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    Lower mitochondrial DNA and altered mitochondrial fuel metabolism in hiv-exposed uninfected infants in cameroon.
    AIDS 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    aIcahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Medicine, New York, NY, USA bMassachusetts General Hospital, Department of Pediatrics and Internal Medicine, Boston, MA, USA and Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases cUniversity of Mississippi Medical Center, Department of Medical Genetics, Jackson, MS, USA dCameroon Baptist Convention Health Services, Bamenda, Cameroon eICAP, Mailman School of Public Health and College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA fIcahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Science, New York, NY, USA gKeck School of Medicine of USC, The Saban Research Institute of Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA hStable Isotope and Metabolomics Core Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA iUniversity of British Columbia, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Vancouver, Canada.
    Objective: Evaluate blood mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in HIV/antiretroviral (ARV)-exposed uninfected (HEU) vs. HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) infants and investigate differences in mitochondrial-related metabolites by exposure group.

    Design: We enrolled a prospective cohort of HIV-infected and -uninfected pregnant woman/infant pairs in Cameroon. Read More

    Outcomes for HIV-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the modern cART era.
    AIDS 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    aUnit of hematology-oncology, Centre Hospitalier de Versailles, Le Chesnay, France; Université Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Université Paris-Saclay, Communauté Paris-Saclay bINSERM U1018, Centre pour la Recherche en Epidémiologie et Santé des Populations (CESP), Equipe 'Générations et Santé ' Gustave Roussy, F-94805 Villejuif, France cSorbonne Universités, INSERM, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Institut Pierre Louis d'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique (IPLESP UMRS1136), F-75013 Paris, France dUniversité Paris Sud, Faculté de médecine Paris Sud, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre eAP-HP, Hôpitaux Paris Sud Site Béclère, Pathology unit, F-92141 Clamart, France fCHU Toulouse, Infectious diseases unit, F-31059 Toulouse gCHU Bordeaux, Internal medicine and Infectious diseases unit, and INSERM U1219, Université de Bordeaux, F- 33075 Bordeaux hAP-HP CHU Saint-Antoine, Infectious diseases unit, F-75012 Paris iHôpitaux Universitaires, HIV infection unit, Strasbourg jUniversity Toulouse III Paul Sabatier, U1037, CRCT; Department of Hematology, Institut Universitaire du Cancer (IUC), Toulouse kAP-HP, CHU Pitié-Salpétrière, Department of Hematology, F-75013 Paris lAP-HP, Hôpitaux Paris Sud, Internal medicine unit, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre mAP-HP, Hôpitaux Paris Sud Site Béclère, clinical immunology unit, F-92141 Clamart nAP-HP CHU Saint-Antoine, Department of Hematology, F-75012 Paris oAP-HM, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Marseille, Department of Hematology, Marseille pAP-HP, Hôpitaux Paris Sud, immunology unit, F-94275 Le Kremlin-Bicêtre qAP-HP, Hôpital Necker Enfants Malades, Department of Hematology, Paris rCentre Hospitalier Universitaire-Dijon, Dijon sDepartment of Onco-Hematology, Archet Hospital, F-06200 Nice, France.
    Objective: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) remains among the most frequent malignancies in persons living with HIV (PLWHIV). Survival among patients with HIV-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most frequent NHL subtype, has improved markedly in recent years. We aimed to analyze characteristics and outcomes of DLBCL in HIV-infected patients in the era of modern combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Read More

    Effects of concurrent exposure to antiretrovirals and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis among HIV-exposed, uninfected infants.
    AIDS 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    aCenters for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA bDepartment of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa cUniversity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA dUNC Project, Lilongwe, Malawi.
    Background: Given the potential of Cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) to prevent bacterial and malarial infections in HIV exposed, uninfected (HEU) infants, it is important to evaluate the effects of its concurrent use with ARV agents that have overlapping toxicity profiles.

    Methods: We used data from the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition-BAN study (2004-2010) to evaluate the association of CPT and ARV with hematologic measures (hemoglobin, neutrophil, and alanine aminotransferase levels) from 6 to 48 weeks of age in 2,006 HEU infants in Lilongwe, Malawi. Hazards of severe outcomes (anemia, neutropenia, and elevated alanine aminotransferase), as defined by the National Institutes of Health, were compared using Cox regression models according to time-varying CPT (implemented June 2006), ARV treatment arm (maternal triple ARV, infant nevirapine, or none during six months of breastfeeding) and their interaction. Read More

    Serum glycan-binding IgG antibodies in HIV-1 infection and during the development of broadly neutralizing responses.
    AIDS 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    aCentre for HIV and STIs, National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, 2131 South Africa bSchool of Pathology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2050, South Africa cChemical Glycobiology Section of the Chemical Biology Laboratory, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD, 21702-1201 USA dCentre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), KwaZulu-Natal, 4013 South Africa eDepartment of Epidemiology, Columbia University, New York City, 10032, USA.
    Background: The HIV-1 envelope is covered with glycans that provide structural integrity and protect conserved regions from host antibody responses. However, these glycans are often the target of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that emerge in some HIV infected individuals. We aimed to determine whether anti-glycan IgG antibodies are a general response to HIV-1 infection or specific to individuals who develop bNAbs. Read More

    Dysfunctional HDL from HIV+ individuals promotes monocyte-derived foam cell formation in vitro.
    AIDS 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    aCentre for Biomedical Research, Burnet Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia bDepartment of Infectious Diseases, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia cChildren's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, California, USA dUniversity of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America. *Thomas A. Angelovich, Anna C. Hearps, Anthony Jaworowski and Theodoros Kelesidis contributed equally.
    Objective: The role of HDL function in HIV-related atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is unclear. HDLs isolated from HIV+ [HIV(+)HDL] and HIV-uninfected individuals (HDL) were assessed for HDL function and ability to promote monocyte-derived foam cell formation (MDFCF) (a key event in HIV-related CVD) ex vivo.

    Design/methods: Using an established in vitro model of atherogenesis and plasma samples from an established cross-sectional study of virologically-suppressed HIV+ males on stable effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) and with low CVD risk (median age: 42 years; n = 10), we explored the impact of native HDL [HIV(+)HDL] on MDFCF. Read More

    Risk factors for anal HSIL in HIV-positive MSM: is targeted screening possible?
    AIDS 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    aDepartment of Internal Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands bDepartment of Dermatology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands cDepartment of Infectious Diseases, Public Health Service Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. *Matthijs L. Siegenbeek van Heukelom and Elske Marra contributed equally to this manuscript.
    Objective: HIV-positive men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) are at increased risk for developing anal squamous cell carcinoma (aSCC). Detection of precursor lesions of anal cancer (anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions; HSIL) is cumbersome and expensive. Our objective was to identify potential risk factors for anal HSIL in HIV-positive MSM to develop more stringent screening criteria. Read More

    Elevated ischemic stroke risk among women living with HIV infection.
    AIDS 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    aDepartment of Neurology and Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California, San Francisco, CA bDivision of General Internal Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA cProgram in Nutritional Metabolism, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA dDepartment of Neurology, Wake Forest Baptist University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC eDepartment of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA fDivision of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
    Objective: To determine if the greater risk of ischemic stroke observed in women living with HIV infection (WLWH) compared with HIV-uninfected women persists after accounting for both traditional and sex-specific stroke risk factors.

    Methods: We performed an observational cohort study of WLWH (n = 1,214) and demographics-matched HIV-uninfected women (n = 12,041) seen between 1996 and 2011 at two tertiary care hospitals in Boston. We used Cox proportional hazards regression analyses to model time to ischemic stroke, adjusting first for demographics and traditional stroke risk factors and then for sex-specific stroke risk factors, including menopause and estrogen use. Read More

    Metabolic health across the body mass index spectrum in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Men.
    AIDS 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    aMcGovern School of Medicine at UTHealth bJohns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA cNorthwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA dUniversity of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, USA eUniversity of Carlifornia, Los Angeles, CA, USA fUniversity of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Objectives: In the general population, metabolic health (MH) often declines as body mass index (BMI) increases. However, some obese individuals maintain MH. HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) have been associated with metabolic disturbances. Read More

    Reversing HIV latency via sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 signaling.
    AIDS 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    aInstitut de Génétique Humaine, CNRS-Université de Montpellier UMR9002, 141 rue de la Cardonille, 34396 Montpellier cedex 5, France bARPEGE Pharmacology Screening Interactome platform facility, Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle, 141 rue de la Cardonille, 34094 Montpellier cedex 5, France cLaboratoire coopératif SPLICOS SAS, IGMM-CNRS-UMR5535, 1919 route de Mende, F-34293 Montpellier Cedex 5 dInstitut de Génomique Fonctionnelle, CNRS-UMR5203, INSERM-U661, Université Montpellier, UMR5203, F-34094 Montpellier Cedex 5, France eInstitut de Génétique Moléculaire de Montpellier, CNRS-UMR 5535, 1919 route de Mende, Montpellier F-34293, France fUniversité de Montpellier, 5 Boulevard Henri IV, 34967 Montpellier cedex 2, France gCentre Hospitalier Universitaire Caremeau, UF d'Immunologie, place du Pr Debré, 30029 Nîmes cedex 9, France.
    Objective: In this study, we looked for a new family of latency reversing agents.

    Design: We searched for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) coexpressed with CCR5 in primary CD4+ T cells that activate infected cells and boost HIV production.

    Methods: GPCR coexpression was unveiled by RT-PCR. Read More

    Hepatitis B, hepatitis C and mortality among HIV-positive individuals.
    AIDS 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Objectives: To compare rates of all-cause, liver-related and AIDS-related mortality among individuals who are HIV mono-infected with those co-infected with HIV and hepatitis B (HBV) and/or hepatitis C (HCV) viruses.

    Design: An ongoing observational cohort study collating routinely collected clinical data on HIV-positive individuals attending for care at HIV treatment centres throughout the UK.

    Methods: Individuals were included if they had been seen for care from 2004 onwards and had tested for HBV and HCV. Read More

    Natural Killer cells in HIV-1 infection and therapy.
    AIDS 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    aUnit of Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Milan, Italy bIstituto di Ricerca Genetica e Biomedica, UOS di Milano, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (UOS/IRGB/CNR), Rozzano, Milan, Italy cDepartment of Medical Biotechnologies and Translational Medicine (BioMeTra), University of Milan, Rozzano, Milan, Italy.
    : Natural killer (NK) cells are important effectors of innate immunity playing a key role in the eradication and clearance of viral infections. Over the recent years, several studies have shown that HIV-1 pathologically changes NK cell homeostasis and hampers their antiviral effector functions. Moreover, high levels of chronic HIV-1 viremia markedly impair those NK cell regulatory features that normally regulate the cross-talks between innate and adaptive immune responses. Read More

    Association of a 3' Untranslated Region Polymorphism in PCSK9 with HIV Viral Load and CD4+ Levels in HIV/Hepatitis C Virus Co-Infected Women.
    AIDS 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    aDepartment of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University at Albany, State University of New York, Rensselaer, NY bDepartments of Statistics cMicrobiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine, George Washington University, Washington, DC dDepartments of Epidemiology and Population Health eMicrobiology & Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY fDepartment of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY gDepartment of Neurology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY hDepartment of Medicine, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC iDepartment of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA jDepartment of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL kDepartment of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD lBluestone Center for Clinical Research mDepartment of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, New York University, New York, NY. *Michael I. Bukrinsky and Vinayaka R. Prasad authors contributed equally.
    Objective: To assess variation in genes that regulate cholesterol metabolism in relation to the natural history of HIV infection.

    Design: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS).

    Methods: We examined 2,050 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 19 genes known to regulate cholesterol metabolism in relation to HIV viral load and CD4 T cell levels in a multiracial cohort of 1,066 antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve women. Read More

    Time to first positive HIV-1 DNA PCR may differ with antiretroviral regimen in infants infected with non-B subtype HIV-1.
    AIDS 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    aDepartment of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Massachusetts - Amherst, Amherst, MA bDepartment of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA cMedical Epidemiologist, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention dBrigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, and Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership (Gaborone, Botswana) eUniversity College Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford St, London WC1N 1EH, UK fInstitut de recherche pour le développement (IRD) UMI 174 - PHPT, Department of Medical Technology, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand gDepartment of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA hCenters for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for HIV, viral Hepatitis, Sexually transmitted disease and Tuberculosis Prevention (NCHHSTP), Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA iDepartment of Biostatistics, Harvard University T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA jHarvard University T.H. Chan School of Public Health. Boston, MA, USA & PHPT Thailand kVirus Reference Department, National Infection Service, Public Health England, London NW9 5EQ, UK lDepartment of HIV/AIDS, World Health Organization. mDepartment of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand and National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Johannesburg, South Africa nSection of Infectious Diseases and International Health, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, 1 Medical Center Dr., Lebanon, NH 03756 oCenter for Biostatistics in AIDS Research, Harvard University T. H. Chan School of Public Health. Boston, MA, USA. *Present address: Nathan Shaffer, MD, 215 Lamont Drive, Decatur, GA 30030.
    Objective: To evaluate the association of type and timing of prophylactic maternal and infant antiretroviral regimen with time to first positive HIV-1 DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, in non-breastfed HIV-infected infants from populations infected predominantly with HIV-1 non-B subtype virus.

    Design: Analysis of combined data on non-breastfed HIV-infected infants from prospective cohorts in Botswana, Thailand and the United Kingdom (n = 405).

    Methods: Parametric models appropriate for interval-censored outcomes estimated the time to first positive PCR according to maternal or infant antiretroviral regimen category and timing of maternal antiretroviral initiation, with adjustment for covariates. Read More

    Both coinfections of Penicillium marneffei and Cryptococcus neoformans in AIDS patient: a report of rare case.
    AIDS 2017 Sep;31(15):2171-2172
    aDepartment of Dermatology and Venereology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming bCenter for Translational Medicine, Huaihe Clinical College, Huaihe Hospital of Henan University, Kaifeng cYunnan Provincial Hospital of Infectious Disease/AIDS Care Center (YNACC), Anning, China.

    The value of point-of-care CD4+ and laboratory viral load in tailoring antiretroviral therapy monitoring strategies to resource limitations.
    AIDS 2017 Sep;31(15):2135-2145
    aMedical Practice Evaluation Center bDivision of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA cInstituto Nacional de Saùde, Maputo, Mozambique dDivision of General Internal Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA eDesmond Tutu HIV Centre, Cape Town, South Africa fCenter for Decision Science, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston gClinton Health Access Initiative, Boston hHarvard University Center for AIDS Research, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA iClinton Health Access Initiative, Gaborone, Botswana jBiostatistics Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Objective: To examine the clinical and economic value of point-of-care CD4 (POC-CD4) or viral load monitoring compared with current practices in Mozambique, a country representative of the diverse resource limitations encountered by HIV treatment programs in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Design/methods: We use the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications-International model to examine the clinical impact, cost (2014 US$), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio [$/year of life saved (YLS)] of ART monitoring strategies in Mozambique. We compare: monitoring for clinical disease progression [clinical ART monitoring strategy (CLIN)] vs. Read More

    Hepatitis B reactivation in a long-term nonprogressor due to nivolumab therapy.
    AIDS 2017 Sep;31(15):2115-2118
    Lancaster General Health Family and Community Medicine Residency, Lancaster General Penn Medicine, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, USA.
    : Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation has been documented in association with multiple immunotherapy regimens . These reactivations can be life-threatening and result in fulminant hepatic failure. There are currently no reports of HBV reactivation on nivolumab treatment. Read More

    Effect of cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus replication on intestinal mucosal gene expression and microbiome composition of HIV-infected and uninfected individuals.
    AIDS 2017 Sep;31(15):2059-2067
    aDivision of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California bDivision of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine cDepartment of Immunology-Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA. *Sara Gianella and Antoine Chaillon contributed equally to the article.
    Background: HIV-infection is associated with dramatic changes in the intestinal mucosa. The impact of other viral pathogens is unclear.

    Methods: One hundred and eight (108) biopsies from left and right colon (n = 79) and terminal ileum (n = 29) were collected from 19 HIV-infected and 22 HIV-uninfected participants. Read More

    Towards standardized definitions for monitoring the continuum of HIV care in Europe.
    AIDS 2017 Sep;31(15):2053-2058
    aUniversity College London, London, UK bEuropean Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Solna, Sweden cSorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, INSERM, Institut Pierre Louis d'Epidemiologie et de Sante Publique (IPLESP UMR_S 1136), Paris, France dNational Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland eStichting HIV Monitoring, Amsterdam, Netherlands fMedical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

    Were we prepared for PrEP? five years of implementation.
    AIDS 2017 Aug 28. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    Adam Carl Cohen, PhD, MPH, AIDS Heal.
    : While the overall incidence of HIV infections in the United States (US) has decreased in recent years, certain populations remain particularly vulnerable, including racial/ethnic minorities, adolescents/young adults, and people in the southern US [1]. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) stated strategy to combat new infections includes a combination of "cost-effective, scalable interventions based on current science" [2]. In July 2012, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved daily oral combination tenofovir/emtricitabine ("Truvada") for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in at-risk uninfected adults, with subsequent endorsement as blanket policy by the CDC in May 2014 [3]. Read More

    Time from HIV infection to virological suppression: dramatic fall from 2007-2016.
    AIDS 2017 Aug 28. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    aMelbourne Sexual Health Centre, Alfred Health and Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia bVictorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, The University of Melbourne cMelbourne Sexual Health Centre, Alfred Health, Melbourne, Australia.
    Title: Time from HIV infection to virological suppression: dramatic fall from 2007-2016.

    Objectives: We examined the time from HIV infection to virological suppression in men who have sex with men (MSM) who were first diagnosed at Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) between 2007 and 2016.

    Design: Retrospective cohort. Read More

    Injecting drug use predicts active tuberculosis in a national cohort of people living with HIV from 2000 to 2014.
    AIDS 2017 Aug 28. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    aInstitute for Global Health, University College London, 30 Guildford Street, London, WC1N 1EH, UK bNational Infections Service, Public Health England, 61 Colindale Avenue, London, NW9 5EQ, UK cRoyal Free London National Health Service Foundation Trust, Royal Free Hospital, Pond Street, London, NW3 2QG, UK dUCL Respiratory, Division of Medicine, University College London, Royal Free campus, Pond Street, London, NW3 2PF, UK eChelsea and Westminster Hospital, 369 Fulham Road, London, SW10 9NH, UK. *Valerie Delpech, Ibrahim Abubakar, Joint senior authors.
    Objectives: Tuberculosis (TB) is common in people living with HIV (PLHIV), leading to worse clinical outcomes including increased mortality. We investigated risk factors for developing TB following HIV diagnosis.

    Design: Adults aged ≥15 years first presenting to health services for HIV care in England, Wales or Northern Ireland from 2000-2014 were identified from national HIV surveillance data and linked to TB surveillance data. Read More

    Preexposure prophylaxis for men who have sex with men and transgender persons in early adopting countries: a narrative review.
    AIDS 2017 Aug 28. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    aPublic Health Service of Amsterdam, Department of Infectious Diseases, Amsterdam, the Netherlands bAcademic Medical Center, Department of Infectious Diseases, Center for Immunity and Infection Amsterdam (CINIMA), University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands cBeth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass, USA dThe Fenway Institute, Fenway Health, Boston, Mass, USA. *Both authors contributed equally.

    Preferential susceptibility of Th9 and Th2 CD4 T cells to X4-tropic HIV-1 infection.
    AIDS 2017 Aug 28. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    aRagon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA bInfectious Disease Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA cInfectious Disease Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Cambridge, MA.
    Objective: The functional polarization of CD4 T cells determines their antimicrobial effector profile, but may also impact the susceptibility to infection with HIV-1. Here, we analyzed the susceptibility of CD4 T cells with different functional polarization to infection with X4- and R5-tropic HIV-1.

    Methods: CD4 T cells with a Th1, Th2, Th17 and Th9 polarization were subjected to in vitro infection assays with X4, R5 or VSV-G-pseudotyped HIV-1. Read More

    Moderate levels of pre-therapy drug resistance (PDR) in a generalised epidemic: time for better first-line ART?
    AIDS 2017 Aug 28. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    aSouth African Medical Research Council Collaborating Centre TygHIVLab, Division of Medical Virology, Stellenbosch University, South Africa bNational Health Laboratory Service, Tygerberg Business Unit, South Africa cANOVA Health Institute dDesmond Tutu TB Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Stellenbosch University, South Africa.

    Perceived and post-traumatic stress are associated with decreased learning, memory, and fluency in HIV-infected women.
    AIDS 2017 Aug 28. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    aDepartment of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL bDepartment of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD cDepartment of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD dCook County Health and Hospitals System/Hektoen Institute of Medicine, Chicago IL eDepartments of Medicine Stroger Hospital and Rush University, Chicago IL fDepartment of Psychiatry, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL gMemory and Aging Center, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco hInstitute for Health Promotion & Disease Prevention Research, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA iDepartments of Medicine and Epidemiology & Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY jDepartment of Medicine, Georgetown University, Washington, DC kDepartment of Neurology, SUNY-Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY lUniversity of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA mDepartment of Psychology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL.
    Objective: Psychological risk factors (PRFs) are associated with impaired learning and memory in HIV-infected (HIV+) women. We determined the dynamic nature of the effects of PRFs and HIV serostatus on learning and memory over time.

    Design: Multi-center, prospective cohort study METHODS:: Every two years between 2009 and 2013 (3 times), 646 HIV+ and 300 demographically-similar HIV-uninfected (HIV-) women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study completed neuropsychological (NP) testing and questionnaires measuring PRFs (perceived stress, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms). Read More

    Impact of protease inhibitors on circulating PCSK9 levels in HIV-infected antiretroviral-naïve patients from the ANRS COPANA cohort.
    AIDS 2017 08 28. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    aAP-HP, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, Service de cardiologie, 75012 Paris, France bSorbonne-Universités, UPMC université Paris 06, Faculté de médecine, 75012 Paris, France cINSERM, Saint-Antoine Research Center, UMR S 938, Medical Faculty of Saint Antoine, Paris, France dInserm UMRS1018, CESP, HIV and Pediatry, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France eParis-Sud university, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France fBicêtre Hospital, APHP, Department of Public Health, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France gBicêtre Hospital, AP-HP, Department of Internal Medicine, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France hl'institut du thorax, INSERM, CNRS, UNIV Nantes, Nantes, F-44000 France iAP-HP, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, Laboratoire Commun de Biologie et Génétique Moléculaires et Endocrinologie, 75012 Paris, France jAssistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Tenon, UF Bio-marqueurs Inflammatoires et métaboliques, Service de Biochimie, Paris, France kl'institut du thorax, CHU Nantes, Service de endocrinologie-maladies métaboliques et nutrition, Nantes, France.
    Objective: The study aims to assess the association between proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), a major regulator of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) homeostasis, and HIV-related dyslipidaemia in a cohort of HIV+ patients under protease inhibitors (PI).

    Methods: Plasma PCSK9 levels were measured in 103 HIV-positive patients (HIV+) before and after initiating PI-based antiretroviral therapy (ART), and in 90 HIV-negative controls (HIV-) matched for age and sex. PCSK9 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Read More

    Serum ST2 level is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in HIV-infected patients. Aquitaine Cohort, France.
    AIDS 2017 Aug 28. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    aUniversity Bordeaux, Inserm, Bordeaux Population Health Research Center, UMR 1219, Inria Sistm, F-33000 Bordeaux, France bCentre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux, F-33000 Bordeaux, France cINSERM U955, Paris Est Créteil University, F-94000 Créteil, France dGroupe Hospitalier Henri-Mondor Albert-Chenevier, F-94000 Créteil, France. *Co-contributing authors. †See composition in Appendix.
    Objective: To evaluate the predictive value of Soluble Suppression of Tumorigenicity 2 (sST2), a decoy receptor of IL-33 involved in several inflammatory and immune diseases, for death in HIV infection.

    Design: Patients enrolled in the ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort, a prospective hospital-based cohort of HIV-1-infected patients, who had a plasma sample available in the bio-bank were systematically eligible.

    Methods: sST2, sCD14 and IL6 were measured using Luminex® multiplex bead-based technology (R&D Systems) and a Bio-Plex 200 instrument (BioRad). Read More

    High levels of postmigration HIV acquisition within nine European countries.
    AIDS 2017 Sep;31(14):1979-1988
    aNational Centre for Epidemiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid bUniversidad Complutense de Madrid cCIBERESP, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain dResearch Department of Infection and Population Health, University College London, London, UK eDepartment of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece fDepartment of Infectious Diseases, CHU Saint-Pierre, Brussels, Belgium gDepartment of Infectious Diseases Research and Prevention, Public Health Service of Amsterdam hDepartment of Internal Medicine, Center of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Amsterdam (CINIMA), Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands iDepartment of Clinical Epidemiology, Predictive Medicine and Public Health, University of Porto Medical School, Porto, Portugal jClinic for Infectious Diseases, Bern University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland kDepartment of Infectious Diseases, Medical Clinic II, University Clinic Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main lDepartment of Medicine I, Bonn University Hospital, Bonn, Germany mUnit of Infectious Diseases and Assistance, Coordination and Territorial Integration for Migrants' Emergency, Civico-Benfratelli Hospital, Palermo, Italy nEuropean AIDS Treatment Group, Brussels, Belgium. *Fiona Burns and Julia del Amo are both senior coauthors.
    Objective: We aimed to estimate the proportion of postmigration HIV acquisition among HIV-positive migrants in Europe.

    Design: To reach HIV-positive migrants, we designed a cross-sectional study performed in HIV clinics.

    Methods: The study was conducted from July 2013 to July 2015 in 57 clinics (nine European countries), targeting individuals over 18 years diagnosed in the preceding 5 years and born abroad. Read More

    Incidental lung cancers and positive computed tomography images in people living with HIV.
    AIDS 2017 Sep;31(14):1973-1977
    aViro-immunology Research Unit, Department of Infectious Diseases 8632 bDepartment of Radiology, Rigshospitalet cDepartment of Infectious Diseases, Hvidovre Hospital dCHIP, Department of Infectious Diseases 8632, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark eDivision of Infection, Immunity and Respiratory Medicine, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
    Objective: Lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) of high-risk groups in the general population is recommended by several authorities. This may not be feasible in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) due to higher prevalence of nodules. We therefore assessed the prevalence of positive computed tomography (CT) images and lung cancers in PLWHIV. Read More

    The HIV-1 integrase E157Q polymorphism per se does not alter susceptibility to raltegravir and dolutegravir in vitro.
    AIDS 2017 Aug 21. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
    Department of Medical Biotechnology, University of Siena, Italy.
    : The HIV-1 integrase E157Q natural polymorphism has been reported to cause one case of raltegravir (RAL) and dolutegravir (DTG) failure. We constructed six recombinant viruses containing integrase from HIV-1 isolates found to harbour E157Q as the only integrase strand inhibitor (INSTI) resistance-related mutation. Phenotypic analysis showed that E157Q results in minimal changes in RAL and DTG susceptibility. Read More

    Hair Levels of PrEP Drugs Measure Adherence and are Associated with Renal Decline Among Men/Transwomen in an Open Label PrEP Study.
    AIDS 2017 Aug 21. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
    aDivision of HIV, Infectious Diseases, and Global Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco bCenter for AIDS Prevention Studies, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco cDepartment of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco dWhitman-Walker Health, Washington, DC15Department of Medicine, George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC eDepartment of Medicine, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida fSchool of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado gSan Francisco Department of Public Health, San Francisco, California.
    Objective: The U.S. PrEP Demonstration Project (Demo) evaluated men-who-have-sex-with-men on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) post-marketing and found low seroconversion rates. Read More

    Visceral fat reduction with tesamorelin is associated with improved liver enzymes in HIV.
    AIDS 2017 Aug 21. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
    aDepartment of Medicine, Program in Nutritional Metabolism, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA bTheratechnologies Inc., Montreal, QC, Canada cMontreal General Hospital and McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada dExcelsus Statistics Inc., Montreal, QC, Canada eDepartment of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. *Takara L. Stanley and Steven K. Grinspoon contributed equally to this manuscript.
    Objective: Tesamorelin reduces visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in HIV. We investigated whether reductions in VAT with tesamorelin are associated with changes in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST).

    Design And Methods: We utilized data from two multicenter Phase III trials of tesamorelin among 806 HIV-infected patients with abdominal obesity. Read More

    Comparative effectiveness of dual vs single-action antidepressants on HIV clinical outcomes in HIV-infected people with depression.
    AIDS 2017 Aug 21. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
    aDepartment of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill bDepartment of Behavioral Sciences and Social Medicine, Florida State University cDepartment of Epidemiology and Medicine, University of Florida dDepartment of Health Services Research, Management and Policy, University of Florida eDepartment of Health Policy and Management, Indiana University, Indianapolis fDepartment of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.
    Objective: Depression is highly prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and has deleterious effects on HIV clinical outcomes. We examined changes in depression symptoms, viral suppression and CD4 T-cells/mm among PLWHA diagnosed with depression who initiated antidepressant treatment during routine care, and compared the effectiveness of dual-action and single-action antidepressants for improving those outcomes.

    Design: Comparative effectiveness study of new user dual-action or single-action antidepressant treatment episodes occurring from 2004-2014 obtained from the Center for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems. Read More

    Reproductive coercion among women living with HIV: an unexplored risk factor for negative sexual and mental health outcomes.
    AIDS 2017 Aug 21. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
    aPostdoctoral Scholar, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA bDoctoral Candidate, Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing, Baltimore, MD cProfessor, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA.
    Background: Unintended pregnancy is prevalent among women living with HIV, and is associated with poor health outcomes for women and babies. Reproductive coercion may be one unexplored mechanism for this elevated risk.

    Methods: Past year reproductive coercion data were obtained via self-reported survey from a sample of women receiving HIV specialty care in Baltimore, MD. Read More

    Prevalence and clinical impacts of HIV-1 intersubtype recombinants in Uganda revealed by near-full-genome population and deep sequencing approaches.
    AIDS 2017 08 21. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
    aBC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, Vancouver, BC, Canada bMbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda cUniversity of California, San Francisco, CA, USA dHarvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA eHarvard School of Public Health, Boston, USA fMassachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA gOregon Health Sciences University, Portland, OR, USA.
    Objectives: To estimate prevalence, examine time trends, and test for clinical correlates and outcomes associated with HIV-1 intersubtype recombination under a full-genome sequencing context in a rural community in Mbarara, Uganda, where HIV-1 subtypes A1 and D co-circulate.

    Methods: Near-full-genome HIV-1 Sanger sequence data was collected from plasma samples of 504 treatment-naïve individuals, who then received PI or NNRTI-containing regimens and were monitored for up to 7.5 years. Read More

    Racial differences in calculated bioavailable vitamin D with vitamin D/calcium supplementation: ACTG A5280.
    AIDS 2017 Aug 21. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
    aColumbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA bHarvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA cJohns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA dHospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA eCase Western Reserve University, Cleveland OH, USA fGilead Sciences, Foster City, CA, USA gBristol-Meyers Squibb, Plainsboro, NJ, USA hDuke University Community Advisory Board, Durham, NC, USA iUniversity of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA.
    Objectives: Some studies suggest that bioavailable 25-(OH)D is more accurate than total 25-(OH)D as an assessment of vitamin D status in black individuals, We hypothesized that increases in bioavailable 25-(OH)D would correlate better with improvement in bone outcomes among black HIV-infected adults.

    Design: This is a secondary analysis of ACTG A5280, a randomized, double-blind study of Vitamin D3 and calcium (VitD/Ca) supplementation in HIV-infected participants initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART).

    Methods: Effect of VitD/Ca on total and calculated bioavailable 25-(OH)D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone turnover markers (BTMs) and bone mineral density (BMD) in black and non-black participants were evaluated at 48 weeks. Read More

    Pre-treatment integrase strand transfer inhibitor resistance in north carolina from 2010-2016.
    AIDS 2017 Aug 12. Epub 2017 Aug 12.
    aDivision of Global Health and Infectious Diseases, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina bDepartment of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina cNorth Carolina Department of Public Health, Division of HIV/AIDS.
    Objective: We sought to define the prevalence of pre-treatment INSTI resistance and assess the transmission networks of those with pre-treatment INSTI resistance.

    Design: A retrospective cohort study of HIV-positive patients with genotypic resistance testing sent to a single referral laboratory in North Carolina between 2010 and 2016.

    Methods: We linked genotype and public health data for in-care HIV-positive individuals to determine the prevalence of INSTI resistance among treatment-naïve (defined as those with a first genotype ≤3 months after diagnosis) and treatment-experienced (defined as those with a first genotype >3 months after diagnosis) patients. Read More

    Frailty is strongly associated with increased risk of recurrent falls among older HIV-infected adults: a prospective cohort study.
    AIDS 2017 Aug 12. Epub 2017 Aug 12.
    aHarvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Boston, MA, U.S. bHarvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Center for Biostatistics in AIDS Research, Boston, MA, U.S. cOhio State University, Department of Internal Medicine; Columbus, OH, U.S. dNorthwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Medicine; Chicago, IL, U.S. eMetroHealth and Louis Stokes Cleveland Veterans Administration Medical Center, Department of Medicine; Cleveland, OH, U.S. fUniversity of Colorado-Anschutz Medical Campus, Department of Medicine; Aurora, CO, U.S.
    Objective: Both frailty and falls occur at earlier than expected ages among HIV-infected individuals, but the contribution of frailty to fall risk in this population is not well understood. We examined this association among participants enrolled in AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) A5322.

    Design: A prospective, multi-center cohort study of HIV-infected men and women ≥40 years. Read More

    The costs of HIV treatment and care in Ghana: A longitudinal multi-site analysis.
    AIDS 2017 Aug 12. Epub 2017 Aug 12.
    aRadboud University Medical Centre: Institute for Health Sciences, Nijmegen, the Netherlands' bDepartment of Public Health, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands cInstitute of Public Health, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany dDepartment of Health Policy, Planning & Management, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, PO Box LG 13, Legon, Ghana eInstitute of Statistical, Social & Economic Research (ISSER) University of Ghana P. O. Box LG74 Legon, Accra Ghana.
    Objective: To determine cost-functions that describe the dynamics of costs of HIV treatment and care in Ghana by CD4 cell count at treatment initiation and over time on antiretroviral therapy (ART).

    Design: We used detailed longitudinal healthcare utilization data from clinical health records of HIV-infected patients at seven Ghanaian ART clinics to estimate cost-functions of treatment and care by CD4 cell count at treatment initiation and time on ART.

    Methods: We developed two linear regression models; one with individual random effects to determine the relationship between CD4 cell count at ART initiation and costs of treatment and care, and one with individual fixed effects to determine the causal effect of time in care on costs of treatment and care. Read More

    Antiretroviral combination use during pregnancy and the risk of major congenital malformations.
    AIDS 2017 Aug 12. Epub 2017 Aug 12.
    aResearch Center, CHU Sainte-Justine, Montreal, Quebec, Canada bFaculty of Pharmacy, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada cFaculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada dWomen's College Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada eDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, CHU Sainte-Justine, Montreal, Quebec, Canada fFaculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
    Objective: To quantify the risk of major congenital malformations associated with gestational combination antiretroviral use.

    Design: Population-based prospective cohort study.

    Methods: Using the Quebec Pregnancy Cohort from 1998-2015, we included women who covered by Quebec Drug Plan and have a singleton livebirth. Read More

    The harms of HIV criminalization: responding to the 'association of HIV diagnosis rates and laws criminalizing HIV exposure in the United States'.
    AIDS 2017 Aug;31(13):1899-1900
    aConcordia University, Montreal, Québec bYork University, Toronto cUniversity of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario dSimon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia eHIV & AIDS Legal Clinic Ontario (HALCO) fCanadian Coalition to Reform HIV Criminalization gAIDS ACTION NOW, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

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