34 results match your criteria 48-hour starvation

Phosphonates enantiomers receiving with fungal enzymatic systems.

Microb Cell Fact 2021 Apr 7;20(1):81. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Laboratory of Biotechnology, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Wrocław, Poland.

Background: Phosphonates derivatives are in the area of interests because of their unique chemical-physical features. These compounds manifest variety of biological interactions within the sensitive living cells, including impact on particular enzymes activities. Biological "cause and effect" interactions are based upon the specific matching between the structures and/or compounds and this is usually the result of proper optical configurations of particular chiral moieties. Read More

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A novel approach to maintain gut mucosal integrity using an oral enzyme supplement.

Ann Surg 2014 Oct;260(4):706-14; discussion 714-5

*Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; and †Sanford Children's Health Research Center, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, CA.

Objective: To determine the role of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) in enteral starvation-induced gut barrier dysfunction and to study its therapeutic effect as a supplement to prevent gut-derived sepsis.

Background: Critically ill patients are at increased risk for systemic sepsis and, in some cases, multiorgan failure leading to death. Years ago, the gut was identified as a major source for this systemic sepsis syndrome. Read More

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October 2014

Gluconeogenic signals regulate iron homeostasis via hepcidin in mice.

Gastroenterology 2014 Apr 17;146(4):1060-9. Epub 2013 Dec 17.

Center for Hemochromatosis and Metabolic Liver Diseases, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University Hospital of Modena, Modena, Italy. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Hepatic gluconeogenesis provides fuel during starvation, and is abnormally induced in obese individuals or those with diabetes. Common metabolic disorders associated with active gluconeogenesis and insulin resistance (obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease) have been associated with alterations in iron homeostasis that disrupt insulin sensitivity and promote disease progression. We investigated whether gluconeogenic signals directly control Hepcidin, an important regulator of iron homeostasis, in starving mice (a model of persistently activated gluconeogenesis and insulin resistance). Read More

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Effects of nimodipine administration on small bowel mucosa under conditions of laparotomy and consequent 48-hour starvation in a rat model.

Ann Ital Chir 2008 Mar-Apr;79(2):143-9

Laboratory for Experimental Surgery and Surgical Research, Medical School, University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Background/aims: The combination of starvation and surgical trauma induces disturbances to the intestinal mucosal structure and function, as well as changes in mucosal barrier function in the rat small bowel. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of nimodipine administration, on intestinal mucosal structural changes and enterocyte apoptosis, following laparotomy and subsequent postsurgical starvation (PSS) in the rat.

Methods: Thirty Wistar rats were divided into two experimental groups: A: Control group (n=15), where the animal models underwent laparotomy and consequent 48-hours PSS and B: Nimodipine group (n=15), where the rats underwent laparotomy, followed by intraperitoneal nimodipine administration and consequent 48-hour (h) PSS. Read More

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October 2008

[Expression of Mer on Jurkat cells and its anti-apoptosis effect].

Ai Zheng 2007 Jul;26(7):698-702

Jiangsu Institute of Hematology, The First Affilianted Hospital, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215006, P. R. China.

Background & Objective: Mer is a member of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase family; its ligand Gas6 can bind Mer, then stimulate the tyrosine kinase activity and downstream cell signal pathway of Mer, and take part in cell inflammation and apoptosis. There are more and more reports on Mer function, while few on its association with malignant diseases. This study was to detect the expression of Mer on T-cell leukemia cell line Jurkat, and investigate its anti-apoptosis function and the mechanism. Read More

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Prolonged hypoxia concomitant with serum deprivation induces massive human mesenchymal stem cell death.

Tissue Eng 2007 Jun;13(6):1325-31

Laboratoire de Recherches Orthopédiques (B2OA), Université Denis Diderot Paris 7, Paris, France.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been proposed for the repair of damaged tissue including bone, cartilage, and heart tissue. Upon in vivo transplantation, the MSCs encounter an ischemic microenvironment characterized by reduced oxygen (O2) tension and nutrient deprivation that may jeopardize viability of the tissue construct. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of serum deprivation and hypoxia on the MSC survival rates in vitro. Read More

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Participation of beta-adrenergic activity in modulation of GLUT4 expression during fasting and refeeding in rats.

Metabolism 2006 Nov;55(11):1538-45

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-900, Brazil.

Through in vitro studies, several factors have been reported as modulators of GLUT4 gene expression. However, the role(s) of each potential GLUT4 modulator is not completely understood in the in vivo setting. The present study has investigated the hypothesis that beta-adrenergic stimulation participates in modulation of GLUT4 expression during fasting and refeeding. Read More

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November 2006

Nutritional regulation of nucleoside transporter expression in rat small intestine.

Gastroenterology 2000 Dec;119(6):1623-30

Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Background & Aims: Concentrative nucleoside transporters CNT1 (pyrimidine preferring) and CNT2 (purine preferring) may be involved in the uptake of nucleoside-derived drugs used in antiviral and chemical therapies. The possibility that nucleoside carrier isoform expression is modulated by nutrient availability has been studied.

Methods: CNT1 and CNT2 tissue distribution was determined by Western blot analysis. Read More

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December 2000

Substrate interactions in the short- and long-term regulation of renal glucose oxidation.

Metabolism 1999 Jun;48(6):707-15

Division of Biomedical Sciences, St. Bartholomew's and the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of London, UK.

The present study evaluated the substrate competition between fatty acids (FA) and glucose in the kidney in vivo in relation to the operation of the "glucose-FA" and "reverse glucose-FA" cycles. In fed rats, neither inhibition of adipocyte lipolysis by 5-methylpyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (MPCA) nor inhibition of mitochondrial long-chain FA oxidation by 2-tetradecylglycidate (TDG) influenced the renal ratio of free/acylated carnitine or the percentage of total renal pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) in the active (dephosphorylated) form (PDHa). The additional provision of glucose, a precursor for the synthesis of malonyl-coenzyme A (coA), did not influence renal PDHa activity or the renal ratio of free to acylated carnitine, implying that FA oxidation is maximally suppressed in the fed state. Read More

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Glucose production and gluconeogenesis in postabsorptive and starved normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

Metabolism 1997 Nov;46(11):1358-63

Laboratoire de Physiologie Métabolique et Rénale, Faculté R. Laennec, Lyon, France.

Using a 3-hour primed-continuous infusion of [3-3H]glucose and [2-13C]glycerol, we measured glucose production, gluconeogenesis from glycerol, and total gluconeogenesis (using mass isotopomer distribution analysis [MIDA] of glucose) in postabsorptive and starved normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats. In normal rats, 48 hours of starvation increased (P < .01) the percent contribution of both gluconeogenesis from glycerol (from 14. Read More

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November 1997

Role of glutamine in bacterial transcytosis and epithelial cell injury.

JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1997 Mar-Apr;21(2):75-80

Division of Neonatology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore 21201-1595, USA.

Background: L-Glutamine is the principal energy source for small intestinal enterocytes. Diminution of intestinal function, mucosal atrophy, and increased bacterial translocation have been noted during total parenteral nutrition (TPN). In a rat model of glutamine starvation, we previously showed that luminal glutamine is essential for optimal intestinal function. Read More

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Metabolic and hormonal responses to adrenoceptor antagonists in 48-hour-starved exercising rats.

Metabolism 1995 Oct;44(10):1332-9

Department of Medical Physiology, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.

The influence of 48 hours of starvation on sympathoadrenal regulation of nutrient utilization was investigated in rats. To assess the role of alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors, rats were studied during alpha- and beta-blockade. Energy metabolism was measured using indirect calorimetry before, during, and after moderate swimming exercise (approximately 60% maximal O2 consumption [VO2max]). Read More

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October 1995

Impaired response of polycythemic mice to erythropoietin induced by protein starvation imposed after hormone administration.

Stem Cells 1993 Jul;11(4):296-302

Department of Physiology, University of Buenos Aires, School of Dentistry, Argentina.

The present study was performed to determine the stage of the erythropoietic pathway which is affected by starvation or protein deprivation and whose manifestation is a depressed response to exogenous erythropoietin (EPO). The response to recombinant human EPO was measured in post-hypoxic polycythemic mice by determination of 59Fe uptake into red cells, spleen and femur and/or erythroid colony forming units (CFU-E) and erythroid precursor cell concentrations in femoral marrow. Experimental mice were either starved or fed one of seven different diets whose protein (casein) content ranged from 0 to 20%. Read More

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The effect of starvation on insulin-induced glucose disposal and thermogenesis in humans.

Metabolism 1990 May;39(5):502-10

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham, England.

The effect of 48-hour starvation on glucose metabolism was studied in six non-diabetic, normal weight men using a hyperinsulinemic (100 mU/min/m2) glucose clamp (3.5 mmol/L). The rate of glucose oxidation was calculated from measurements of respiratory gas exchange, after allowing for the oxidation of ketones and of protein. Read More

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[Dynamic glycogen synthesis in the hepatocytes of different areas of the hepatic lobes in rats].

Tsitologiia 1990 ;32(10):1010-8

Using image analyser Magiscan, a quantitative analysis of the total glycogen and of its two fractions was made in hepatocytes of portal and central zones of the liver lobule of rats after a 48 hour starvation and 15, 30, 60, 120 minutes after refeeding. Glycogen content was the lowest after a 48 hour starvation and only a few cells of the central zone contained a noticeable glycogen quantity. Glycogen synthesis initiation began 15 minutes after refeeding. Read More

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[Enzyme activity of gluconeogenesis in dietary thiamine deficiency].

Vopr Pitan 1988 Jan-Feb(1):46-9

Activity of the main enzymes of gluconeogenesis under food thiamine deficiency was studied in tissues of satiated and 48-hour starved rats. Starvation of control rats (with no vitamin B1-deficiency) led to increased activity of glucose 6-phosphatase (G-6-P) in the liver, kidney and small intestinal mucosa, and of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in the liver and kidneys. Fructose 1,6-diphosphatase (F-D-P) activity in the control animals was not changed in the liver and kidneys but decreased in the small intestinal mucosa. Read More

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Maternal factors modulating nutrient transfer to fetus.

Biol Neonate 1987 ;51(2):86-93

Current knowledge of the modulation of maternal-fetal transfer of metabolites is reviewed and new data on the actual placental transport of D-glucose, L-alanine and glycerol in the rat are presented. Twenty-one day pregnant rats were infused with the 14C-labelled substrates throughout the left uterine artery. Radioactivity appearing in fetuses was corrected by the specific dilution of the tracer at maternal arterial plasma and the uterine artery blood flow to estimate placental transfer. Read More

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Glucose stimulation of insulin secretion in islets of fed and starved rats and its dependence on lipid metabolism.

Metabolism 1986 Mar;35(3):266-71

The influence of a physiologic range of palmitate concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1. Read More

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The influence of starvation on some characteristics of the Ca2+ transport system and lipid content in rat liver mitochondria.

Acta Physiol Pharmacol Bulg 1986 ;12(2):49-54

The effects of 48-hour starvation on some characteristics of the Ca2+ transport system as well as on lipid content and free fatty acids composition in rat liver mitochondria were determined. The ion fluxes in mitochondria in steady state and oscillations were measured using Ca2+, Sr2+ and H+ sensitive electrodes. The Ca2+ uptake in liver mitochondria was changed after starvation. Read More

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November 1986

[Characteristics of the hormonal regulation of glycemia in rats with varying alcoholic motivation].

Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) 1986 Jan-Feb;32(1):53-6

Rats preferring ethanol differ from those preferring water in a lowered blood serum IRI level in the presence of the same level of glycemia. Ethanol preferring animals are characterized by raised function of the adrenal cortex revealed in an elevated II-oxycordicosteroid content in these glands and a lowered cholesterol level. The glucose tolerance test (4 g/kg by intragastric administration) shows a faster depletion of beta-cells of langerhans islets in ethanol preferring animals which is suggestive of a prediabetic state. Read More

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Carbohydrate metabolism in potassium-depleted rats.

Nephron 1985 ;41(1):100-9

Carbohydrate metabolism was examined in different organs of rats with dietary potassium deprivation for 4 weeks. Thereafter, a 24- or 48-hour starvation period caused a significant decrease of skeletal muscle and liver glycogen content in K+-depleted (KD) rats, whereas kidney glycogen concentration increased and heart glycogen remained unchanged. In contrast, liver glucose concentration was significantly higher in starved KD animals without changes in muscle, heart, and kidney glucose concentrations. Read More

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October 1985

Thyrotropin secretion in starved rats is enhanced by somatostatin antiserum.

Horm Metab Res 1984 Feb;16(2):92-6

Previous studies have demonstrated that serum TSH and GH decrease during fasting. Taking advantage of the fact that somatostatin antiserum administration is an effective, specific method of blocking endogenous somatostatin activity, we performed the present investigation to explore whether known fasting-induced increases in somatostatin might underlie the mechanism(s) of this decrement. After a 48 hour fast, two groups of male rats were anesthetized and an indwelling right atrial catheter inserted. Read More

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February 1984

Stimulation of lactase synthesis induced by starvation in the jejunum of adult rat.

E Nsi-Emvo F Raul

Enzyme 1984 ;31(1):45-9

The effects of actinomycin D and of cycloheximide administration have been investigated on the enzyme activities of the jejunal brush border membrane in adult rats after a 48-hour period of starvation. The modifications in the protein and enzyme patterns of the brush border membrane and the incorporation of radiolabelled amino acid in the protein band corresponding to lactase have been studied in the nourished and in the starved animal. The results show that actinomycin D administration did not modify the stimulation of lactase activity caused by starvation whereas cycloheximide completely inhibited this process. Read More

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Modulation of RNA polymerase activities in the intestine of adult rats by dietary sucrose.

J Nutr 1983 Oct;113(10):2034-40

The effect of sucrose feeding on endogenous intestinal RNA polymerase activities and on chromatin structure was studied in rats. Adult rats were given a 70% sucrose solution for 15 hours following a 48-hour starvation period. Comparison was made with rats starved for 63 hours and with ad libitum nourished animals. Read More

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October 1983

Insulin action during acute starvation: evidence for selective insulin resistance in normal man.

Metabolism 1983 Jun;32(6):590-6

The effects of insulin on glucose utilization, lipolysis, and potassium and phosphate metabolism were studied during short-term fasting in six lean subjects using a sequential euglycemic glucose clamp technique (two additional subjects were used in 70 mU/m2/min clamp studies). The subjects were infused with insulin for four hours at four rates ranging from 6 to 442 mU/m2/min before and after a 48-hour fast. Insulin was infused for one hour at each rate in all experiments. Read More

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Effect of starvation on somatostatin content of pancreas and gastrointestinal tract of the guinea pig.

Horm Metab Res 1982 May;14(5):245-7

The effect of 48-hour starvation on the somatostatin contents of the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract was studied in the guinea pig. Somatostatin contents were higher in various portions of the stomach and pancreas of fed guinea pigs than in fed rats and unchanged after 48-hour starvation, in spite of the decreased blood glucose level. These results suggest that somatostatin may not play the same physiological role in nutrient homeostasis of guinea pigs as it does in other species. Read More

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Starvation-induced changes of hepatic glucose metabolism in hypo- and hyperthyroid rats in vivo.

J Nutr 1981 Aug;111(8):1370-9

The role of thyroid hormones in the metabolic adaptation to starvation was investigated in vivo. Glucose production, measured by tracer technique, was enhanced in hyperthyroid (185%) and reduced in hypothyroid (39%) 48-hour starved rats (euthyroid control = 100%). Urinary nitrogen excretion was increased in hyperthyroidism (132%) and decreased in hypothyroidism (70%). Read More

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Further nutritional characterization of dorsomedial hypothalamic hypophagia in rats: diet consistency, finickiness, self-selection of diets, starvation and realimentation and "stress eating".

J Nutr 1981 Apr;111(4):721-32

Young-mature male Sprague-Dawley rats received bilateral lesions in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei (DMNL); sham-operated rats served as controls. After 30 days of a pelleted commercial laboratory diet, they received a powdered lab diet for 10 days. Both groups of rats reduced food intake for the duration of the test. Read More

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Substrate utilization by the lung.

Ciba Found Symp 1980 ;78:85-104

Intermediary metabolism of the lung and its regulation have received relatively little attention in the past, partly because of difficulty in producing suitable models for study. An in situ perfused rat lung preparation is described which remains viable for four hours or more. Concentration-dependent glucose utilization has been found with this model, associated with marked lactate production. Read More

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Blood flow, calcium deposition and heat loss in reindeer antlers.

K Hove J B Steen

Acta Physiol Scand 1978 Sep;104(1):122-8

Antler blood flow was studied in a 2 year old male reindeer during the last half of the antler growth period using an electromagnetic flow probe chronically implanted around the superficial temporal artery. Arteriovenous (a-v) differences of calcium were measured on antler blood. The blood flow increased from 60--90 ml/min when the antler was half-grown to 100--120 ml/min when fully developed. Read More

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September 1978