchange of sex for money or gifts) with a male partner show an elevated risk of prevalent HIV infection. We analyse longitudinal data to estimate the association between transactional sex and HIV incidence.

    Design: We used longitudinal data from a cohort of 2,362 HIV negative young women (aged 13-20) enrolled in a randomized controlled trial in rural, South Africa who were followed for up to 4 visits over 6 years. Read More

    Pregnancy outcomes and infant growth among babies with in utero exposure to tenofovir-based pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention.
    AIDS 2018 May 11. Epub 2018 May 11.
    Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
    Background: Global guidelines recommend pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use by women at risk for HIV, including during pregnancy, a period with heightened HIV risk. However, data to support safety of PrEP use during pregnancy are limited, particularly from women using PrEP throughout pregnancy.

    Methods: In an open-label delivery study of PrEP integrated with ART for high risk HIV serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda (the Partners Demonstration Project), women who became pregnant while using PrEP were offered the option to continue PrEP throughout pregnancy. Read More

    Reasons for non-adherence to the dapivirine vaginal ring: results of the MTN-032/ AHA study.
    AIDS 2018 May 11. Epub 2018 May 11.
    ivision of AIDS, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Objective(s): METHODS:: Former ASPIRE participants were stratified by age group (18-21; 22-45) and randomly selected at seven sites in Malawi, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe, 12-17 months after trial exit. Using in-depth interviews or focus group discussions, ring use barriers were explored using structured guides and visual tools including individual-level depictions of dapivirine levels detected in plasma and returned rings.

    Results: 187 were enrolled; 37% were 18-21 when they began ASPIRE. Read More

    A defucosylated bispecific multivalent molecule exhibits broad HIV-1 neutralizing activity and enhanced ADCC against reactivated HIV-1 latently infected cells.
    AIDS 2018 May 11. Epub 2018 May 11.
    State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, People's Republic of China.
    Objective: Current treatments cannot completely eradicate HIV-1 owing to the presence of latently infected cells which harbor transcriptionally silent HIV-1. However, defucosylated antibodies can readily kill latently infected cells after their activation to express envelope glycoprotein (Env) through antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). We herein aimed to test a defucosylated bispecific multivalent molecule consisting of domain-antibody and single-domain CD4, LSEVh-LS-F, for its HIV-1 neutralizing activity and ADCC against the reactivated latently infected cells, compared with the non-defucosylated molecule LSEVh-LS. Read More

    HIV transmission in Discordant Couples in Africa in the context of ART availability.
    AIDS 2018 May 11. Epub 2018 May 11.
    Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Objective: This study aims to understand the basis of continued HIV-1 transmission in Zambian and Rwandan HIV-1 discordant couples in the context of ART.

    Design: We identified 9 Zambian and 7 Rwandan acutely-infected, epidemiologically-linked couples from government CVCT clinics where transmitting partners reported being on ART near the time of transmission.

    Methods: We quantified viral load (VL) and plasma antiretroviral (ARV) drug concentrations near the time of transmission and used these as surrogate measures for adherence. Read More

    A compartmentalized type I interferon response in the gut during chronic HIV-1 infection is associated with immunopathogenesis.
    AIDS 2018 May 11. Epub 2018 May 11.
    University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Colorado, USA.
    Objective(s): Type I IFN (IFN-I) responses confer both protective and pathogenic effects in persistent virus infections. IFN-I diversity, stage of infection and tissue compartment may account for this dichotomy. The gut is a major site of early HIV-1 replication and microbial translocation, but the nature of the IFN-I response in this compartment remains unclear. Read More

    Change in sexual risk behaviour after six months of pre-exposure prophylaxis use: results from the Amsterdam PrEP demonstration project.
    AIDS 2018 May 11. Epub 2018 May 11.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Research and Prevention, Public Health Service of Amsterdam.
    Objective: HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use may lead to higher STI incidence via behavioral risk compensation. We examined changes in sexual behaviour between baseline and six months after PrEP initiation among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW).

    Design: Prospective, open-label demonstration study at a large sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Read More

    Multimorbidity, age-related comorbidities and mortality: association of activation, senescence and inflammation markers in HIV adults.
    AIDS 2018 May 11. Epub 2018 May 11.
    University Bordeaux, ISPED, Inserm, Bordeaux Population Health Research Center, Team MORPH3EUS, UMR 1219, CIC-EC 1401, F-33000 Bordeaux, France.
    Background: The widespread introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has increased survival of HIV+ patients. However, the prevalence of age-related comorbidities remains higher than that of the general population, suggesting that individuals with HIV suffer from accelerated aging. Immune activation, -senescence and inflammation could play an important role in this process. Read More

    Integrated HIV-injury programming: An underutilized intersection to engage young adults in HIV care in low- and middle-income countries.
    AIDS 2018 May 11. Epub 2018 May 11.
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence RI, USA.
    : Adolescents/young adults, and especially males, are high-risk key populations that have been systematically missed by HIV services in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). Since these groups are also more likely to suffer injuries in LMICs, there are significant opportunities to engage these hard-to-reach persons via integrated HIV-injury programming provided during commonly sought acute/emergency care treatments of injuries. However, current facilities based HIV testing and treatment programs have failed to adequately capture these high-risk individuals. Read More

    Undisclosed antiretroviral drug use in Botswana: implication for national estimates.
    AIDS 2018 May 11. Epub 2018 May 11.
    Botswana-Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership, Gaborone, Botswana.
    : Among 3596 HIV-positive participants enrolled in Botswana Combination Prevention Project who self-reported no prior antiretroviral (ARV) therapy use and were tested for viral load (n = 951; 27% of all participants), 136 (14%) had HIV-1 RNA less than 400 copies/ml. ARV drugs were detected in 52 (39%) of 134 participants tested. Adjusting for undisclosed ARV use increased the overall estimate of virally suppressed individuals on ARV therapy by 1. Read More

    Improved fracture prediction using different FRAX adjustments in HIV-infected women.
    AIDS 2018 May 11. Epub 2018 May 11.
    Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY.
    Objectives: A Fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX®) using clinical risk factors (CRFs) alone underestimates fracture risk in HIV-infected men. Our objective was to determine whether accuracy of FRAX would be improved by considering HIV as a cause of secondary osteoporosis, and further improved with addition of DXA parameters in HIV-infected women.

    Design: Subgroup analysis of Women's Interagency HIV Study. Read More

    Cervical cancer screening among HIV infected women in an urban, U.S. safety-net healthcare system.
    AIDS 2018 May 11. Epub 2018 May 11.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX.
    Objective: Little is known about cervical cancer screening and results patterns among HIV infected (HIV+) women in real-world healthcare settings. We characterized two periods of screening opportunity.

    Design: Retrospective cohort. Read More

    Transcriptional gene silencing limits CXCR4-associated depletion of bone marrow CD34+ cells in HIV-1 infection.
    AIDS 2018 May 11. Epub 2018 May 11.
    The Kirby Institute for infection and immunity in society, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Objectives: Hematological abnormalities that include changes in bone marrow, such as in anemia and pancytopenia, are common among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, particularly in the advanced stage of disease. Such abnormalities may be caused by a reduced bone marrow function for hematopoiesis. This aim of this study was to determine whether transcriptional gene silence can help to preserve the hosts' hematopoietic potential in addition to peripheral CD4 T cells against CCR5-tropic HIV infection. Read More

    Genetic characterization of the HIV-1 reservoir after Vacc-4x and romidepsin therapy in HIV-1 infected individuals.
    AIDS 2018 May 11. Epub 2018 May 11.
    Centre for Virus Research, The Westmead Institute for Medical Research, The University of Sydney, Westmead 2145, NSW, Australia.
    Objective: Therapeutic HIV-1 immunization followed by latency reversal has been suggested as a strategy to eradicate HIV-1. Here we investigate the phylogenetic composition of the HIV-1 regions targeted by the therapeutic HIV-1 peptide vaccine Vacc-4x in participants in a clinical trial.

    Design: Seventeen participants on suppressive antiretroviral therapy were vaccinated with six doses of Vacc-4x followed by three doses of romidepsin. Read More

    Anti-HIV IgM protects against mucosal SHIV transmission.
    AIDS 2018 May 11. Epub 2018 May 11.
    Department of Virology and Immunology, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas.
    Objective: Worldwide, most new HIV infections occur through mucosal exposure. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is the first antibody class generated in response to infectious agents; IgM is present in the systemic circulation and in mucosal fluids as secretory IgM. We sought to investigate for the first time the role of IgM in preventing AIDS virus acquisition in vivo. Read More

    HIV-1 status is independently associated with decreased erectile function among middle-aged MSM in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy.
    AIDS 2018 Jun;32(9):1137-1146
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Public Health Service of Amsterdam.
    Introduction: HIV-1-infected MSM more often experience sexual dysfunctions than the general population. We assessed associations between HIV-1 status and decreased sexual functioning among MSM.

    Methods: We used cross-sectional data from 399 HIV-1-infected MSM mostly on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and 366 HIV-1-uninfected MSM aged at least 45 years participating in the AGEhIV Cohort Study. Read More

    Stroke incidence is highest in women and non-Hispanic blacks living with HIV in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trials cohort.
    AIDS 2018 Jun;32(9):1125-1135
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Objective: To investigate the incidence of first-ever stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) and associated risk factors in a cohort of persons living with HIV infection (PLWH).

    Design: Observational cohort study METHODS:: We determined incidence rates of first-ever stroke/TIA in PLWH after ART initiation from the AIDS Clinical Trials Group ALLRT cohort and its parent trials. Poisson regression models evaluated baseline and time-varying covariates as risk factors for stroke/TIA. Read More

    Effect of point-of-care early infant diagnosis on antiretroviral therapy initiation and retention of patients: a cluster-randomised trial.
    AIDS 2018 May 8. Epub 2018 May 8.
    Clinton Health Access Initiative, Maputo, Mozambique.
    Objective: We measured the effect of point-of-care early infant HIV testing on antiretroviral therapy initiation rates and retention in care among infants in Mozambique.

    Design: A cluster-randomised trial was conducted in 16 primary health care centres providing either on-site point-of-care (POC arm; n = 8) or referred laboratory (SOC arm; n = 8) infant HIV testing.

    Methods: The primary outcomes were the proportion of HIV-positive infants initiating antiretroviral therapy within 60 days of sample collection, and the proportion of HIV-positive infants who initiated antiretroviral therapy that were retained in care at 90 days of follow-up. Read More

    Impact of glycemic status on longitudinal cognitive performance in men with and without HIV Infection.
    AIDS 2018 May 8. Epub 2018 May 8.
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.
    Objectives: To determine the relationship between glycemic status and cognitive performance in men living with (MLWH) and without HIV infection.

    Design: A prospective HIV/AIDS cohort study in four U.S. Read More

    Suppressive antiretroviral therapy associates with effective treatment of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.
    AIDS 2018 May 8. Epub 2018 May 8.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Objectives: To assess if women living with HIV (WLWH) have poorer outcome after treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+) than HIV-negative women and to identify predictors of CIN2+ treatment failure and recurrence in WLWH.

    Design: Population-based cohort study with follow-up between 1983 and 2015.

    Methods: The Swedish National HIV Registry, the Swedish Population Registry and the Swedish National Cervical Screening Registry were linked to identify all women in Stockholm and Gothenburg counties (Sweden) living with HIV and diagnosed with CIN2+ (n = 179) sometime between 1983 and 2014. Read More

    Perinatally acquired HIV infection accelerates epigenetic aging in South African adolescents.
    AIDS 2018 May 8. Epub 2018 May 8.
    Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, J-Block, Groote Schuur Hospital, Observatory, Cape Town 7925, South Africa.
    Objective: Recent studies demonstrate that infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV) is associated with accelerated aging effects in adults according to a highly accurate epigenetic biomarker of aging known as epigenetic clock. However, it not yet known whether epigenetic age acceleration occurs as early as adolescence in perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) youth.

    Design: Observational study of PHIV and HIV-uninfected adolescents enrolled in the Cape Town Adolescent Antiretroviral Cohort (CTAAC) Study. Read More

    Microglial activation is inversely associated with cognition in individuals living with HIV on effective antiretroviral therapy.
    AIDS 2018 May 9. Epub 2018 May 9.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Objective: Despite viral suppression, HIV-associated cognitive impairment persists and may be partially due to persistent immune signaling by cells of the myeloid-lineage. Here we aimed to understand the contribution of activated microglia located in vulnerable brain regions (e.g. Read More

    PD-1 contributes to the establishment and maintenance of HIV-1 latency.
    AIDS 2018 May 9. Epub 2018 May 9.
    The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, The University of Melbourne and Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.
    Objective: In HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART), latent HIV is enriched in CD4 T-cells expressing immune checkpoint molecules (ICs), in particular programmed cell death-1 (PD-1). We therefore assessed the effect of blocking PD-1 on latency, both in vitro and in vivo.

    Methods: HIV latency was established in vitro following co-culture of resting CD4 T-cells with myeloid dendritic cells. Read More

    The transition to dolutegravir and other new antiretrovirals in low- and middle-income countries - what are the issues?
    AIDS 2018 May 9. Epub 2018 May 9.
    Clinton Health Access Initiative, 383 Dorchester Ave, Suite 400, Boston MA 02127.
    : There are currently approximately 16 million people taking NNRTI-based first-line treatment in low- and middle-income countries. Most of these patients are using the combination of tenofovir (TDF), lamivudine (3TC) and efavirenz (EFV). The integrase inhibitor dolutegravir (DTG) has shown an improved safety profile compared to EFV in randomised studies. Read More

    A maintenance three-day-per-week schedule with the single tablet regimen efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is effective and decreases sub-clinical toxicity: the A-TRI-WEEK pilot trial.
    AIDS 2018 May 9. Epub 2018 May 9.
    Hospital Clínic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Background: Antiretroviral drugs contained in single tablet Atripla® have pharmacokinetic properties that could allow for longer than once-daily (OD) dosing. We hypothesized that simplifying Atripla® OD to 3-day per week would be feasible, able to maintain viral suppression and less toxic.

    Methods: Virologically suppressed (≥2 years) HIV+ adults on Atripla® OD, CD4 >350/mm at inclusion, and no prior documented virological failure or evidence of resistance mutations to efavirenz, tenofovir, or emtricitabine were randomized to maintain their OD regimen or to reduce it to 3 days (Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays) a week (3W). Read More

    Progressive lentivirus infection induces natural killer cell receptor-expressing B cells in the gastrointestinal tract.
    AIDS 2018 May 3. Epub 2018 May 3.
    Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
    Objective: Recently, a seemingly novel innate immune cell subset bearing features of natural killer and B cells was identified in mice. So-called NKB cells appear as first responders to infections, but whether this cell population is truly novel or is in fact a subpopulation of B cells and exists in higher primates remains unclear. The objective of this study was to identify NKB cells in primates and study the impact of HIV/SIV infections. Read More

    Long-term trends in CD4 cell counts, CD8 cell counts, and the CD4: CD8 ratio: ART Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC) Study.
    AIDS 2018 May 3. Epub 2018 May 3.
    Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
    Objective: Model trajectories of CD4 and CD8 cell counts after starting combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), and use the model to predict trends in these counts and the CD4:CD8 ratio.

    Design: Cohort study of antiretroviral-naïve HIV-positive adults who started ART after 1997 (ART Cohort Collaboration) with >6 months of follow-up data.

    Methods: We jointly estimated CD4 and CD8 count trends and their correlation using a bivariate random effects model, with linear splines describing their population trends, and predicted the CD4:CD8 ratio trend from this model. Read More

    Recovery of effective hiv-specific cd4+ t-cell activity following antiretroviral therapy in paediatric infection requires sustained suppression of viraemia.
    AIDS 2018 May 3. Epub 2018 May 3.
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    : The success of increasing access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in paediatric HIV infection prompts the question of the potential for eradication of HIV infection in this age group. 'Shock-and-kill' HIV cure approaches, currently in development, may depend upon an effective antiviral T-cell response to eradicate virus-infected cells. We here investigate the ability of HIV-infected children receiving ART from early childhood (median 24 months' age) to generate effective HIV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell immune responses that would facilitate future immune-based cure therapies. Read More

    Correlation between inner retinal layer thickness and cognitive function in HIV: new insights from an exploratory study.
    AIDS 2018 May 3. Epub 2018 May 3.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Luigi Sacco Hospital, Section of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
    Objective: to compare retinal layer thickness in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected subjects with (CI-HIV) and without (NCI-HIV) cognitive impairment, with a control population and to correlate it with the cognitive status of the patient and other clinical parameters.

    Design: single center cross-sectional study METHODS:: Subjects with controlled HIV infection aged between 40 and 70 years and sex and age matched controls were enrolled. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL) and inner plexiform layer (IPL) thickness were assessed using optical coherence tomography. Read More

    Depressive symptoms and problematic alcohol and other substance use in 1,476 gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men at three research sites in Kenya.
    AIDS 2018 May 3. Epub 2018 May 3.
    University of Washington.
    Objective: Information on mental health and substance use challenges among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) is needed to focus resources on these issues and optimize services for HIV prevention and care. We determined factors associated with depressive symptoms and problematic alcohol and other substance use among GBMSM in Kenya.

    Methods: Self-identified GBMSM in three HIV research studies in Kenya provided information on depressive symptoms (PHQ-9), alcohol use (AUDIT), and other substance use (DAST-6). Read More

    Dysregulation of apoptosis and autophagy gene expression in PBMCs of efficiently treated HIV-infected patients.
    AIDS 2018 05 3. Epub 2018 May 3.
    CBM - Centre de Biophysique Moléculaire, CNRS UPR 4301, affiliated with the Université d'Orléans - Pôle Universitaire Centre Val de Loire, Rue Charles Sadron, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2, France.
    Objective: We measure the transcript levels of the pro-apoptotic GALIG, anti-apoptotic MCL1 genes and those of the autophagy genes BECN1, MAP1LC3B, ATG9a, P62/SQSTM1, GABARAP, GABARAPL1 and GABARAPL2 to define if mRNA alteration can characterize HIV infected patients effectively treated with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART).

    Design: Monocentric pilot study conducted on PBMC of 40 uninfected donors and 27 HIV positive patients effectively treated by cART for at least 8.4 years. Read More

    Lentiviral infection of proliferating brain macrophages in HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus encephalitis despite sterile alpha motif and histidine-aspartate domain-containing protein 1 expression.
    AIDS 2018 May;32(8):965-974
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Cell Biology.
    Objective: HIV-1 infection of the brain and related cognitive impairment remain prevalent in HIV-1-infected individuals despite combination antiretroviral therapy. Sterile alpha motif and histidine-aspartate domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) is a newly identified host restriction factor that blocks the replication of HIV-1 and other retroviruses in myeloid cells. Cell cycle-regulated phosphorylation at residue Thr592 and viral protein X (Vpx)-mediated degradation of SAMHD1 have been shown to bypass SAMHD1 restriction in vitro. Read More

    Seroconversion on preexposure prophylaxis: a case report with segmental hair analysis for timed adherence determination.
    AIDS 2018 Jun;32(9):F1-F4
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.
    Objective: We describe the third case report of seroconversion with multidrug resistant (MDR)-HIV despite pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir (TFV) disoproxil (TDF).

    Design: Case report.

    Methods: PrEP adherence was assessed via self-report, pharmacy records, and measuring TFV/FTC levels with liquid-chromatography/tandem-mass-spectrometry in plasma and hair. Read More

    A week 48 randomized phase 3 trial of darunavir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide in treatment-naïve HIV-1 patients.
    AIDS 2018 Apr 19. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Janssen Pharmaceutica NV, Beerse, Belgium.
    Objectives: To investigate efficacy and safety of a single-tablet regimen of darunavir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (D/C/F/TAF) 800/150/200/10 mg vs. darunavir/cobicistat plus emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxyl fumarate (TDF) (control) in antiretroviral-treatment-naïve, HIV-1-infected adults.

    Design: Phase-3, randomized, active-controlled, double-blind, international, multicenter, noninferiority study (NCT02431247). Read More

    Increased cholesterol absorption rather than synthesis is involved in boosted protease inhibitor associated hypercholesterolaemia.
    AIDS 2018 Apr 19. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Infectious Diseases Service, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, University of Barcelona, Barcelona.
    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the differential effects of first-line efavirenz (EFV)-based vs. boosted lopinavir-based antiretroviral regimens on cholesterol metabolism.

    Design: Multicentre, open-label, randomized clinical trial. Read More

    HIV transmission from infected CD4+ T cells to allogenic T and dendritic cells is inhibited by broadly neutralizing antibodies.
    AIDS 2018 Apr 19. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    INSERM U1109, Fédération Hospitalo-Universitaire (FHU) OMICARE, Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle de Strasbourg (FMTS), Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.
    Objective: In the semen, both free virus and infected cells are able to establish HIV infection during sexual intercourse. An efficient vaccine should, therefore, inhibit both infectious states. The aim of this study was to analyze the capacity of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to inhibit HIV transmission by the infected cells. Read More

    Reversing interferon-alpha neurotoxicity in a HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders mouse model.
    AIDS 2018 Apr 19. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Atlanta VA Medical Center, Decatur, Georgia.
    Objective: Increased brain interferon-alpha (IFNα) is associated with neurodegenerative disorders, including HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). HAND occurs in approximately 50% of individuals with HIV despite combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Therefore, adjunctive therapies must be developed that prevent progression of mild forms of HAND to HIV-associated dementia. Read More

    Detection of numerous HIV-1/MO recombinants in France.
    AIDS 2018 Apr 19. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Normandie Université, UNIROUEN, EA2656, CHU de Rouen, Laboratoire de virologie associé au Centre National de Référence du VIH.
    Background: The broad genetic divergence of HIV-1/O relative to HIV-1/M has important implications for diagnosis, monitoring and treatment. Despite this divergence, some HIV-1/M+O dual infections and HIV-1/MO recombinant forms have been reported, mostly in Cameroon, where both groups are prevalent. Here, we describe the characteristics of such infections detected in France in 10 new patients, and discuss their implications for biological and clinical practice, owing to the presence of group O species. Read More

    Comparative effectiveness of novel non-monetary incentives to promote HIV testing: a randomized trial.
    AIDS 2018 Apr 19. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Objective: To assess the comparative effectiveness of alternative incentive-based interventions to promote HIV testing among men.

    Design: Randomized clinical trial.

    Methods: We enumerated four Ugandan parishes and enrolled men at least 18 years. Read More

    Temporal stability of HIV prevalence in high burden areas regardless of declines in national HIV prevalence in Malawi and Zimbabwe.
    AIDS 2018 Apr 19. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Department of Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    : The current study aims to assess the subnational temporal trends in HIV prevalence in Malawi and Zimbabwe. Using data from three Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in Malawi and Zimbabwe, we found that national HIV prevalence in both countries substantially declined, large declines occurred in areas where HIV prevalence was already low, and HIV prevalence in high-burden areas remained stable over time. Well designed HIV prevention programmes targeting hotspots are required for effective HIV control in countries with declining HIV prevalence. Read More

    Effects of HIV, ART and prebiotics on the active fraction of the gut microbiota.
    AIDS 2018 Apr 19. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Institute of Catalysis, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Madrid.
    Objective: In a recent blinded randomized study, we found that in HIV individuals a short supplementation with prebiotics (scGOS/lcFOS/glutamine) ameliorates dysbiosis of total gut bacteria, particularly among viremic untreated patients. Our study goal was to determine the fraction of the microbiota that becomes active during the intervention and that could provide additional functional information.

    Design: A total of six healthy individuals, and 16 HIV-infected patients comprising viremic untreated patients (n = 5) and antiretroviral therapy-treated (ART) patients that are further divided into immunological responders (n = 7) and immunological nonresponders (n = 4) completed the 6-week course of prebiotic treatment, including six patients receiving a placebo. Read More

    Psychoactive substances, alcohol and tobacco consumption in HIV-infected outpatients.
    AIDS 2018 Jun;32(9):1165-1171
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Montpellier University Hospital.
    Objectives: To assess the alcohol consumption, tobacco addiction and psychoactive substance use (PSU) of people living with HIV (PLHIV).

    Design: Cross-sectional study in an HIV outpatient unit.

    Methods: Autoquestionnaire systematically proposed to all patients during their usual clinical care visit during a 6-months period, for alcohol (AUDIT test), tobacco (Short Fagerstrom Test) and PSU (ASSIST V3. Read More

    Medication non-adherence, multi-tablet regimens, and food insecurity are key experiences in the pathway to incomplete HIV suppression.
    AIDS 2018 Apr 19. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    Objective: To identify potential pathways by which a variety of factors act to lead to unsuppressed viral load.

    Design: A prospective cohort of HIV-HCV co-infected adults receiving care from 18 HIV clinics across Canada was followed every 6 months between November 2012 and October 2015. Participants with at least two visits while receiving combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) were included. Read More

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