35,764 results match your criteria ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders [Journal]


Role of ADHD in the Co-occurrence between Heavy Alcohol Use and Depression Trajectories in Adulthood.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

University of Pittsburgh, Medical Center Department of Psychiatry.

Background: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with greater heavy alcohol use and depressive symptoms in adulthood. Yet, few studies have investigated whether childhood ADHD predicts an increased association between heavy drinking and depression in adulthood when this co-occurrence becomes more common. We examined associations among heavy alcohol use and depression longitudinally from ages 21 to 29 and whether these associations differed for those with or without childhood ADHD, as well as for those with or without persistent ADHD in adulthood. Read More

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December 2018

Patients in medical treatment for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Are they at risk in drug screening?

Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, North Denmark Regional Hospital, Bispensgade 37, Hjørring, DK-9800, Denmark.

The use of medicines to treat attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased worldwide, including the use of amphetamine-based medicines or prodrugs that metabolise to amphetamine in vivo. At the same time, drugs-of-abuse testing by non-specific, point-of-care immunoassay methods ('quick tests') has increased. This article discusses the risk of 'false positive' results or post-analytical misinterpretations of results when immunoassays are used to analyse biological samples from ADHD patients. Read More

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December 2018
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Family structure, birth order, and aggressive behaviors among school-aged boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Institute of Public Health, National Yang-Ming University, 155 Li-Nong St., Sec. 2 Beitou, Taipei, Taiwan.

Purpose: To evaluate the associations between family structure, birth order, and aggressive behaviors among school-aged boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Methods: We conducted a matched case-control study. Data were retrieved from medical records at a psychiatry center in northern Taiwan. Read More

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December 2018

Sibling Recurrence Risk and Cross-aggregation of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder.

JAMA Pediatr 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Psychiatry, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland.

Importance: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are believed to partially share genetic factors and biological influences. As the number of children with these diagnoses rises, so does the number of younger siblings at presumed risk for ADHD and ASD; reliable recurrence risk estimates within and across diagnoses may aid screening and early detection efforts and enhance understanding of potential shared causes.

Objective: To examine within-diagnosis sibling recurrence risk and sibling cross-aggregation of ADHD and ASD among later-born siblings of children with either disorder. Read More

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December 2018

Later Sibling Recurrence of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Clinical and Mechanistic Insights.

JAMA Pediatr 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Birkbeck College, University of London, London, United Kingdom.

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December 2018

Identifying disease genes using machine learning and gene functional similarities, assessed through Gene Ontology.

PLoS One 2018 10;13(12):e0208626. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

LASIGE, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.

Identifying disease genes from a vast amount of genetic data is one of the most challenging tasks in the post-genomic era. Also, complex diseases present highly heterogeneous genotype, which difficult biological marker identification. Machine learning methods are widely used to identify these markers, but their performance is highly dependent upon the size and quality of available data. Read More

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December 2018

[Comparación de síntomas de hiperactividad e inatención en adolescentes con y sin antecedentes de embarazo].

Gac Med Mex 2018 ;154(6):657-664

Academia Nacional de Medicina de México. Ciudad de México, México.

Introduction: Teenage pregnancy has a negative impact both on mother's health and on her offspring quality life and development. In spite of its important social relevance, behavioral factors that can favor its occurrence have not been extensively explored.

Objective: To compare symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity between adolescents with and without a history of pregnancy. Read More

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January 2018

Risk loci for ADHD.

Authors:
Dorothy Clyde

Nat Rev Genet 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Nature Reviews Genetics, .

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December 2018

First genetic risk loci for ADHD identified.

Authors:
Charlotte Ridler

Nat Rev Neurol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Nature Reviews Neurology, .

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December 2018

Cardiovascular Effects of Drugs Used to Treat Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Part 2: Impact on Cardiovascular Events and Recommendations for Evaluation and Monitoring.

Cardiol Rev 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, Missouri.

A variety of psychostimulant and non-psychostimulant medications have proven to be successful in reducing inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with (ADHD). Psychostimulants used to treat ADHD include methylphenidate and related drugs and various amphetamine preparations. Non-psychostimulant medications used to treat ADHD include atomoxetine and two alpha-2 adrenergic agonists; guanfacine extended-release and clonidine extended-release. Read More

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December 2018

New stimulant formulations for pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a case-based approach for the primary care provider.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Psychiatry, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA and Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To provide an up-to-date clinical review of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved stimulant medications for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including a framework for individualized treatment by primary care pediatric providers. Read More

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December 2018

Resistance to thyroid hormone-beta co-existing with partially empty sella in a Jordanian male.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2018 Dec 5;2018. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

ObesityEndocrine and Metabolism Centre, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Resistance to thyroid hormone-beta (RTHbeta) is a rare inherited syndrome characterized by variable reduced tissue responsiveness to the intracellular action of triiodothyronine (T3), the active form of the thyroid hormone. The presentation of RTHbeta is quite variable and mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor beta (THR-B) gene have been detected in up to 90% of patients. The proband was a 34-year-old Jordanian male who presented with intermittent palpitations. Read More

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December 2018

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its Comorbid Mental Disorders: An Evaluation of their Labor Market Outcomes.

J Ment Health Policy Econ 2018 Sep;21(3):105-121

Department of Economics, Ohio University. Office: 345 Bentley Annex. Athens, OH 45701, USA,

Background: Attention-deficit/hyper-activity disorder's (ADHD) prevalence rate has been increasing during the last decade. Evidence from different studies suggests that the effect of ADHD on earnings and employment could be more detrimental than other disorders such as depression or anxiety. Although it is widely known that these mental disorders can coexist with ADHD, none of these studies has considered the joint evaluation of ADHD and its comorbidities. Read More

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September 2018

Changes in endogenous dopamine induced by methylphenidate predict functional connectivity in non-human primates.

J Neurosci 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Dept. of Neuroscience, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705

Dopamine (DA) levels in the striatum are increased by many therapeutic drugs, such as methylphenidate (MPH), which also alters behavioral and cognitive functions thought to be controlled by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) dose-dependently. We linked DA changes and functional connectivity (FC) using simultaneous [F]fallypride PET and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in awake male rhesus monkeys after oral administration of various doses of MPH. We found a negative correlation between [F]fallypride nondisplaceable binding potential (BP) and MPH dose in the head of the caudate (hCd), demonstrating increased extracellular DA resulting from MPH administration. Read More

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December 2018

Updated 2018 NICE guideline on pharmacological treatments for people with ADHD: a critical look.

BMJ Evid Based Med 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Psychiatric Research Unit, Region Zealand Psychiatry, Slagelse, Denmark.

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December 2018

Prenatal alcohol exposure and sleep-wake behaviors: exploratory and naturalistic observations in the clinical setting and in an animal model.

Sleep Med 2018 Oct 25;54:101-112. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Department of Cellular & Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Introduction: Clinical research and studies using animal models have revealed a complex and relatively under-explored interaction between prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and alterations in sleep-wake behaviors.

Objectives: To utilize a structured naturalistic observation-based methodology, consisting of descriptive elements, to provide insight into possible links between altered sleep and disruptive daytime presentations in children and adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). To apply a similar structured behavioral observation protocol in a PAE animal model to compare outcomes from the experimental and clinical studies utilizing naturalistic observational methodology. Read More

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October 2018

Simultaneous determination of methylphenidate and ritalinic acid in hair using LC-MS/MS.

Forensic Sci Int 2018 Nov 29;294:183-188. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

National Forensic Service, 139 Jiyang-ro, Yangcheon-Gu, Seoul 158-707, Republic of Korea.

Methylphenidate (MPH) is one of the most commonly prescribed stimulants for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and its abuse is on the rise with its growing availability. Some analytical methods have been reported for the detection of MPH in hair. However, the concentration range of MPH as well as its metabolite, ritalinic acid (RA) in the hair of MPH abuse cases has not been reported. Read More

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November 2018

Psychosocial complications in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

Epilepsy Behav 2018 Dec 7;90:122-128. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Neurology, Drammen Hospital, Vestre Viken Hospital Trust, Drammen, Norway; Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) constitutes about 10% of all epilepsies. Because of executive dysfunction, people with JME may be prone to impulsivity and risk-taking behavior. Our aim was to investigate whether psychosocial issues associated with impulsivity are more prominent in people with JME than in those with other types of genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE). Read More

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December 2018

Integrative analysis of genome-wide association study and chromosomal enhancer maps identified brain region related pathways associated with ADHD.

Compr Psychiatry 2018 Nov 28;88:65-69. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

School of Public Health, Health Science Center, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, PR China. Electronic address:

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common childhood onset psychiatric behavioral disorders, and the pathogenesis of ADHD is still unclear. Utilizing the latest genome wide association studies (GWAS) data and enhancer map, we explored the brain region related biological pathways associated with ADHD. The GWAS summary data of ADHD was driven from a published study, involving 20,183 ADHD cases and 35,191 healthy controls. Read More

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November 2018

Involvement of catecholaminergic and GABAAergic mediations in the anxiety-related behavior in long-term powdered diet-fed mice.

Neurochem Int 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 4-4-1 Komatsushima, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 981-8558, Japan.

Dietary habits are important factors which affect metabolic homeostasis and the development of emotion. We have previously shown that long-term powdered diet feeding in mice increases spontaneous locomotor activity and social interaction (SI) time. Moreover, that diet causes changes in the dopaminergic system, especially increased dopamine turnover and decreased dopamine D4 receptor signals in the frontal cortex. Read More

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December 2018

Valence, arousal or both? Shared emotional deficits associated with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional/Defiant-Conduct Disorder symptoms in school-aged youth.

Biol Psychol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

University of Cyprus, Cyprus. Electronic address:

We examined emotional responses in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity and Oppositional Defiant/Conduct Disorder to affective pictures. Eighty seven children (42 female, M = 11.2), with clinical or subclinical symptoms and controls viewed joy, fear, sadness or neutral pictures while heart rate, skin conductance, corrugator and zygomaticus responses were recorded. Read More

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December 2018

Differential effects of chemogenetic inhibition on dopamine and norepinephrine neurons in the mouse 5-choice serial reaction time task.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen DK-2100, Denmark.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by inattention, aberrant impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although the underlying pathophysiology of ADHD remains unclear, dopamine and norepinephrine signaling originating from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and locus coeruleus (LC) is thought to be critically involved. In this study, we employ Designer Receptor Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) together with the mouse 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task (5-CSRTT) to investigate the necessary roles of these catecholamines in ADHD-related behaviors, including attention, impulsivity, and motivation. Read More

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December 2018

Outcomes of a Statewide Learning Collaborative to Implement Mental Health Services in Pediatric Primary Care.

Psychiatr Serv 2018 Dec 10:appips201800163. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Nationwide Children's Hospital, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (Baum); People's Health Solutions, Los Angeles (King); Johns Hopkins Hospital and Health System, Baltimore (Wissow).

Objective:: Mental health concerns are common in pediatric primary care, but practitioners report low levels of comfort managing them. A primary care intervention addressing organizational and individual factors was developed to improve the management of common mental health conditions.

Methods:: Twenty-nine practices participated in a statewide learning collaborative over 18 months. Read More

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December 2018

Methylphenidate Alters Functional Connectivity of Default Mode Network in Drug-Naive Male Adults With ADHD.

J Atten Disord 2018 Dec 10:1087054718816822. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

1 ADHD Outpatient Program - Adult Division, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Objective: This study evaluated the hypothesis that methylphenidate immediate release (MPH-IR) treatment would improve Default Mode Network (DMN) within-connectivity.

Method: Resting-state functional connectivity of the main nodes of DMN was evaluated in a highly homogeneous sample of 18 drug-naive male adult participants with ADHD.

Results: Comparing resting-state functional connectivity functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) scans before and after MPH treatment focusing exclusively on within-DMN connectivity, we evidenced the strengthening of functional connectivity between two nodes of the DMN: posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and left lateral parietal cortex (LLP). Read More

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December 2018

Hyperactive Child Syndrome and Estimated Life Expectancy at Young Adult Follow-Up: The Role of ADHD Persistence and Other Potential Predictors.

J Atten Disord 2018 Dec 10:1087054718816164. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

2 Associated Mental Health Consultants, Wauwatosa, WI, USA.

Objective: We examined if ADHD Combined Type or Presentation (ADHD-C) reduced estimated life expectancy (ELE) at young adulthood and if the persistence of ADHD to adulthood further adversely affected ELE.

Method: A young adult follow-up of 131 hyperactive and 71 control cases was used to derive 14 variables that were entered into a life expectancy calculator to generate ELE scores. Both ratings of executive function (EF) in everyday life and tests of EF and IQ were measured along with comorbid psychopathologies. Read More

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December 2018

Predictors of Receipt of School Services in a National Sample of Youth With ADHD.

J Atten Disord 2018 Dec 10:1087054718816169. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

3 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Objective: The objective of the study is to describe the extent to which students with ADHD received school-based intervention services and identify demographic, diagnostic, and impairment-related variables that are associated with service receipt in a large, nationally drawn sample.

Method: Parent-reported data were obtained for 2,495 children with ADHD aged 4 to 17 years from the National Survey of the Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD and Tourette Syndrome (NS-DATA).

Results: The majority (69. Read More

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December 2018

Randomized control study of the effects of executive function training on peer difficulties of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder C subtype.

Appl Neuropsychol Child 2018 Dec 10:1-15. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

c Department of Chinese Language and Literature , Beijing Normal University , Beijing , China.

Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder C subtype (ADHD-C) is associated with social rejection and peer difficulties. The present study evaluates the comparative efficacy of group executive function training (GEFT) with social skills training (SST) in children with ADHD-C in China.

Methods: A randomized, controlled treatment outcome study that comprised of 52 boys and 29 girls (age range: 9-12 years old) was conducted. Read More

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December 2018

Impairments in resource allocation and executive control in children with ADHD.

Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry 2018 Dec 7:1359104518816115. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Development of Language, Learning and Action, Department of Psychology, Saarland University, Germany.

Children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show pronounced alterations in cognitive tasks, such as a highly variable mode of responding. There is an ongoing debate about the key driving mechanisms of such alterations (e.g. Read More

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December 2018

Exploring the Brain Lateralization in ADHD Based on Variability of Resting-State fMRI Signal.

J Atten Disord 2018 Dec 6:1087054718816170. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

1 Nanjing University of Science & Technology, China.

Objective: In this study, we investigate the brain lateralization in ADHD patients. Furthermore, we also explore the difference between male and female patients, and the difference among distinct ADHD subtypes, that is, ADHD-inattentive (ADHD-IA) and ADHD-combined (ADHD-C).

Method: We employed the standard deviation to quantify the variability of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal and measure the lateralization index (LI). Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Peer Victimization in Preadolescent Children With ADHD in Turkey.

J Interpers Violence 2018 Dec 6:886260518816321. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

4 Istanbul University, Turkey.

The present study aims to investigate peer victimization and its relationship with comorbid psychiatric diagnoses and quality of life (QoL) among children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Study sample consisted of 66 children with ADHD (mean age = 8.6 ± 1. Read More

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December 2018

Impulsivity as an Endophenotype in ADHD: Negative Findings.

J Atten Disord 2018 Dec 6:1087054718816161. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

1 Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Impulsivity has a strong genetic component and is considered an endophenotype in many psychiatric disorders. Impulsivity in adult ADHD has become a focus of interest more recently because of its suggested prominence in this age.

Objective: This study aimed to access self-reported impulsivity levels in biological parents of ADHD offspring, according to their status: non-ADHD (controls), remitted, nonremitted. Read More

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December 2018

Decision-Making Deficits in ADHD Are Not Related to Risk Seeking But to Suboptimal Decision-Making: Meta-Analytical and Novel Experimental Evidence.

J Atten Disord 2018 Dec 6:1087054718815572. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

4 The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.

Objective: ADHD is related to decision-making deficits in real-life (e.g., substance abuse) and on experimental tasks (increased preference for risky options). Read More

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December 2018

Assessing ADHD Through the Multi-Informant Approach: The Contribution of the Conners' 3 Scales.

J Atten Disord 2018 Dec 6:1087054718815581. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

1 University of Florence, Italy.

Objective: Symptoms of ADHD need to be present in at least two different settings to suggest a diagnosis, so multi-informant assessment approaches are usually adopted. The Conners' Rating Scales offer three versions, completed by parents (Conners 3-P), teachers (Conners 3-T), and youth (Conners 3-SR). Nonetheless, there is a lack of studies examining the psychometric properties of the Parent and Teacher versions and the relation between each version of the Conners 3 scales. Read More

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December 2018

Medium-Range Narratives as a Complementary Tool to Principle-Based Prioritization in Sweden: Test Case "ADHD".

J Bioeth Inq 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Institute for Ethics, History and Philosophy of Medicine, University of Muenster, Muenster, Germany.

In this paper, for the benefit of reflection processes in clinical and in local, regional, and national priority-setting, we aim to develop an ethical theoretical framework that includes both ethical principles and medium-range narratives. We present our suggestion in the particular case of having to choose between treatment interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and treatment interventions for other conditions or diseases, under circumstances of scarcity. In order to arrive at our model, we compare two distinct ethical approaches: a generalist (principles) approach and a particularist (narratives) approach. Read More

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December 2018

Overuse of methylphenidate: an analysis of Swedish pharmacy dispensing data.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 9;10:1657-1665. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Unit for Social Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden,

Purpose: To identify overuse of methylphenidate and to investigate patterns of overuse in relation to sociodemographic and clinical characteristics.

Patients And Methods: Swedish national, pharmacy dispensing data were analyzed for all 56,922 individuals aged 6-79 years, who filled a methylphenidate prescription between 2010 and 2011. Overuse was defined as having above 150% days covered by the dispensed amount during 365 days from the first prescription fill, assuming use at the maximum recommended daily dose. Read More

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November 2018

Prevalence of autism traits and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in a clinical sample of children and adolescents with chronic pain.

J Pain Res 2018 8;11:2827-2836. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Functional Area Medical Psychology/Functional Unit Behavior Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden,

Purpose: Recent research has suggested that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be comorbid to pediatric chronic pain, but the empirical support is yet scarce. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the occurrence of traits and symptoms consistent with clinically significant ASD and ADHD in a group of children and adolescents with chronic debilitating pain and examine potential differences in pain and demographic variables between children with and without clinically significant traits and symptoms of ASD and ADHD.

Patients And Methods: This cross-sectional study included 146 parent-child dyads (102 girls, 111 mothers, children 8-17 years) consecutively referred to a tertiary pain clinic. Read More

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November 2018
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Oriental Herbal Medicine for Neurological Disorders in Children: An Overview of Systematic Reviews.

Am J Chin Med 2018 Dec 6:1-26. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

* Department of Pediatrics of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Korean Medicine Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul 05278, Republic of Korea.

Oriental herbal medicine (OHM) has been widely used in pediatric neurological disorders and has attracted attention as a safe and effective treatment. We aim to summarize and evaluate the evidence for OHM in pediatric neurological disorders for evidence-based decision-making. Without language restrictions, up-to-date research data were obtained from nine electronic databases. Read More

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December 2018
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The Relationship of Clinical Symptoms with Social Cognition in Children Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Specific Learning Disorder or Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Psychiatry Investig 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Ondokuz Mayıs University Faculty of Medicine, Samsun, Turkey.

Objective: One of the areas of social cognition is Theory of Mind (ToM) is defined as the capacity to interpret, infer and explain mental states underlying the behavior of others. When social cognition studies on neurodevelopmental disorders are examined, it can be seen that this skill has not been studied sufficiently in children with Specific Learning Disorder (SLD).

Methods: In this study, social cognition skills in children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), SLD or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) evaluated before puberty and compared with controls. Read More

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December 2018

Association of Low Lead Levels with Behavioral Problems and Executive Function Deficits in Schoolers from Montevideo, Uruguay.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Dec 4;15(12). Epub 2018 Dec 4.

School of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA.

The negative effect of lead exposure on children's intelligence is well-documented. Less is known about the impact of lead on the use of executive functions to self-regulate behavior. We measured blood lead level (BLL) in a sample of first grade children from Montevideo, Uruguay (n = 206, age 6. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Prevalence and Predictors of Medication Use in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence from a Community-Based Longitudinal Study.

J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

3 Department of Health Services, Murdoch Children's Research Institute , Parkville, Australia .

Objectives: To determine, in a community-based sample of primary school-aged children meeting diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), (1) the proportion of children with ADHD treated with medication; (2) predictors of medication use; and (3) the association between medication use and psychological service utilization.

Methods: Grade 1 children with ADHD were recruited through 43 schools in Melbourne, Australia, using a two-stage screening and case confirmation procedure. Parent report of medication treatment, clinician diagnosis, and psychological service use were collected at ages 7 and 10 years. Read More

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December 2018
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Patient-level medication regimen complexity in an adolescent and adult population with autism spectrum disorders.

Pharmacotherapy 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

The Ohio State University, Center for Biostatistics, 320-43 Lincoln Tower, 1800 Cannon Drive, Columbus, OH, 43210.

Background: Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently experience polypharmacy. However, there is limited understanding of how to quantify medication complexity in this vulnerable population.

Objective: This study examined medication administration difficulty using the Medication Regimen Complexity Index (MRCI) tool in adolescents and adults with ASD. Read More

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December 2018

Abstracts.

Br J Dermatol 2018 Dec;179(6):e232-e262

Atopic eczema is a skin disease affecting around 20% of UK children, 16% of whom have moderate to severe disease. Severe atopic eczema can cause sleep disturbance, poor school attendance and social withdrawal, as well as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety and clinical depression. Skin can become infected and this can be a reason for hospital admission. Read More

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December 2018

The Effects of COMT Polymorphism on Cortical Thickness and Surface Area Abnormalities in Children with ADHD.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Research Center for Child Mental Development, University of Fukui, Eiheiji, Fukui, Japan.

The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is associated with frontal cortex development and the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, how the COMT gene impacts brain structure and behavior in ADHD remains unknown. In the present study, we identify the effect of COMT on cortical thickness and surface area in children with ADHD and children with typically developing (TD) using a machine learning approach. Read More

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December 2018

Can working memory training work for ADHD? Development of central executive training and comparison with behavioral parent training.

J Consult Clin Psychol 2018 Dec;86(12):964-979

Department of Psychology, Florida State University.

Objective: Working memory deficits have been linked experimentally and developmentally with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related symptoms/impairments. Unfortunately, substantial evidence indicates that extant working memory training programs fail to improve these symptoms/impairments. We hypothesized that this discrepancy may reflect insufficient targeting, such that extant protocols do not adequately engage the specific working memory components linked with the disorder's behavioral/functional impairments. Read More

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December 2018

Neurocognitive function in moderate-severe pediatric atopic dermatitis: A case-control study.

Pediatr Dermatol 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Division of Dermatology, Department of Pediatrics, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital, Chicago, Illinois.

Background/objectives: Epidemiological studies have shown an increased prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with atopic dermatitis (AD), but many of the features of ADHD may occur as a result of the poor sleep and itch distraction associated with AD.

Methods: A case-control study was performed in children aged 6-17 years with moderate/severe AD compared with age-/sex-matched healthy controls. Participants were screened for ADHD using Vanderbilt assessments. Read More

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December 2018

Multi-rater developmental trajectories of hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention symptoms from 1.5 to 17 years: a population-based birth cohort study.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Sainte-Justine University Hospital, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Canada.

The developmental course of hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention symptoms from infancy to adolescence has not been documented in a population sample. The aim of this study was to describe the developmental course of hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention symptoms from 1.5 to 17 years using multiple informants, and to identify perinatal risk factors associated with following elevated (high-risk) trajectories. Read More

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December 2018

A Comparison of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Pharmacotherapy vs. Pharmacotherapy Alone in Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Front Psychiatry 2018 16;9:571. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Division of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, University of Basel Psychiatric Clinics, Basel, Switzerland.

In the treatment of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) the importance of psychological interventions in combination with pharmacotherapy is widely accepted in contemporary clinical routine. The natural course of the disorder seems to justify additional psychological interventions because even in patients who are highly compliant to pharmacotherapy full remission is not always achieved. The aim of the present study was to analyze the contribution of psychotherapy to the treatment of adult ADHD patients. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Methylphenidate's effects on thalamic metabolism and functional connectivity in cannabis abusers and healthy controls.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Methylphenidate (MPH) is a first line treatment for ADHD and is also misused as a purported cognitive enhancer, yet its effects on brain function are still poorly understood. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies showed that MPH altered cortico-striatal resting functional connectivity (RFC). Here we investigated the effects of MPH in thalamic connectivity since the thalamus modulates striato-cortical signaling. Read More

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December 2018

The Symptom Trajectory of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Korean School-Age Children.

Psychiatry Investig 2018 May 16;15(5):470-475. Epub 2018 May 16.

Environmental Health Center, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan, Republic of Korea.

Objective: We aimed to investigate symptom trajectory of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Korean school-age children.

Methods: Four hundred fifty six elementary school children were enrolled when they were in 1st grade and assessed once per year until 4th grade. Symptom severity was assessed by parents using the Korean version of the ADHD rating scale (K-ARS). Read More

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An exploration of concomitant psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorder.

Compr Psychiatry 2018 Nov 6;88:57-64. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, United States of America. Electronic address:

Objective: We explored patterns of concomitant psychiatric disorders in a large sample of treatment-seeking children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Methods: Participants were 658 children with ASD (age 3-17 years; mean = 7.2 years) in one of six federally-funded multisite randomized clinical trials (RCT) between 1999 and 2014. Read More

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November 2018