154,673 results match your criteria 5-ht

Symbiont-regulated serotonin biosynthesis modulates tick feeding activity.

Cell Host Microbe 2021 Sep 4. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, P. R. China; Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, P. R. China. Electronic address:

Ticks are obligate hematophagous arthropods. Blood feeding ensures that ticks obtain nutrients essential for their survival, development, and reproduction while providing routes for pathogen transmission. However, the effectors that determine tick feeding activities remain poorly understood. Read More

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September 2021

Neuromodulatory Control of Early Visual Processing in Macaque.

Anita A Disney

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2021 Sep;7:181-199

Department of Neurobiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA; email:

Visual processing is dynamically controlled by multiple neuromodulatory molecules that modify the responsiveness of neurons and the strength of the connections between them. In particular, modulatory control of processing in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus, V1, and V2 will alter the outcome of all subsequent processing of visual information, including the extent to and manner in which individual inputs contribute to perception and decision making and are stored in memory. This review addresses five small-molecule neuromodulators-acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, noradrenaline, and histamine-considering the structural basis for their action, and the effects of their release, in the early visual pathway of the macaque monkey. Read More

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September 2021

Attenuation of peripheral serotonin inhibits tumor growth and enhances immune checkpoint blockade therapy in murine tumor models.

Sci Transl Med 2021 Sep 15;13(611):eabc8188. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Laboratory of the Swiss Hepato-Pancreatico-Biliary (HPB) and Transplantation Centre, Department of Surgery, University Hospital and University of Zürich, Raemistrasse 100, CH-8091 Zürich, Switzerland.

[Figure: see text]. Read More

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September 2021

Excitation-emission fluorescence matrix acquired from glutathione capped CdSeS/ZnS quantum dots in combination with chemometric tools for pattern-based sensing of neurotransmitters.

Mikrochim Acta 2021 Sep 15;188(10):343. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Chair of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664, Warsaw, Poland.

The presented work concerns pattern-based sensing with quantum dots for the identification and quantification of neurotransmitters by means of excitation-emission fluorescence spectroscopy (2D fluorescence). In the framework of this study, glutathione capped CdSeS/ZnS nanocrystals were used as non-specific nanoreceptors capable of differentiated interaction with neurotransmitters. The pattern-based sensing with QDs was realized by using excitation-emission fluorescence spectroscopy to provide analyte-specific multidimensional optical information. Read More

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September 2021

The gut, its microbiome, and the brain: connections and communications.

J Clin Invest 2021 Sep;131(18)

Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York, USA.

Modern research on gastrointestinal behavior has revealed it to be a highly complex bidirectional process in which the gut sends signals to the brain, via spinal and vagal visceral afferent pathways, and receives sympathetic and parasympathetic inputs. Concomitantly, the enteric nervous system within the bowel, which contains intrinsic primary afferent neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons, also senses the enteric environment and controls the detailed patterns of intestinal motility and secretion. The vast microbiome that is resident within the enteric lumen is yet another contributor, not only to gut behavior, but to the bidirectional signaling process, so that the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain "connectome" has become apparent. Read More

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September 2021

Acute Stress Exposure Alters Food-Related Brain Monoaminergic Profiles in a Rat Model of Anorexia.

J Nutr 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Interdepartmental Graduate Program in Nutritional Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA.

Background: Adverse life experiences are a major risk factor for anorexia nervosa (AN). Eating-provoked anxiousness associated with AN is postulated to be due to food-related exaggerated serotonin activity in the brain and imbalances of monoamine neurotransmitters.

Objectives: Using a rodent model of stress-induced hypophagia, we investigated if stress exposure augments food-related serotonin turnover and imbalances in measures of brain serotonin and dopamine activity in manners consistent with anxiousness toward food and restricted eating. Read More

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September 2021

Mechanistic insights into dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission - concerted interactions with helices 5 and 6 drive the functional outcome.

Chem Sci 2021 Aug 2;12(33):10990-11003. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Research Programme on Biomedical Informatics (GRIB), Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM) - Pompeu Fabra University (UPF) Dr Aiguader 88 Barcelona E-08003 Spain

Brain functions rely on neurotransmitters that mediate communication between billions of neurons. Disruption of this communication can result in a plethora of psychiatric and neurological disorders. In this work, we combine molecular dynamics simulations, live-cell biosensor and electrophysiological assays to investigate the action of the neurotransmitter dopamine at the dopaminergic D receptor (DR). Read More

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Platelet FcγRIIA-induced serotonin release exacerbates the severity of Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury in mice.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Etablissement Français du Sang-Grand Est, Strasbourg, France.

Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) remains a major cause of transfusion-related fatalities. The mechanism of human antibody-mediated TRALI, especially the involvement of the Fcγ receptors, is not clearly established. Contrary to mice, human platelets are unique in their expression of the FcγRIIA/CD32A receptor, suggesting that our understanding of the pathogenesis of antibody-mediated TRALI is partial, since the current murine models incompletely recapitulate the human immunology. Read More

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September 2021

Adjuvant Priming Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Treatment-Resistant Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: In Search of a New Paradigm!

J ECT 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

From the Geriatric Mental Health, King George Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh Asha Hospital, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, Telangana Central Institute of Psychiatry, Kanke, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India.

Objectives: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is used as a therapeutic option for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in both clinical and research settings. There has been no consensus with regard to target area and other parameters, although 1-Hz rTMS over the supplementary motor area (SMA) is found to be promising. Priming stimulation, which involves high-frequency followed by low-frequency rTMS, has been shown to enhance neural response to low-frequency rTMS. Read More

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September 2021

Assessing the effects of methodological differences on outcomes in the use of psychedelics in the treatment of anxiety and depressive disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Psychopharmacol 2021 Sep 14:2698811211044688. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Center for Substance Abuse Research, Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Classical psychedelics are a group of drugs which act as agonists on the serotonin-2A (5-HT2A) receptor. Evidence suggests they may have a uniquely rapid and enduring positive effect on mood. However, marked heterogeneity between methodological designs in this emerging field remains a significant concern. Read More

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September 2021

Discovery of G Protein-Biased Antagonists against 5-HTR.

J Med Chem 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Brain Science Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02792, Republic of Korea.

5-HTR belongs to a family of G protein-coupled receptors and is associated with a variety of physiological processes in the central nervous system via the activation of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT). To develop selective and biased 5-HTR ligands, we designed and synthesized a series of pyrazolyl-diazepanes and pyrazolyl-piperazines , which were evaluated for binding affinities to 5-HTR subtypes and functional selectivity for G protein and β-arrestin signaling pathways of 5-HTR. Among them, 1-(3-(3-chlorophenyl)-1-pyrazol-4-yl)-1,4-diazepane showed the best binding affinity for 5-HTR and selectivity over other 5-HTR subtypes. Read More

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September 2021

Cortical Serotonergic and Catecholaminergic Denervation in MPTP-Treated Parkinsonian Monkeys.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.

Decreased cortical serotonergic and catecholaminergic innervation of the frontal cortex has been reported at early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the limited availability of animal models that exhibit these pathological features has hampered our understanding of the functional significance of these changes during the course of the disease. In the present study, we assessed longitudinal changes in cortical serotonin and catecholamine innervation in motor-symptomatic and asymptomatic monkeys chronically treated with low doses of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Read More

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September 2021

Positron emission tomography imaging of serotonin degeneration and beta-amyloid deposition in late-life depression evaluated with multi-modal partial least squares.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 Sep 13;11(1):473. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Banner Alzheimer's Institute, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Depression in late-life is associated with increased risk of cognitive decline and development of all-cause dementia. The neurobiology of late-life depression (LLD) may involve both neurochemical and neurodegenerative mechanisms that are common to depression and dementia. Transgenic amyloid mouse models show evidence of early degeneration of monoamine systems. Read More

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September 2021

Concomitant treatment with safinamide and antidepressant drugs: Safety data from real clinical practice.

Neurologia 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Movement Disorders Unit, Neurology Department, Ramón y Cajal Hospital, Madrid, Spain.

Background And Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the possible pharmacological interactions between safinamide and antidepressants, and in particular the appearance of serotonin syndrome with data from real life.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study of patients with Parkinson's disease from our Movement Disorders Unit, who were under treatment with any antidepressant drug and safinamide. Specifically, symptoms suggestive of serotonin syndrome were screened for. Read More

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September 2021

The mechanism of intestinal flora dysregulation mediated by intestinal bacterial biofilm to induce constipation.

Bioengineered 2021 Dec;12(1):6484-6498

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Xuzhou Municipal Hospital Affiliated to Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province, China.

To explore mechanism of intestinal flora dysregulation promoting constipation, 60 specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice were used as research objects and were treated with constipation population fecal fluid gavage and distilled water gavage. Then, relationship between intestinal dysregulation and constipation in mice with biofilm-mediated intestinal flora was investigated in vitro. The results showed that recombinant serotonin transporter (SERT) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) level of the constipation population fecal fluid gavage group and the relative expression level of SERT mRNA were 1. Read More

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December 2021

Overfeeding during development induces temporally-dependent changes in areas controlling food intake in the brains of male Wistar rats.

Life Sci 2021 Sep 10:119951. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Neuropsychiatry and Be Science Graduate Program, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco - UFPE, Recife, PE, Brazil; Laboratory of Biochemistry and Exercise Biochemistry, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco - UFPE, Recife, PE, Brazil. Electronic address:

Aims: We sought to evaluate the effects of overfeeding during lactation on the feeding behavior and expression of specific regulatory genes in brain areas associated with food intake in 22- and 60-day old male rats.

Methods: We evaluated body weight, food intake of standard and palatable diet, and mRNA expression of dopamine receptor D1 (DDR1), dopamine receptor (DDR2), melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), the μ-opioid receptor (MOR), neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AGRP), proopiomelanocortin (POMC), cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) transporter (SERT), 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1B (5-HT1B), 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C receptor (5-HT2C), Clock (CLOK), cryptochrome protein 1 (Cry1) and period circadian protein homolog 2 (Per2) in the striatum, hypothalamus and brainstem of male rats at post-natal days (PND) 22 and 60.

Key Findings: Overfeeding resulted in significantly increased body weight through PND60, and a 2-fold increase in palatable food intake at PND22, but not at PND60. Read More

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September 2021

Increased serotonin prevents compulsion in addiction.

Science 2021 09 9;373(6560):1197-1198. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Neural Computation Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Okinawa, Japan.

[Figure: see text]. Read More

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September 2021

Synaptic mechanism underlying serotonin modulation of transition to cocaine addiction.

Science 2021 09 9;373(6560):1252-1256. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Basic Neurosciences, Medical Faculty, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.

[Figure: see text]. Read More

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September 2021

Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy suppresses coronary adventitial inflammatory changes and hyperconstricting responses after coronary stent implantation in pigs in vivo.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(9):e0257175. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

Backgrounds: We demonstrated that coronary adventitial inflammation plays important roles in the pathogenesis of drug-eluting stent (DES)-induced coronary hyperconstricting responses in pigs in vivo. However, no therapy is yet available to treat coronary adventitial inflammation. We thus developed the low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) therapy that ameliorates myocardial ischemia by enhancing angiogenesis. Read More

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September 2021

Selective, Ultra-sensitive and Rapid Detection of Serotonin by Optimized ZnO Nanorod FET Biosensor.

IEEE Trans Nanobioscience 2021 Sep 13;PP. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Background: Fluctuation in serotonin (5-HT) level is an essential manifestation of several neurological disorders. In view of such importance, it is necessary to monitor the levels of 5-HT with good sensitivity, selectivity, affordability and low response time. Zinc oxide (ZnO) based field effect transistors (FET) with attributes like minimized noise levels and large on-off ratio are regarded as emerging high performance biosensor platforms. Read More

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September 2021

The Effect of a Probiotic Complex on the Gut-Brain Axis: A Translational Study.

Neuropsychobiology 2021 Aug 30:1-11. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, Cosenza, Italy.

Background: The gut-brain axis refers to the network of connections that involve multiple biologic systems, allowing bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain. This communication is mainly mediated by gut microbiota, thanks to its ability to modulate several processes like the production of neurotransmitters. As such, keeping a balanced gut microbiota through probiotic intake could be a valid solution in supporting the right gut-brain communications. Read More

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Neurokinin 3 Receptor Antagonists Compared With Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors for Non-Hormonal Treatment of Menopausal Hot Flushes: A Systematic Qualitative Review.

Adv Ther 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

School of Medicine, University of St Andrews, Medical and Biological Sciences Building, North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9TF, UK.

Introduction: Hot flushes/flashes (HFs) or other vasomotor symptoms affect between 45 and 97% of women during menopause. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is effective at alleviating menopausal symptoms, but some women cannot or prefer not to take HRT. Since current non-hormonal options have suboptimal efficacy/tolerability, there is a pressing need for an effective, well-tolerated alternative. Read More

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September 2021

Association of gene polymorphisms with women urinary incontinence.

Open Med (Wars) 2021 25;16(1):1190-1197. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Urology Clinic, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, A. Mickeviciaus Str. 9, Kaunas LT-44307, Lithuania.

Aim of study was set to investigate the association of women urinary incontinence (UI) with serotonin receptor T102C and beta 3-adrenergic receptor Trp64Arg genes polymorphisms. The study included 110 women with Urge, Stress, and Mixed UI types and the control group - 105 continent women. Both groups have filled in the ICIQ-FLUTS questionnaire and their blood genotyping was performed. Read More

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Paradoxical Reactions to Midazolam in a Term Parturient After Intravenous Sedation During Cesarean Section.

Cureus 2021 Sep 3;13(9):e17678. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Anesthesiology, Metropolitan Hospitals, New York, USA.

Propofol and midazolam are commonly used drugs in procedural sedation. Midazolam is widely used for its five principal pharmacologic effects: anxiolysis, sedation and hypnosis, anticonvulsant actions, spinal cord-mediated skeletal muscle relaxation, and anterograde amnesia. Increased talkativeness, emotional release, excitement, and excessive movement are the common paradoxical reactions to all kinds of benzodiazepines, which are reported since the introduction of chlordiazepoxide (Librium), the first benzodiazepine in 1955. Read More

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September 2021

A Phase III Prospective Active and Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial of Vilazodone in the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder.

Cureus 2021 Jul 28;13(7):e16689. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Psychiatry, Nirmal Hospital, Jhansi, IND.

Background Depression is a leading cause of psychiatric morbidity in the modern world, and the introduction of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is a revolution in the treatment of depression. Vilazodone, a novel SSRI and 5-HT1A partial agonist, received FDA approval in 2011 to treat the major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults. This study conducted in India aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vilazodone when compared to escitalopram or placebo in patients with MDD. Read More

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Comorbid Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder and Bipolar Disorder: A Review.

Front Psychiatry 2021 25;12:719241. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Women's Health Concerns Clinic and Mood Disorders Treatment and Research Centre, St Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Bipolar disorder (BD) differs in its clinical presentation in females compared to males. A number of clinical characteristics have been associated with BD in females: more rapid cycling and mixed features; higher number of depressive episodes; and a higher prevalence of BD type II. There is a strong link between BD and risk for postpartum mood episodes, and a substantial percentage of females with BD experience premenstrual mood worsening of varying degrees of severity. Read More

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Drug-Induced Stuttering: Occurrence and Possible Pathways.

Front Psychiatry 2021 25;12:692568. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

StotterFonds, Nijkerk, Netherlands.

Stuttering is a well-known condition that affects mainly children. Often, they recover as they get older. However, a drug-induced form of stuttering may occur at any age. Read More

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CYP2C19 Genotyping May Provide a Better Treatment Strategy when Administering Escitalopram in Chinese Population.

Front Pharmacol 2021 27;12:730461. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Hunan Key Laboratory of Pharmacogenetics, Xiangya Hospital, Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Depression disorder is one of the most serious mental illnesses in the world. Escitalopram is the essential first-line medication for depression disorder. It is the substrate of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme with high polymorphism. Read More

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5-HT1A Receptors Alter Temporal Responses to Broadband Vocalizations in the Mouse Inferior Colliculus Through Response Suppression.

Front Neural Circuits 2021 27;15:718348. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, McGovern Medical School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, United States.

Neuromodulatory systems may provide information on social context to auditory brain regions, but relatively few studies have assessed the effects of neuromodulation on auditory responses to acoustic social signals. To address this issue, we measured the influence of the serotonergic system on the responses of neurons in a mouse auditory midbrain nucleus, the inferior colliculus (IC), to vocal signals. Broadband vocalizations (BBVs) are human-audible signals produced by mice in distress as well as by female mice in opposite-sex interactions. Read More

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Inflammation Disturbed the Tryptophan Catabolites in Hippocampus of Post-operative Fatigue Syndrome Rats Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenas Enzyme and the Improvement Effect of Ginsenoside Rb1.

Front Neurosci 2021 26;15:652817. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Surgery, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital Affiliated to Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

Aim: Post-operative fatigue syndrome (POFS) is a common complication that prolongs the recovery to normal function and activity after surgery. The aim of the present study was to explore the mechanism of central fatigue in POFS and the anti-fatigue effect of ginsenoside Rb1.

Method: We investigated the association between inflammation, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) enzyme, and tryptophan metabolism in the hippocampus of POFS rats. Read More

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