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    224 results match your criteria ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders [Journal]

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    The Zappel-Philipp a historical example of ADHD Clinics.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    A. A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, USA.
    In his book "Die Geschichte von dem Zappel-Philipp," the German psychiatrist Heinrich Hoffmann (1809-1894) offers a clinical vignette which raises the question of the description of a disobedient child or presenting hyperactivity symptoms. This article describes the historical context and the biographical aspects related to this interesting approach to describing a psychiatric syndrome to children and adults. It also underlines the importance of a global approach of ADHD that considers the familial environment and situational context of symptoms. Read More

    A meta-analytic review of the association between cortisol reactivity in response to a stressor and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2017 Sep 5. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, 11 Seashore Hall E, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, 52242, USA.
    A substantial literature suggests that abnormal cortisol reactivity may be a vulnerability for deleterious mental health outcomes, including ADHD. ADHD has been linked with difficulty in emotion regulation and increased risk of experiencing stressors, both of which may be related to psychobiological abnormalities (e.g. Read More

    Reduced emotional empathy in adults with subclinical ADHD: evidence from the empathy and systemizing quotient.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2017 Aug 23. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Faculty of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Clinical and Developmental Neuropsychology, University of Groningen, Grote Kruisstraat 2/1, 9712 TS, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Studies in children with ADHD suggest impairments in social cognitive functions, whereas studies in adults with ADHD are scarce and inconclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between ADHD traits and self-reported social cognitive style in a sample of adults from the general population. For this purpose, a community sample of 685 adults filled out online self-report questionnaires about ADHD symptoms (ADHD Rating Scale, ARS), social cognitive functioning and friendships. Read More

    Prevalence of sexual dysfunctions and other sexual disorders in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder compared to the general population.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2017 Aug 22. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    Expertise Center Adult ADHD, PsyQ, Carel Reinierszkade 197, 2593 HR, The Hague, The Netherlands.
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity that lead to dysfunctioning in daily life. One of the affected areas of life that has so far not been studied in ADHD is sexual functioning. The goal of this study was to assess prevalence of sexual dysfunctions and other sexual disorders among adults with ADHD. Read More

    Subjective Distress Associated with Adult ADHD: evaluation of a new self-report.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2017 Jun 10. Epub 2017 Jun 10.
    TRE Program, Division of Psychiatric Specialties, Department of Mental Health and Psychiatry, University Hospitals of Geneva, 20 bis rue de Lausanne, 1201, Geneva, Switzerland.
    The current study aims at documenting the psychometric properties of the Subjective Distress Associated with Adult ADHD-Self-Report (SDAAA-SR), a newly developed instrument for the assessment of psychological suffering in ADHD adults. The SDAAA-SR was administered to 247 students and 142 ADHD adults. Factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity were assessed. Read More

    Emerging role of miRNA in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2017 May 10. Epub 2017 May 10.
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital of Psychiatry Zurich, University of Zurich, Wagistrasse 12, 8952, Schlieren, Switzerland.
    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder whose aetiology still remains elusive. Nevertheless, evidence supports a high genetic contribution that interacts with environmental factors, also known to modulate epigenetic processes. These epigenetic modulators are a class of non-coding RNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs), known as post-transcriptional regulators, which have emerged as prospective players in neuropsychiatric disorders since they play a role in brain development, synapse formation, and the fine-tuning of genes underlying synaptic and memory formation. Read More

    Predictors of relapse or maintenance of response in pediatric and adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder following discontinuation of long-term treatment with atomoxetine.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2017 May 5. Epub 2017 May 5.
    Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, IN, 46285, USA.
    We identified relapse/maintenance-of-response (MOR) predictors following discontinuation of long-term atomoxetine treatment in pediatric and adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and assessed correlations between ADHD symptoms and quality of life (QoL). Post hoc analyses of data from two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 withdrawal studies in patients with ADHD meeting predefined response criteria before randomization. Study 1: patients (N = 163; 6-15 years) received atomoxetine (1. Read More

    Positive alcohol expectancies mediate associations between ADHD behaviors and alcohol-related problems among college students.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2017 Apr 26. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Department of Psychology, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA.
    An increasing percentage of college students report being affected by ADHD behaviors, and this population is at increased risk of experiencing negative consequences associated with alcohol consumption. However, specific factors motivating alcohol consumption and contributing to negative outcomes among these individuals are not well understood. Recent work suggests alcohol expectancies may interact with ADHD behaviors to influence negative drinking-related outcomes among those with elevated inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. Read More

    Perception in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2017 Apr 11. Epub 2017 Apr 11.
    Department of Clinical and Developmental Neuropsychology, Faculty of Behavioural and Social Sciences, University of Groningen, Grote Kruisstraat 2/1, 9712 TS, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    A large body of research demonstrated that individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suffer from various neuropsychological deficits. In contrast, less is known and only divergent evidence exists on perceptual functions of individuals with ADHD. This is problematic as neuropsychological and perceptual functions are closely interrelated and are often difficult to disentangle in behavioral assessments. Read More

    Relationship between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sedentary behavior in adolescence: a cross-sectional study.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2017 Apr 4. Epub 2017 Apr 4.
    Institute for Therapy and Health Research (IFT-Nord), Harmsstr. 2, 24114, Kiel, Germany.
    Existing studies reveal that high levels of sedentary behavior are associated with more inattention and hyperactivity problems. Since most previous studies used screen time as an indicator of sedentary behavior and assessed symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by short screening measures which do not allow to distinguish between subtypes of ADHD, the current study aimed to investigate association between different types of sedentary behavior and symptoms and subtypes of ADHD. The current cross-sectional study analyzed data of 913 students (46. Read More

    Relationship of self-mutilative behaviour with history of childhood trauma and adult ADHD symptoms in a sample of inpatients with alcohol use disorder.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2017 Apr 3. Epub 2017 Apr 3.
    Department of Psychiatry, Baltalimani State Hospital for Muskuloskeletal Disorders, Istanbul, Turkey.
    The aim of the present study was to evaluate relationship of self-mutilative behaviour (SMB) with the severity of childhood trauma and adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a sample of inpatients with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Participants included 188 inpatients with AUD. Participants were evaluated with the Self-mutilative Behaviour Questionnaire, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28) and the Adult ADD/ADHD DSM-IV Based Diagnostic Screening and Rating Scale (Adult ADHD Scale). Read More

    Physiological substrates of executive functioning: a systematic review of the literature.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2017 Mar 22. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    Department of Psychology, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA.
    Executive function (EF) is a multifaceted construct that has been defined as a set of higher-order cognitive processes that allow for flexibility, self-regulation, strategic planning, and goal-directed behaviors. EFs have been studied in numerous clinical disorders using a variety of neuropsychological tasks and, more recently, neuroimaging techniques. The underlying physiological substrates of EF were historically attributed to the frontal lobes; however, recent studies suggest more widespread involvement of additional brain regions. Read More

    Effects of atomoxetine on attention in Wistar rats treated with the neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4).
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2017 Mar 14. Epub 2017 Mar 14.
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Regensburg, 93040, Regensburg, Germany.
    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of the neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4), which allows a depletion of noradrenergic terminals in a dose-dependent manner, on attention in rats as measured using the five-choice serial-reaction time task (5CSRTT). In addition, we investigated whether the effects of DSP4 treatment can be reversed by atomoxetine. Atomoxetine is a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor and has been shown to be effective in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Read More

    The risk of misdiagnosing posture weakness as hyperactivity in ADHD: a case study.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2017 Mar 4. Epub 2017 Mar 4.
    Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS), Berkshire Healthcare Foundation Trust, 3 Craven Road, Reading, RG 1 5 LF, UK.
    Difficulties in sustaining posture can present with features associated with hyperactive behaviour listed in DSM-5 and ICD-10 classifications for ADHD. Information from a system measuring motor activity during a neurocognitive test (QbTest), occupational therapist reports and Conners rating scales are compared between cases with and without posture problems. Weakness in sustaining posture results in elevated activity measures during infrared motion analysis. Read More

    Prepotent response inhibition and reaction times in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder from a Caribbean community.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2017 Feb 25. Epub 2017 Feb 25.
    Grupo de Neurociencias del Caribe, Laboratorio de Neurociencias Cognitivas, Unidad de Neurociencias Cognitivas, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Calle 54 # 59 -189, Sede 1, Bloque C, Barranquilla, Colombia.
    Impairment in inhibitory control has been postulated as an underlying hallmark of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which can be utilized as a quantitative trait for genetic studies. Here, we evaluate whether inhibitory control, measured by simple automatized prepotent response (PR) inhibition variables, is a robust discriminant function for the diagnosis of ADHD in children and can be used as an endophenotype for future genetic studies. One hundred fifty-two school children (30. Read More

    No genetic association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Parkinson's disease in nine ADHD candidate SNPs.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2017 Jun 7;9(2):121-127. Epub 2017 Feb 7.
    Department of Neurodegeneration, Hertie-Institute of Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) involve pathological changes in brain structures such as the basal ganglia, which are essential for the control of motor and cognitive behavior and impulsivity. The cause of ADHD and PD remains unknown, but there is increasing evidence that both seem to result from a complicated interplay of genetic and environmental factors affecting numerous cellular processes and brain regions. To explore the possibility of common genetic pathways within the respective pathophysiologies, nine ADHD candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven genes were tested for association with PD in 5333 cases and 12,019 healthy controls: one variant, respectively, in the genes coding for synaptosomal-associated protein 25 k (SNAP25), the dopamine (DA) transporter (SLC6A3; DAT1), DA receptor D4 (DRD4), serotonin receptor 1B (HTR1B), tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), the norepinephrine transporter SLC6A2 and three SNPs in cadherin 13 (CDH13). Read More

    What are the benefits of methylphenidate as a treatment for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2017 Mar;9(1):1-3
    Centre of Mental Health, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University Hospital of Würzburg, Margarete-Höppel-Platz 1, 97080, Würzburg, Germany.

    Is ADHD a valid diagnosis in older adults?
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2017 Jan 25. Epub 2017 Jan 25.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    ADHD is a neurodevelopmental syndrome that often persists into adulthood. It is possible that different criteria are necessary for older adults than younger adults: the manifestations of ADHD could change with age; other conditions with onset in later life share presenting symptoms with ADHD; different contextual challenges and patterns of compensatory support may exist. For these reasons, we reviewed evidence for the validity of DSM ADHD criteria in adulthood for individuals over the age of 50. Read More

    Atomoxetine treatment for children and adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): a comprehensive meta-analysis of outcomes on parent-rated core symptomatology.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2017 Jan 21. Epub 2017 Jan 21.
    Department of Psychology, Towson University, 8000 York Road, Towson, MD, 21252, USA.
    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) impacts a significant number of children and adolescents and often leads to deleterious functional impairment. Psychostimulant medication has historically been the first line of pharmacological intervention, though recent years have seen greater attention paid to non-stimulant alternatives. The objective of the present study was to conduct the most comprehensive meta-analysis to date evaluating the efficacy of atomoxetine in reducing core symptomatology of ADHD according to parent report. Read More

    Prevalence and correlates of ADHD in individuals with substance use disorder in Nigeria.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2017 Jan 17. Epub 2017 Jan 17.
    Department of Psychiatry, Bayero University Kano, PMB 3011, Kano, Nigeria.
    Substance use disorder (SUD) is associated with ADHD. ADHD increases the severity of SUD and has negative influence on the prognosis of the disorder. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of ADHD in individuals with SUD. Read More

    A systematic review of circadian function, chronotype and chronotherapy in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2017 Jan 7. Epub 2017 Jan 7.
    Department of Psychology, Maynooth University, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, County Kildare, Ireland.
    Reports of sleep disturbances in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are common in both children and adults; however, the aetiology of such disturbances is poorly understood. One potentially important mechanism which may be implicated in disrupted sleep in ADHD is the circadian clock, a known key regulator of the sleep/wake cycle. In this systematic review, we analyse the evidence for circadian rhythm changes associated with ADHD, as well as assessing evidence for therapeutic approaches involving the circadian clock in ADHD. Read More

    Assessment of effects of atomoxetine in adult patients with ADHD: consistency among three geographic regions in a response maintenance study.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2017 Jun 6;9(2):113-120. Epub 2017 Jan 6.
    Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, 46285, USA.
    A previous study (Upadhyaya et al. in Eur J Psychiatry 2013b; 27:185-205) reported that adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) demonstrated maintenance of response for up to 25 weeks after initially responding to atomoxetine treatment. In the present report, the consistency of treatment effect across three geographic regions (Europe, United States/Canada [US/Can], and Latin America [Latin Am]) was explored. Read More

    The development of the SGI-16: a shortened sensory gating deficit and distractibility questionnaire for adults with ADHD.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2016 Dec 30. Epub 2016 Dec 30.
    Laboratoire de santé publique évaluation des systèmes de soins et santé perçue, Université de la Méditerranée - EA 3279 - Faculté de Médecine, 27 bd Jean Moulin, 13385, Marseille Cedex 05, France.
    The Sensory Gating Inventory (SGI) is a questionnaire composed of 36 items designed to investigate abnormal perception related to the inability to control sensitivity to sensory stimuli frequently reported in adult with ADHD. This questionnaire can be considered too lengthy to be taken by people with ADHD, and a shortened version is needed. One hundred and sixty-three adults with ADHD responded to the SGI-36. Read More

    Psychometric properties of the Japanese version of the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale: Self-Report.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2016 Dec 24. Epub 2016 Dec 24.
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Arkansas Medical Sciences Child Study Centre, Little Rock, AR, USA.
    The Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale Self-Report has been translated into nine languages and has been widely used in assessing functional impairment of adults with ADHD. This study is a psychometric validation of the WFIRS-S in Japanese. The WFIRS-S-J and other questionnaires were administered to 46 adults with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 104 control adults, and 889 university students. Read More

    Early maladaptive schemas in adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2017 Jun 23;9(2):101-111. Epub 2016 Dec 23.
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Freiburg, Hauptstr. 5, 79104, Freiburg, Germany.
    The main purpose of this study was to examine whether adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) demonstrate sets of dysfunctional cognitive beliefs and behavioural tendencies according to Jeffrey Young's schema-focused therapy model. Sets of dysfunctional beliefs (maladaptive schemas) were assessed with the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-S2) in 78 adult ADHD patients and 80 control subjects. Patients with ADHD scored significantly higher than the control group on almost all maladaptive schemas. Read More

    Is there a difference between child self-ratings and parent proxy-ratings of the quality of life of children with a diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? A systematic review of the literature.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2017 Mar 22;9(1):11-29. Epub 2016 Dec 22.
    Clinical and Health Psychology, School of Health in Social Science, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    There are contemporary indicators that parent proxy-ratings and child self-ratings of a child's quality of life (QoL) are not interchangeable. This review examines dual informant studies to assess parent-child agreement on the QoL of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. A systematic search of four major databases (PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases) was completed, and related peer-reviewed journals were hand-searched. Read More

    The descriptive epidemiology of DSM-IV Adult ADHD in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2017 Mar 19;9(1):47-65. Epub 2016 Nov 19.
    Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
    We previously reported on the cross-national epidemiology of ADHD from the first 10 countries in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. The current report expands those previous findings to the 20 nationally or regionally representative WMH surveys that have now collected data on adult ADHD. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered to 26,744 respondents in these surveys in high-, upper-middle-, and low-/lower-middle-income countries (68. Read More

    Pre-service teachers' perceptions of sluggish cognitive tempo.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2017 Jun 1;9(2):89-100. Epub 2016 Nov 1.
    Department of Psychology, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA, 50614-0505, USA.
    Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is characterized by a passive form of inattention that may not overtly disrupt classroom goals. Due to the nature of these symptoms, children with SCT may be "falling through the cracks" in schools. The current study examined pre-service teachers' perceptions of SCT in the classroom. Read More

    Do Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Quality-Of-Life (AAQoL) scale and the SF-36 scale measure the same construct of health-related quality of life?
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2017 Mar 12;9(1):39-45. Epub 2016 Oct 12.
    Research Center for Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Hafez Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
    It has never been investigated whether the assessment tools of Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Quality-of-Life (AAQoL) scale and the SF-36 measure the same construct. The participants were 101 parents of children with ADHD and 243 parents of school children. The parents completed both the Persian version of the AAQoL and the SF-36 questionnaires. Read More

    The use of compensatory strategies in adults with ADHD symptoms.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2017 Jun 10;9(2):73-88. Epub 2016 Sep 10.
    Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, 2136 West Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada.
    This study examined the use of compensatory strategies reported by adults with ADHD symptoms and their relation to measures of functioning. Forty-nine adults (55.1 % female) completed a structured diagnostic interview to assess ADHD, and responses were coded for compensatory strategies: Adaptation, Paying Attention, Organization, External Support, and Avoidance. Read More

    The role of sleep quality and quantity in moderating the effectiveness of medication in the treatment of children with ADHD.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2017 Mar 11;9(1):31-38. Epub 2016 Aug 11.
    Departments of Psychology and Neuroscience, Psychiatry, and Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Life Sciences Centre, Rm 2521, PO BOX 15000, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2, Canada.
    The current study examined: (1) whether long-acting stimulant medication is effective in improving performance on measures of memory, attention, and academic productivity; and (2) whether sleep impacts the relationship between medication and performance. Participants were 21 newly diagnosed, medication-naïve children (mean age = 9.1 years) with ADHD, who participated in a 4-week blinded placebo-controlled randomized trial of long-acting MPH. Read More

    Retrospective assessment of childhood ADHD symptoms for diagnosis in adults: validity of a short 8-item version of the Wender-Utah Rating Scale.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2016 Dec 10;8(4):215-223. Epub 2016 Aug 10.
    John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, Building 131, Garran Road, Canberra, ACT, 2601, Australia.
    The Wender-Utah Rating Scale (WURS) is a widely used self-report instrument for retrospective assessment of childhood ADHD. However, many WURS items are not specific to ADHD. Here, we investigated the effect of excluding these items on the performance of the WURS in predicting adult ADHD based on previous diagnosis and current clinically significant symptoms. Read More

    Attention, reward, and inhibition: symptomatic features of ADHD and issues for offenders in the criminal justice system.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2017 Mar 6;9(1):5-10. Epub 2016 Aug 6.
    Department of Criminology, University of Pennsylvania, 483 McNeil Building, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.
    Although the relationship between criminal activity and ADHD has been heavily studied, this paper reviews a largely neglected area of academic discourse: how symptoms of ADHD that often contribute to offending behavior may also potentially create further problems for offenders with ADHD after they come into contact with the criminal justice system and pilot their way through the legal process. The main symptoms of ADHD that are primarily connected to criminal offending are examined and contextualized with respect to diagnosed offenders' experiences with the justice system. Symptoms of ADHD, specifically reward deficiency, behavioral inhibition, and attention deficits, may affect whether individuals will be successful in their experiences in court, with probation, and during incarceration. Read More

    Is emotion recognition the only problem in ADHD? effects of pharmacotherapy on face and emotion recognition in children with ADHD.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2016 Dec 29;8(4):197-204. Epub 2016 Jul 29.
    Department of Psychology, Beykent University, Faculties of Science and Literature, Istanbul, Turkey.
    The objectives of this study were to evaluate both face and emotion recognition, to detect differences among attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subgroups, to identify effects of the gender and to assess the effects of methylphenidate and atomoxetine treatment on both face and emotion recognition in patients with ADHD. The study sample consisted of 41 male, 29 female patients, 8-15 years of age, who were diagnosed as having combined type ADHD (N = 26), hyperactive/impulsive type ADHD (N = 21) or inattentive type ADHD (N = 23) but had not previously used any medication for ADHD and 35 male, 25 female healthy individuals. Long-acting methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) was prescribed to 38 patients, whereas atomoxetine was prescribed to 32 patients. Read More

    Sex differences in claimed and behavioral self-handicapping and ADHD symptomatology in emerging adults.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2016 Dec 21;8(4):205-214. Epub 2016 Jun 21.
    Psychology Department, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA.
    Although the research is clear that boys with ADHD have higher symptomatology and impairment than girls with ADHD, for adults the research is mixed. Some studies suggest no sex differences, whereas others suggest that women might have higher symptomatology and impairment. The present study examined sex differences in ADHD symptomatology and impairment, and the possible role of claimed and behavioral self-handicapping as an explanation for any differences. Read More

    Emotional dysregulation in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2016 Dec 14;8(4):175-187. Epub 2016 Jun 14.
    Center for Pediatric Excellence, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Emotional dysregulation is increasingly recognized as a core feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The purpose of the present systematic literature review was to identify published data related to the neuropsychology of emotional dysregulation in children with ADHD. The literature obtained is discussed in the contexts of deficits in emotional control, impairments in executive function, the emotional components of comorbidities, neurophysiological and autonomic correlates of emotional dysregulation, and the significance of multiple neuropsychological pathways of ADHD on emotional dysregulation. Read More

    A cost-effectiveness analysis of off-label atypical antipsychotic treatment in children and adolescents with ADHD who have failed stimulant therapy.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2016 Sep 3;8(3):149-58. Epub 2016 May 3.
    College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, 789 South Limestone Street, Lexington, KY, 40536, USA.
    The objectives of this study are: (1) to estimate the expected health outcomes of atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) and other non-stimulant attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications and (2) to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of AAPs compared to other non-stimulant ADHD medications. We used decision analysis to compare three alternatives for treating children and adolescents with ADHD who failed initial stimulant treatment: (1) AAPs, (2) a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (atomoxetine), and (3) selective α2-adrenergic agonists (clonidine and guanfacine). Probability estimates and quality-adjusted life year (QALY) weights were derived from a literature review. Read More

    Insecure maternal attachment is associated with depression in ADHD children.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2016 Dec 23;8(4):189-196. Epub 2016 Apr 23.
    Hospital Universitari Institut Pere Mata, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Spain.
    The objective of this study was to analyze the possible association between maternal attachment style and comorbidity associated with childhood ADHD. We evaluated a total of 103 children with ADHD treated at a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Centre and their mothers. Comorbidity was evaluated using the MINI-KID interview. Read More

    Skills training groups for men with ADHD in compulsory care due to substance use disorder: a feasibility study.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2016 Sep 8;8(3):159-72. Epub 2016 Apr 8.
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, CAP Research Center, Center for Neurodevelopmental Disorders at Karolinska Institutet (KIND), Karolinska Institutet, Gävlegatan 22, 11330, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT)-based skills training has been developed and previously evaluated for adults with ADHD in a psychiatric outpatient context. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of DBT-based skills training as a voluntary intervention for men with ADHD in compulsory care due to severe substance abuse. Forty sufficiently detoxified men with ADHD in compulsory care due to life-threatening substance use disorder (SUD) were included in DBT-based skills training groups. Read More

    Factors predicting treatment adherence in patients with adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a preliminary study.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2016 Sep 7;8(3):139-47. Epub 2016 Apr 7.
    Bengi Semerci Enstitusu, Istanbul, Turkey.
    This study aimed to elicit patient- and treatment-related factors that can potentially predict treatment adherence in adult ADHD. Subjects who were over 18 and received a diagnosis of ADHD were included in the study. Chart review data of 102 subjects regarding demographics, medications, comorbidities, concomitant medications and domains of functional impairment were collected, and predictors were assessed using a binominal logistical regression model. Read More

    Obsessive-compulsive adults with and without childhood ADHD symptoms.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2016 Sep 7;8(3):131-8. Epub 2016 Apr 7.
    Department of Psychology, Uskudar University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently coexist. To understand whether childhood ADHD can increase the risk of OCD in adulthood and whether it influences the phenomenology of OCD, we investigated the symptoms of ADHD during childhood in obsessive-compulsive adults who had never been diagnosed as ADHD. Adults with OCD (n = 83) were given the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 (HDRS-17) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Read More

    Trajectories of ADHD severity over 10 years from childhood into adulthood.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2016 Sep 1;8(3):121-30. Epub 2016 Feb 1.
    , 4444 Forest Park Ave., St. Louis, MO, 63108, USA.
    The study examined unique trajectories of ADHD severity from childhood (7-16 yo at baseline) through adulthood in a sample of ADHD, bipolar and healthy subjects. Comorbid disorders and temperament were examined as correlates of course of ADHD. N = 81 participants with an ADHD diagnosis, ascertained as a comparison group in a study of bipolar disorder (BP-I), were followed over a 10-year period. Read More

    ADHD in college: A qualitative analysis.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2016 Jun 29;8(2):79-93. Epub 2016 Jan 29.
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA, USA.
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects many adults and is particularly impairing for emerging adults enrolled in college. Research has shown substantial academic impairment for these individuals. However, research on ADHD impairment has largely been quantitative and focused on children. Read More

    Cognitive behavioural therapy for ADHD in adults: systematic review and meta-analyses.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2016 Mar 22;8(1):3-11. Epub 2016 Jan 22.
    Psychiatric Hospital Slagelse, Psychiatry Vest, Region Zealand Mental Health Services, Copenhagen University, Slagelse, Denmark.
    Systematically review and analyse the efficacy of CBT versus treatment as usual in adults with ADHD. The literature was systematically searched ending the 28 March 2014. Standardised mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Read More

    Attention deficit and hyperactivity in social anxiety disorder: relationship with trauma history and impulsivity.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2016 Jun 21;8(2):95-100. Epub 2016 Jan 21.
    Department of Psychiatry, Istanbul Medical School, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    The aim of this study is to investigate the rate of childhood traumatic experiences and assess the relationship between childhood trauma and impulsivity in the presence of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). A total of 123 patients with a primary diagnosis of SAD were enrolled. All patients were assessed by using the clinical version of Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I/CV) and Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL), ADHD module. Read More

    Prevalence of adult ADHD in an all-female prison unit.
    Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2016 Jun 9;8(2):113-9. Epub 2015 Dec 9.
    Manygates Clinic, South West Yorkshire Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, Portobello Road, Wakefield, WF1 5PN, UK.
    There is increasing evidence suggesting a link between ADHD and criminality, including a strong association between ADHD symptoms and the likelihood of being on probation or in prison. Most studies investigating the prevalence of ADHD in prison populations have focused on adult male offenders. In the current study, 69 female prisoners were screened for both childhood and adult ADHD symptoms using the Barkley Adult ADHD Rating Scale-IV. Read More

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