176 results match your criteria AAPA News [Journal]


FASTBAC-Seq: Functional Analysis of Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in Bacteria by Deep Sequencing.

Methods Enzymol 2018 25;612:67-100. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

ARNA Laboratory, INSERM U1212, CNRS UMR 5320, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France. Electronic address:

As the number of bacterial genomes and transcriptomes increases, so does the number of newly identified toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems. However, their functional characterization remains challenging, often requiring the use of overexpression vectors that can lead to misinterpretations of in vivo results. To fill this gap, we developed a systematic approach called FASTBAC-Seq (Functional AnalysiS of Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in BACteria by Deep Sequencing). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.mie.2018.08.033DOI Listing
September 2018

Systematic Review for the 2018 AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA Guideline on the Management of Blood Cholesterol: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2018 Nov 3. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Background: The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines for the treatment of blood cholesterol found little evidence to support the use of nonstatin lipid-modifying medications to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events. Since publication of these guidelines, multiple randomized controlled trials evaluating nonstatin lipid-modifying medications have been published.

Methods: We performed a systematic review to assess the magnitude of benefit and/or harm from additional lipid-modifying therapies compared with statins alone in individuals with known ASCVD or at high risk of ASCVD. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S07351097183903
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2018.11.004DOI Listing
November 2018
15 Reads

Characterization of Diarrheagenic Strains of Isolated From Cattle Raised in Three Regions of Mexico.

Front Microbiol 2018 11;9:2373. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Peripheral Unit of Basic and Clinical Research in Infectious Diseases, Bacterial Pathogenicity Laboratory, Hemato Oncology and Research Unit, Department of Public Health/Research Division Medicine Faculty, Children's Hospital of Mexico Federico Gómez, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico.

Intestinal infections represent an important public health concern worldwide. is one of the main bacterial agents involved in the pathogenesis of different diseases. In 2011, an outbreak of hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in Germany was related to a non-O157 STEC strain of O104:H4 serotype. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmicb.2018.02373
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.02373DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6193479PMC
October 2018
4 Reads

Systematic Review for the 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines.

Circulation 2018 Oct;138(17):e595-e616

These members of the evidence review committee are listed alphabetically, and all participated equally in the process. †The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Objective To review the literature systematically and perform meta-analyses to address these questions: 1) Is there evidence that self-measured blood pressure (BP) without other augmentation is superior to office-based measurement of BP for achieving better BP control or for preventing adverse clinical outcomes that are related to elevated BP? 2) What is the optimal target for BP lowering during antihypertensive therapy in adults? 3) In adults with hypertension, how do various antihypertensive drug classes differ in their benefits and harms compared with each other as first-line therapy? Methods Electronic literature searches were performed by Doctor Evidence, a global medical evidence software and services company, across PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to 2015 using key words and relevant subject headings for randomized controlled trials that met eligibility criteria defined for each question. We performed analyses using traditional frequentist statistical and Bayesian approaches, including random-effects Bayesian network meta-analyses. Results Our results suggest that: 1) There is a modest but significant improvement in systolic BP in randomized controlled trials of self-measured BP versus usual care at 6 but not 12 months, and for selected patients and their providers self-measured BP may be a helpful adjunct to routine office care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000601DOI Listing
October 2018
3 Reads

2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: Executive Summary: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines.

Circulation 2018 Oct;138(17):e426-e483

American Society for Preventive Cardiology Representative. †ACC/AHA Representative. ‡Lay Volunteer/Patient Representative. §Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association Representative. ‖American Academy of Physician Assistants Representative. ¶Task Force Liaison. #Association of Black Cardiologists Representative. **American Pharmacists Association Representative. ††ACC/AHA Prevention Subcommittee Liaison. ‡‡American College of Preventive Medicine Representative. §§American Society of Hypertension Representative. ‖‖Task Force on Performance Measures Liaison. ¶¶American Geriatrics Society Representative. ##National Medical Association Representative.

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https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000597
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000597DOI Listing
October 2018
9 Reads

2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines.

Circulation 2018 Oct;138(17):e484-e594

American Society for Preventive Cardiology Representative. †ACC/AHA Representative. ‡Lay Volunteer/Patient Representative. §Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association Representative. ‖American Academy of Physician Assistants Representative. ¶Task Force Liaison. #Association of Black Cardiologists Representative. **American Pharmacists Association Representative. ††ACC/AHA Prevention Subcommittee Liaison. ‡‡American College of Preventive Medicine Representative. §§American Society of Hypertension Representative. ‖‖Task Force on Performance Measures Liaison. ¶¶American Geriatrics Society Representative. ##National Medical Association Representative.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000596DOI Listing
October 2018
5 Reads

Burnout, job satisfaction, and stress levels of PAs.

JAAPA 2018 Sep;31(9):42-46

Bettie Coplan is a clinical associate professor in the PA program at Northern Arizona University and an adjunct faculty member in the College of Health Solutions at Arizona State University, both in Phoenix, Ariz. Timothy C. McCall is research manager for the American Academy of PAs (AAPA) in Alexandria, Va., and director of health sciences undergraduate courses at George Washington University in Washington, D.C. Noël Smith is senior director of PA and industry research and analysis at AAPA. Vivienne L. Gellert is a student in the School for the Science of Health Care Delivery at Arizona State University. Alison C. Essary is director of strategic academic initiatives in the College of Health Solutions, interim director and a clinical professor in the School for the Science of Health Care Delivery, and a faculty member in the honors college at Arizona State University. The authors have disclosed no potential conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise.

Objective: The main goal of this study was to assess burnout, job satisfaction, and stress to gain insight into the work lives of female and male PAs.

Methods: Data were obtained from the 2016 American Academy of PAs salary survey. Descriptive statistics were used to assess questions related to burnout, happiness, and stress and to compare responses by sex. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.JAA.0000544305.38577.84DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

Physician assistants in urgent care.

JAAPA 2018 Aug;31(8):40-44

In the PA program at George Washington University in Washington, D.C., Tamara S. Ritsema is an assistant professor and James F. Cawley is a professor of prevention and community health. Noël Smith is a senior director at the American Academy of PAs in Alexandria, Va. The authors have disclosed no potential conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise.

Objective: To describe the characteristics of physician assistants (PAs) who practice urgent care.

Methods: Data from national surveys conducted by the American Academy of PAs (AAPA) between 1998 and 2016 were analyzed, comparing PAs who practice in urgent care, emergency medicine, and all other specialties.

Results: The percentage of PAs who work in an urgent care setting has nearly doubled in the last 10 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.JAA.0000541483.62234.b1DOI Listing
August 2018
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An ungrouped cuticular protein is essential for normal endocuticle formation in the brown planthopper.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Sep 7;100:1-9. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology and Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Agricultural Entomology, Institute of Insect Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China. Electronic address:

Using transcriptome analysis of tissues of the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, we identified a gene tentatively designated NlCP21.92 that was expressed at high levels in the integument. Spatiotemporal expression profiling with quantitative PCR and Western blotting verified its integument-specific expression and showed periodic expression during molting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2018.06.001DOI Listing
September 2018
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Effects of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone (AKH/RPCH) family of peptides on MK-801-induced schizophrenia models.

Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2018 Dec 27;32(6):589-602. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

National Institute of Mental Health, Topolova 748, Klecany, 250 67, Czech Republic.

The adipokinetic and red pigment-concentrating hormone (AKH/RPCH) family of peptides controls fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism in insects. In our previous study, we showed that AKH possesses antidepressant, anxiolytic, and analgesic effects, causes hyperlocomotion, and exerts neuroprotective effects and increased brain neurotrophic factors in mice. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Anax imperator AKH (Ani-AKH), Libellula auripennis AKH (Lia-AKH), and Phormia-Terra hypertrehalosemic hormone (Pht-HrTH) on MK-801-induced memory deterioration in the active allothetic place avoidance test (AAPA) and MK-801-induced sensorimotor gating deficit in the prepulse inhibition test (PPI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/fcp.12386DOI Listing
December 2018
6 Reads

Response to Letter to editor "2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults".

Authors:
Paul Muntner

J Am Soc Hypertens 2018 Mar 3;12(3):239. Epub 2018 Feb 3.

Professor and Vice Chair, Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jash.2018.01.011DOI Listing
March 2018
3 Reads

Participation, representation, and shared experiences of women scholars in biological anthropology.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2018 01;165 Suppl 65:126-157

Department of Basic Science, Touro University, Vallejo, California.

American Association of Physical Anthropologists (AAPA) membership surveys from 1996 and 1998 revealed significant gender disparities in academic status. A 2014 follow-up survey showed that gender equality had improved, particularly with respect to the number of women in tenure-stream positions. However, although women comprised 70% of AAPA membership at that time, the percentage of women full professors remained low. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23386DOI Listing
January 2018
2 Reads

Race and diversity in U.S. Biological Anthropology: A decade of AAPA initiatives.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2018 01;165 Suppl 65:158-180

Department of Anthropology, Notre Dame.

Biological Anthropology studies the variation and evolution of living humans, non-human primates, and extinct ancestors and for this reason the field should be in an ideal position to attract scientists from a variety of backgrounds who have different views and experiences. However, the origin and history of the discipline, anecdotal observations, self-reports, and recent surveys suggest the field has significant barriers to attracting scholars of color. For a variety of reasons, including quantitative research that demonstrates that diverse groups do better science, the discipline should strive to achieve a more diverse composition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23382DOI Listing
January 2018
4 Reads

Systematic Review for the 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2018 May 13;71(19):2176-2198. Epub 2017 Nov 13.

Objective: To review the literature systematically and perform meta-analyses to address these questions: 1) Is there evidence that self-measured blood pressure (BP) without other augmentation is superior to office-based measurement of BP for achieving better BP control or for preventing adverse clinical outcomes that are related to elevated BP? 2) What is the optimal target for BP lowering during antihypertensive therapy in adults? 3) In adults with hypertension, how do various antihypertensive drug classes differ in their benefits and harms compared with each other as first-line therapy?

Methods: Electronic literature searches were performed by Doctor Evidence, a global medical evidence software and services company, across PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to 2015 using key words and relevant subject headings for randomized controlled trials that met eligibility criteria defined for each question. We performed analyses using traditional frequentist statistical and Bayesian approaches, including random-effects Bayesian network meta-analyses.

Results: Our results suggest that: 1) There is a modest but significant improvement in systolic BP in randomized controlled trials of self-measured BP versus usual care at 6 but not 12 months, and for selected patients and their providers self-measured BP may be a helpful adjunct to routine office care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2017.11.004DOI Listing
May 2018
35 Reads

Systematic Review for the 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines.

Hypertension 2018 Jun 13;71(6):e116-e135. Epub 2017 Nov 13.

Objective: To review the literature systematically and perform meta-analyses to address these questions: 1) Is there evidence that self-measured blood pressure (BP) without other augmentation is superior to office-based measurement of BP for achieving better BP control or for preventing adverse clinical outcomes that are related to elevated BP? 2) What is the optimal target for BP lowering during antihypertensive therapy in adults? 3) In adults with hypertension, how do various antihypertensive drug classes differ in their benefits and harms compared with each other as first-line therapy?

Methods: Electronic literature searches were performed by Doctor Evidence, a global medical evidence software and services company, across PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to 2015 using key words and relevant subject headings for randomized controlled trials that met eligibility criteria defined for each question. We performed analyses using traditional frequentist statistical and Bayesian approaches, including random-effects Bayesian network meta-analyses.

Results: Our results suggest that: 1) There is a modest but significant improvement in systolic BP in randomized controlled trials of self-measured BP versus usual care at 6 but not 12 months, and for selected patients and their providers self-measured BP may be a helpful adjunct to routine office care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYP.0000000000000067DOI Listing
June 2018
18 Reads

2-Acetylamino-3-[4-(2-acetylamino-2-carboxyethylsulfanylcarbonylamino) phenyl carbamoylsulfanyl] propionic acid, a glutathione reductase inhibitor, induces G/M cell cycle arrest through generation of thiol oxidative stress in human esophageal cancer cells.

Oncotarget 2017 Sep 27;8(37):61846-61860. Epub 2017 Jun 27.

Zhejiang Cancer Research Institute, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Zhejiang Cancer Center, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310022, China.

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a highly malignant cancer with poor response to both of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. 2-Acetylamino-3-[4-(2-acetylamino-2-carboxyethylsulfanylcarbonylamino) phenyl carbamoylsulfanyl] propionic acid (2-AAPA), an irreversible inhibitor of glutathione reductase (GR), is able to induce intracellular oxidative stress, and has shown anticancer activity in many cancer cell lines. In this study, we investigated the effects of 2-AAPA on the cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis and aimed to explore its mechanism of action in human esophageal cancer TE-13 cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.18705DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5617469PMC
September 2017
19 Reads

Founding of the Association of Physician Assistant Programs and the Organization's Central Role in the Development of the Physician Assistant Profession.

J Physician Assist Educ 2017 Oct;28 Suppl 1:S14-S17

Alfred Sadler, MD, is retired after a career of teaching at Yale, Harvard, and UCLA and lives in Carmel, California. Thomas Piemme, MD, is retired after a career of teaching at the University of Pittsburgh and The George Washington University and lives in Peoria, Arizona.

The Physician Assistant Education Association (PAEA) (formerly Association of Physician Assistant Programs [APAP]) was founded in 1972 by early PA program leaders to encourage collaboration and discussion among program leaders and faculty on a wide range of issues of mutual concern. This article addresses the founding of the organization, which continues to represent PA programs today. It addresses the important accomplishments of APAP during the 1972-1974 period and describes in detail the essential contributions of APAP and its leaders in developing the PA profession. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JPA.0000000000000162DOI Listing
October 2017
2 Reads

PAs in primary care: Current status and workforce implications.

JAAPA 2017 Sep;30(9):35-42

Bettie Coplan is an associate clinical professor in the School for the Science of Health Care Delivery at Arizona State University and is a part-time faculty member for the PA program at Northern Arizona University in Phoenix, Ariz. Noel Smith is Senior Director of PA and Industry Research and Analysis at the American Academy of PAs (AAPA) in Alexandria, Va. James F. Cawley is professor of prevention and community health and professor of physician assistant studies at the George Washington University in Washington, D.C., and former senior research fellow at the AAPA. The authors have disclosed no potential conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise.

Objectives: Understanding the PA primary care workforce is an initial step toward greater use of primary care PAs in new healthcare delivery models. This study sought to describe primary care PA practice as it compares with PA practice in other specialties.

Methods: Data from two 2015 national American Academy of Physician Assistants surveys were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=01720610-201709000-0000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.JAA.0000522136.76069.15DOI Listing
September 2017
8 Reads

How PAs became licensed to practice in the United States.

JAAPA 2017 Jul;30(7):46-49

Alfred M. Sadler, Jr., is retired from the practice of primary and urgent care in Monterey and Salinas, Calif. He is the coauthor of The Physician Assistant: An Illustrated History, which chronicles the development of the profession over the past 50 years, and is immediate past president of the Physician Assistant History Society. He served as the first president of the Association of Physician Assistant Programs (the forerunner to the Physician Assistant Education Association) in 1972. Ann Davis is vice president of constituent organization outreach and advocacy for AAPA. The authors have disclosed no potential conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise.

The history of how PAs in the United States were first granted practice authority under the medical practice acts of the various states and territories begins in the 1960s with an imaginative way to circumvent the moratorium on licensure of new healthcare occupations in place at the time, while allowing the requisite flexibility for the new profession to take hold and thrive. In the subsequent decades, separate licensure for PAs was required and adopted. Despite the enormous success of the PA profession over its first 50 years, challenges remain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.JAA.0000520540.23452.06DOI Listing
July 2017
2 Reads

Examining the Gap: Compensation Disparities between Male and Female Physician Assistants.

Womens Health Issues 2017 Sep - Oct;27(5):607-613. Epub 2017 Jun 9.

American Academy of PAs, Alexandria, Virginia.

Background: Compensation disparities between men and women have been problematic for decades, and there is considerable evidence that the gap cannot be entirely explained by nongender factors. The current study examined the compensation gap in the physician assistant (PA) profession.

Methods: Compensation data from 2014 was collected by the American Academy of PAs in 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.whi.2017.05.001DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

How electronic health records can unmask the hidden value of PAs.

JAAPA 2017 Jun;30(6):1-3

Folusho Ogunfiditimi is administrative director of adult clinical services and advanced practice providers at Harper University/Hutzel Women's Hospital, part of Detroit (Mich.) Medical Center. Scott P. Sherry is an assistant professor at Oregon Health & Science University in Portland, Ore. Monica Foote is manager of advanced practice providers for HealthTexas Provider Network, Baylor Scott & White Health in Dallas. Sarah L. Christie is chief PA in the Department of Neurosurgery at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, Mass. Lisa P. Shock is senior director of clinical operations at WakeMed/Key Community Care, Evolent Health, in Raleigh, N.C., and practices at WakeMed Raleigh, Essential Geriatric Care, and FastMed Urgent Care. James F. Cawley is professor of prevention and community health and professor of physician assistant studies at the George Washington University in Washington, D.C., and former senior research fellow at the American Academy of PAs in Alexandria, Va. Aaron Browne is senior director of healthcare technology services for Huron Consulting Group in Chicago, Ill. Ms. Shock discloses that Evolent Health is a medical records firm. The authors are members of the AAPA Fee for Value Task Force but have disclosed no other potential conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise.

The Fee for Value (FFV) Task Force, a subgroup of the American Academy of PAs' Research and Strategic Initiatives Commission, has examined tools and mechanisms aimed at better clarifying the volume and value of PA work and how that work contributes to improving access to high-quality care. Establishing the value of PAs has been a challenging task for many healthcare providers. Often, PA value has been defined by their clinical productivity, without any clear direction as to what constitutes value versus productivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.JAA.0000516345.50761.e3DOI Listing
June 2017
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PAs in nephrology weigh in on FPAR.

JAAPA 2017 Jun;30(6):1-2

AAPA-RPA liaison, 2009-2016 AAPA-RPA/NKF/ASN liaison, 2000-2008.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.JAA.0000520153.83485.96DOI Listing
June 2017
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Methylglyoxal-Induced Protection Response and Toxicity: Role of Glutathione Reductase and Thioredoxin Systems.

Neurotox Res 2017 Oct 6;32(3):340-350. Epub 2017 May 6.

Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, 88040-900, Brazil.

Thioredoxin (Trx) and glyoxalase (Glo) systems have been suggested to be molecular targets of methylglyoxal (MGO). This highly reactive endogenous compound has been associated with the development of neurodegenerative pathologies and cell death. In the present study, the glutathione (GSH), Trx, and Glo systems were investigated to understand early events (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12640-017-9738-5DOI Listing
October 2017
8 Reads

Inhibition of reductase systems by 2-AAPA modulates peroxiredoxin oxidation and mitochondrial function in A172 glioblastoma cells.

Toxicol In Vitro 2017 Aug 29;42:273-280. Epub 2017 Apr 29.

Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, Brazil.

Thiol homeostasis has a critical role in the maintenance of proper cellular functions and survival, being coordinated by the action of several reductive enzymes, including glutathione (GSH)/glutathione reductase (GR) and thioredoxin (Trx)/thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) systems. Here, we investigated the effects of the GR inhibitor 2-acetylamino-3-[4-(2-acetylamino-2-carboxyethylsulfanylthiocarbonylamino)phenylthiocarbamoylsulfanyl]propionic acid (2-AAPA) on the activity of thiol reductases (GR and TrxR), redox balance and mitochondrial function of A172 glioblastoma cells. 2-AAPA inhibited cell GR (IC=6. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2017.04.028DOI Listing
August 2017
7 Reads

Analysis of 2011 physician assistant education debt load.

JAAPA 2017 Mar;30(3):37-43

Miranda A. Moore is an assistant professor in the Department of Family and Preventive Medicine at Emory University's School of Medicine in Atlanta, Ga. Megan Coffman is a health policy administrator and health services researcher at the Robert Graham Center for Policy Studies in Family Medicine and Primary Care, part of the American Academy of Family Physicians in Washington, D.C. James F. Cawley is professor of prevention and community health and professor of physician assistant studies at the George Washington University in Washington, D.C., and former senior research fellow at the American Academy of PAs in Alexandria, Va. Diana Crowley is quality and health IT manager at the American College of Emergency Physicians in Washington, D.C. At the time this article was written, Anthony Miller was chief policy and research officer for the Physician Assistant Education Association and Kathleen Klink was medical director of the Robert Graham Center. The authors disclose that the study was funded by the Physician Assistant Education Association. The information and opinions contained in research from the Robert Graham Center do not necessarily reflect the views or the policy of the American Academy of Family Physicians.

This study seeks to investigate how physician assistants (PAs) finance their education and to characterize the educational debt of PA students. Data from the 2011 American Academy of PAs (AAPA)-Physician Assistant Education Association Graduating Student Survey were used to explore the educational debt of PA students. The median total educational debt of a PA student graduating in 2011 was $80,000. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.JAA.0000512239.76797.c8DOI Listing
March 2017
2 Reads

Bond Strengths of Orthodontic Metal Brackets to Tribochemically Silica-coated Zirconia Surfaces Using Different 10-Methacryloyloxydecyl Dihydrogen Phosphate-containing Primers.

J Adhes Dent 2017;19(1):21-29

Purpose: To evaluate the effects of tribochemical silica coating and different 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP)-containing primers on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic metal brackets to yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) surfaces.

Materials And Methods: One hundred ninety polished Y-TZP specimens were randomly assigned to 19 groups (n = 10): 30 specimens were used for surface analyses after polishing with 600-grit silicon carbide paper, airborneparticle abrasion with 50-μm alumina (A), or tribochemical silica coating (CoJet [C]); 160 specimens were used in SBS testing of orthodontic metal brackets to Y-TZP after alumina airborne-particle abrasion or tribochemical silica coating and application of either ESPE-Sil (S) (ASn, ASa, CSn, CSa), Alloy Primer (AP) (AAPn, AAPa, CAPn, CAPa), Clearfil Ceramic Primer (CP) (ACPn, ACPa, CCPn, CCPa), or Scotchbond Universal (U) (AUn, AUa, CUn, CUa) and either stored in water for 24 h (non-aged, n) or thermocycled 5000 times (aged, a). The surface analyses and SBSs were statistically analyzed with ANOVA and Tukey's tests. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3290/j.jad.a37724DOI Listing
July 2017
3 Reads

Mechanistic Study of Utilization of Water-Insoluble Saccharomyces cerevisiae Glucans by Bifidobacterium breve Strain JCM1192.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2017 04 17;83(7). Epub 2017 Mar 17.

School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR

Bifidobacteria exert beneficial effects on hosts and are extensively used as probiotics. However, due to the genetic inaccessibility of these bacteria, little is known about their mechanisms of carbohydrate utilization and regulation. strain JCM1192 can grow on water-insoluble yeast () cell wall glucans (YCWG), which were recently considered as potential prebiotics. Read More

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http://aem.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/AEM.03442-16
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.03442-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5359474PMC
April 2017
6 Reads

Enhancement of Radiation Response in Breast Cancer Stem Cells by Inhibition of Thioredoxin- and Glutathione-Dependent Metabolism.

Radiat Res 2016 Oct 19;186(4):385-395. Epub 2016 Sep 19.

a   Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, Carver College of Medicine, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52240.

The goal of this study was to determine if depletion of glutathione (GSH) and inhibition of thioredoxin (Trx) reductase (TrxR) activity could enhance radiation responses in human breast cancer stem cells by a mechanism involving thiol-dependent oxidative stress. The following were used to inhibit GSH and Trx metabolism: buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), a GSH synthesis inhibitor; sulfasalazine (SSZ), an inhibitor of x cysteine/glutamate antiporter; auranofin (Au), a thioredoxin reductase inhibitor; or 2-AAPA, a GSH-reductase inhibitor. Clonogenic survival, Matrigel assays, flow cytometry cancer stem cell assays (CD44CD24ESA or ALDH1) and human tumor xenograft models were used to determine the antitumor activity of drug and radiation combinations. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5077643PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR14463.1DOI Listing
October 2016
18 Reads

A LuxR Homolog in a Cottonwood Tree Endophyte That Activates Gene Expression in Response to a Plant Signal or Specific Peptides.

MBio 2016 08 2;7(4). Epub 2016 Aug 2.

University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA

Unlabelled: Homologs of the LuxR acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing signal receptor are prevalent in Proteobacteria isolated from roots of the Eastern cottonwood tree, Populus deltoides Many of these isolates possess an orphan LuxR homolog, closely related to OryR from the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae OryR does not respond to AHL signals but, instead, responds to an unknown plant compound. We discovered an OryR homolog, PipR, in the cottonwood endophyte Pseudomonas sp. strain GM79. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01101-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4981722PMC
August 2016
10 Reads

MitoNEET Protects HL-1 Cardiomyocytes from Oxidative Stress Mediated Apoptosis in an In Vitro Model of Hypoxia and Reoxygenation.

PLoS One 2016 31;11(5):e0156054. Epub 2016 May 31.

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

The iron-sulfur cluster containing protein mitoNEET is known to modulate the oxidative capacity of cardiac mitochondria but its function during myocardial reperfusion injury after transient ischemia is unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of mitoNEET on oxidative stress induced cell death and its relation to the glutathione-redox system in cardiomyocytes in an in vitro model of hypoxia and reoxygenation (H/R). Our results show that siRNA knockdown (KD) of mitoNEET caused an 1. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0156054PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4887087PMC
July 2017
2 Reads

Glutathione adducts induced by ischemia and deletion of glutaredoxin-1 stabilize HIF-1α and improve limb revascularization.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2016 May 9;113(21):6011-6. Epub 2016 May 9.

Vascular Biology Section, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 20118; Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 20118;

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are increased in ischemic tissues and necessary for revascularization; however, the mechanism remains unclear. Exposure of cysteine residues to ROS in the presence of glutathione (GSH) generates GSH-protein adducts that are specifically reversed by the cytosolic thioltransferase, glutaredoxin-1 (Glrx). Here, we show that a key angiogenic transcriptional factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α is stabilized by GSH adducts, and the genetic deletion of Glrx improves ischemic revascularization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1524198113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4889374PMC
May 2016
26 Reads

Reduced glutathione as a physiological co-activator in the activation of peptidylarginine deiminase.

Arthritis Res Ther 2016 05 5;18(1):102. Epub 2016 May 5.

Institute for Inflammation Research, Center for Rheumatology and Spine Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Citrullination catalysed by peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) plays an important pathogenic role in anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-positive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and, possibly, several other inflammatory diseases. Non-physiological reducing agents such as dithiothreitol (DTT) are normally added to the reaction buffer when determining PAD activity in vitro. We investigated the ability of reduced glutathione (GSH), the most abundant intracellular small-molecule thiol in vivo, to activate PADs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13075-016-1000-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4858833PMC
May 2016
11 Reads

A Rat Model of Alzheimer's Disease Based on Abeta42 and Pro-oxidative Substances Exhibits Cognitive Deficit and Alterations in Glutamatergic and Cholinergic Neurotransmitter Systems.

Front Aging Neurosci 2016 20;8:83. Epub 2016 Apr 20.

Department of Neurophysiology of Memory, Institute of Physiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences Prague, Czech Republic.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most serious human, medical, and socioeconomic burdens. Here we tested the hypothesis that a rat model of AD (Samaritan; Taconic Pharmaceuticals, USA) based on the application of amyloid beta42 (Abeta42) and the pro-oxidative substances ferrous sulfate heptahydrate and L-buthionine-(S, R)-sulfoximine, will exhibit cognitive deficits and disruption of the glutamatergic and cholinergic systems in the brain. Behavioral methods included the Morris water maze (MWM; long-term memory version) and the active allothetic place avoidance (AAPA) task (acquisition and reversal), testing spatial memory and different aspects of hippocampal function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2016.00083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4837344PMC
May 2016
7 Reads

Accreditation and implications of clinical postgraduate PA training programs.

JAAPA 2016 May;29(5):1-7

Sobia S. Hussaini is instructor and director of academic practice partnerships for Wake Forest School of Medicine in Winston-Salem, N.C. Reamer L. Bushardt is professor and chair of the Department of Physician Assistant Studies, professor of internal medicine, and professor and program leader in the Clinical Translational Science Institute at Wake Forest School of Medicine, and editor-in-chief of JAAPA. His clinical specialty is internal medicine. Wanda C. Gonsalves is professor and vice chair of the Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Kentucky College of Medicine in Lexington, Ky., and a member of the board of directors of the National Commission on Certification of Physician Assistants. Her clinical specialty is family medicine. Virginia O. Hilton is director of the Norwalk/Yale PA Surgical Residency at Norwalk (Conn.) Hospital and past president of the Association of Postgraduate PA Programs. Her clinical specialty is general surgery. Brad J. Hornberger is a faculty associate in the Department of Urology and director of the PA urology residency program at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas. His clinical specialty is urology. Frank A. Labagnara practices at W.G. Hefner VA Medical Center in Salisbury, N.C., and is director of medical education and a professor in the Department of Family Medicine at Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine in Blacksburg, Va. His clinical specialty is family medicine. Kevin M. O'Hara is an assistant professor in the PA program at Yale School of Medicine in New Haven, Conn., and a member of the AAPA's Commission on Continuing Professional Development and Education. His clinical specialties are internal medicine and infectious diseases. Cody Sasek is an assistant professor and academic director of the PA program at the University of Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha, Neb. His clinical specialties are orthopedics and emergency medicine. Benjamin J. Smith practices at McIntosh Clin

No consensus definition exists for postgraduate physician assistant (PA) training. This report from the AAPA Task Force on Accreditation of Postgraduate PA Training Programs describes the types of clinical training programs and their effects on hiring and compensation of PAs. Although completing a postgraduate program appears to have no effect on compensation, PAs who complete these programs may be favored in the hiring process and frequently report greater confidence in their skills. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.JAA.0000482298.17821.fbDOI Listing
May 2016
10 Reads

Physician assistants in rural communities.

JAAPA 2016 Jan;29(1):42-5

James F. Cawley is professor of prevention and community health and professor of physician assistant studies at The George Washington University in Washington, D.C., and senior research fellow at the American Academy of Physician Assistants (AAPA) in Alexandria, Va. Steven Lane is senior writer at AAPA. Noel Smith is senior director of PA and industry research and analysis in AAPA's Division of Research. Elizabeth Bush was AAPA's senior vice president of member value and research when this article was written. The authors have disclosed no other potential conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise.

About 12% of all PAs work in rural settings, according to the 2013 Annual Survey of the American Academy of Physician Assistants. PAs in rural areas are more likely to practice in primary care specialties, have a wider scope of practice, and see patients who are uninsured or covered by Medicaid or Medicare. The positive effect of PAs on rural health has been demonstrated in extensive studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.JAA.0000475463.23218.c9DOI Listing
January 2016
4 Reads

Racial and Gender Disparities in the Physician Assistant Profession.

Health Serv Res 2016 06 14;51(3):892-909. Epub 2015 Sep 14.

Department of Sociology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, 84602.

Objective: To examine whether racial, gender, and ethnic salary disparities exist in the physician assistant (PA) profession and what factors, if any, are associated with the differentials.

Data Sources/study Setting: We use a nationally representative survey of 15,105 PAs from the American Academy of Physician Assistants (AAPA).

Study Design: We use bivariate and multivariate statistics to analyze pay differentials from the 2009 AAPA survey. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1475-6773.12358DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4874816PMC
June 2016
2 Reads

A framework for physician assistant intervention for overweight and obesity.

JAAPA 2015 Jul;28(7):29-33

Lawrence Herman is an associate professor and chair of the Department of Physician Assistant Studies at the New York Institute of Technology in Old Westbury, N.Y. He is the chair of the AAPA Overweight and Obesity Task Force. John G. McGinnity is program director and clinical associate professor at the Department of Healthcare Sciences PA Program at Wayne State University in Detroit, Mich. Michael Doll is the chief physician assistant in the cardiothoracic surgery service at Geisinger Medical Center in Danville, Pa. Eric D. Peterson is a fellow of the Alliance for Continuing Education and a certified continuing healthcare development professional. Amanda Russell practices orthopedics at OrthoVirginia in Midlothian, Va. At the time this article was written, Joseph Largay was a clinical instructor in the Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and practiced in the outpatient clinic of the Diabetes Care Center. He has since joined AstraZeneca as a full-time employee. Mr. Herman discloses that he is a consultant for Boehringer Ingelheim, Novo Nordisk, and Sanofi Aventis. Mr. Largay discloses that he is a consultant for AstraZeneca, Sanofi, Takeda, and Vivus; and receives grants and research funding from Amylin, Andromeda, Boehringer Ingelheim, GI Dynamics, Halozyme, Hoffmann-LaRoche, Immune Tolerance Network, Jaeb Center For Health Research Inc., Johnson & Johnson, Lexicon, Lilly, Medtronic, Merck, Novo-Nordisk, Orexigen, Phase Bio, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health/National Heart, Lung & Blood Institute, Sanofi Aventis, and Tolerx. The other authors disclosed no potential conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise.

Overweight and obesity compose a chronic disease process of epidemic proportions that presents on a continuum, likely affecting nearly two out of every three patients treated by physician assistants (PAs). However, meaningful and actionable definitions, including but not limited to anthropometric and clinical descriptors, are needed. The effective treatment of overweight and obesity requires an efficient and timely process of screening, diagnosis, evaluation of complications, staging, and clear algorithmic management. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.JAA.0000466594.30788.a6DOI Listing
July 2015
14 Reads

Ethical Challenges in Psychiatric Administration and Leadership.

Psychiatr Q 2015 Sep;86(3):343-54

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, 600 Moye Blvd., Greenville, NC, 27834, USA.

As with all professional ethical principles, those in psychiatry have to evolve over time and societal changes. The current ethical challenges for psychiatric administration and leadership, especially regarding for-profit managed care, need updated solutions. One solution resides in the development by the American Association of Psychiatric Administrators (AAPA) of the first set of ethical principles designed specifically for psychiatric administrators. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11126-015-9373-3DOI Listing
September 2015
2 Reads