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Cause of death during prostate cancer survivorship: A contemporary, US population-based analysis.

Cancer 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Urology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.

Background: More than 3.6 million men in the United States harbor a diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). The authors sought to provide in-depth analyses of the causes of death for contemporary survivors. Read More

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Evaluation of an oxygen-dependent self-inducible surfactin synthesis in B. subtilis by substitution of native promoter P by anaerobically active P and P.

AMB Express 2021 Apr 19;11(1):57. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Institute of Food Science and Biotechnology (150), Department of Bioprocess Engineering (150k), University of Hohenheim, Fruwirthstr. 12, 70599, Stuttgart, Germany.

A novel approach targeting self-inducible surfactin synthesis under oxygen-limited conditions is presented. Because both the nitrate (NarGHI) and nitrite (NasDE) reductase are highly expressed during anaerobic growth of B. subtilis, the native promoter P of the surfactin operon in strain B. Read More

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Ecophysiology of xerophytic and halophytic vegetation of a coastal alluvial plain in northern Venezuela: VI. Water relations and gas exchange of mangroves.

New Phytol 1989 Feb;111(2):293-307

Institut für Pflanzenphysiologie der Universität, A-1091 Wien, Austria.

Seasonal effects on leaf gas exchange and water relations were compared for Avicennia germinans, a true mangrove, and Conocarpus erectus, a mangrove associate, at coastal sites in northern Venezuela. On the Ciénega el Ostional at Chichiriviche, A. germinans was most abundant around lagoons on the seaward side of the vegetation-free alluvial sand plain. Read More

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February 1989

Effects of microwave treatment of soil on growth of birch (Betula pendula) seedlings and infection of them by ectomycorrhizal fungi.

New Phytol 1988 Feb;108(2):189-204

Microbiology Department, School of Agriculture, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG.

Seedlings of birch (Betula pendula Roth.) were grown for 12 weeks in small volumes of field soils heated in a microwave (MW) oven for different times and then either supplemented or not with inocula of ectomycorrhizal fungi and, in one case, with fresh agricultural soil. Growth of roots and shoots was assessed, and the incidence of different mycorrhizal types, distinguished by colour and morphology, was recorded. Read More

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February 1988

In-situ tailoring the morphology of In(OH)3 nanostructures via surfactants during anodization and their transformation into In2O3 nanoparticles.

Nanotechnology 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, 373-1 Guseong, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-701, Korea (the Republic of).

The present work reports the effect of various surfactants on the morphology of In(OH)3 nanostructures prepared via anodization. In-sheets were anodized in an environmentally benign electrolyte containing a small quantity of CTAB, CTAC, and PDDA surfactants at room temperature. The produced nanostructures were characterized using XRD, HRTEM, SAED, and EDAX. Read More

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Transcriptional and Immunologic Correlates of Response to Pandemic Influenza Vaccine in Aviremic, HIV-Infected Children.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:639358. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.

People living with HIV (PWH) often exhibit poor responses to influenza vaccination despite effective combination anti-retroviral (ART) mediated viral suppression. There exists a paucity of data in identifying immune correlates of influenza vaccine response in context of HIV infection that would be useful in improving its efficacy in PWH, especially in younger individuals. Transcriptomic data were obtained by microarray from whole blood isolated from aviremic pediatric and adolescent HIV-infected individuals (4-25 yrs) given two doses of Novartis/H1N1 09 vaccine during the pandemic H1N1 influenza outbreak. Read More

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Evaluation of the Immunogenic Response of a Novel Enterobactin Conjugate Vaccine in Chickens for the Production of Enterobactin-Specific Egg Yolk Antibodies.

Front Immunol 2021 2;12:629480. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Animal Science, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, United States.

Passive immunization with specific egg yolk antibodies (immunoglobulin Y, IgY) is emerging as a promising alternative to antibiotics to control bacterial infections. Recently, we developed a novel conjugate vaccine that could trigger a strong immune response in rabbits directed against enterobactin (Ent), a highly conserved siderophore molecule utilized by different Gram-negative pathogens. However, induction of Ent-specific antibodies appeared to be affected by the choice of animal host and vaccination regimen. Read More

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Internalization of cell-derived microparticles triggers endothelial pro-inflammatory responses.

Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Siriraj Center of Research Excellence in Microparticle and Exosome in Diseases, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: Increased numbers of circulating microparticles (MPs) have long been documented in thalassemia and are considered as a contributing factor in developing the thromboembolic events (TEEs), which are associated with endothelial dysfunction. Indeed, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which MPs and endothelial cells interact and their consequences remain poorly investigated.

Objective: The present study aims to compare the biological effects of MPs obtained from healthy subjects and β-thalassemia/HbE patients on endothelial pro-inflammatory responses. Read More

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Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of the respiratory syncytial virus prefusion F subunit vaccine DS-Cav1: a phase 1, randomised, open-label, dose-escalation clinical trial.

Lancet Respir Med 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Multiple active vaccination approaches have proven ineffective in reducing the substantial morbidity and mortality caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in infants and older adults (aged ≥65 years). A vaccine conferring a substantial and sustainable boost in neutralising activity is required to protect against severe RSV disease. To that end, we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of DS-Cav1, a prefusion F subunit vaccine. Read More

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3D cell sheet structure augments mesenchymal stem cell cytokine production.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 14;11(1):8170. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Cell Sheet Tissue Engineering Center (CSTEC), Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Health Sciences, University of Utah, 30 South 2000 East, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete paracrine factors that play crucial roles during tissue regeneration. An increasing body of evidence suggests that this paracrine function is enhanced by MSC cultivation in three-dimensional (3D) tissue-like microenvironments. Toward this end, this study explored scaffold-free cell sheet technology as a new 3D platform. Read More

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Genomics and epidemiology of the P.1 SARS-CoV-2 lineage in Manaus, Brazil.

Science 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Instituto de Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Manaus, Brazil, resurged in late 2020, despite previously high levels of infection. Genome sequencing of viruses sampled in Manaus between November 2020 and January 2021 revealed the emergence and circulation of a novel SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern. Lineage P. Read More

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Comparison of Outcomes of Enoxaparin Bridge Therapy in HeartMate II versus HeartWare HVAD Recipients.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2021 Apr 12:10742484211006998. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Pharmacy, 12297NYU Langone Health, New York, NY, USA.

Background: There is a lack of robust data evaluating outcomes of enoxaparin "bridge" therapy in left ventricular assist device (LVAD) patients.

Methods: We performed a retrospective study of HeartMate II (HM II) and HeartWare HVAD recipients that received therapeutic enoxaparin as "bridge" therapy to describe bleeding and thrombotic events and compare outcomes between devices. The primary endpoint was the incidence of bleeding within 30 days of "bridge" episode. Read More

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Transient perioperative inflammation following lung transplantation and major thoracic surgery with elective extracorporeal support: a prospective observational study.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Mar;9(5):385

Department of Surgery, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Background: The clinical relevance of inflammation induced by elective perioperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) usage as an integral part of modern lung transplantation (LUTX) remains elusive. The aim of this study was to determine the perioperative cytokine response accompanying major thoracic surgery employing different extracorporeal devices comprising ECMO, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), or no extracorporeal circulation in relation to inflammation, clinically tangible as increased sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, called SOFA.

Methods: In this prospective, observational pilot study 42 consecutive patients with end-stage pulmonary disease undergoing LUTX; 15 patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) undergoing pulmonary endarterectomy and 15 patients with lung cancer undergoing major lung resections were analysed. Read More

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Effect of Leu277 on Disproportionation and Hydrolysis Activity in NO2 Cyclodextrin Glucosyltransferase.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi, 214122, China

The disproportionation activity of cyclodextrin glucosyltransferase (CGTase, EC 2.4.1. Read More

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[Treatment of acute tandem occlusion of arteries of anterior cerebral circulation without emergency stenting].

Angiol Sosud Khir 2021 ;27(1):53-64

Department of Roentgenovascular Methods of Diagnosis and Treatment, Municipal Clinical Hospital named after S.P. Botkin of the Moscow Healthcare Department, Moscow, Russia; Chair of Therapy and Adolescent Medicine, Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education of the RF Ministry of Public Health, Moscow, Russia.

The article deals with problems of endovascular treatment of acute tandem and isolated occlusions of arteries of the anterior cerebral circulation, as well as the problem of reocclusions and new occlusions of these target arteries in the early postoperative period after thrombectomy.

Purpose: To determine the effect of reocclusions and new, previously not identified occlusions of the carotid artery and middle cerebral artery after cerebral thrombectomy on the outcomes of ischaemic stroke, as well as to substantiate feasibility of endovascular policy without simultaneous carotid stenting in thrombectomy in case of tandem occlusions of arteries of the anterior cerebral circulation.

Patients And Methods: We studied the results of endovascular treatment of 52 patients with acute ischaemic stroke, including 26 patients with combined occlusions of the internal carotid and middle cerebral arteries (group 1) and 26 patients with isolated occlusion of the M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery or its equivalent (group 2). Read More

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High-dose administration of tyrosine kinase inhibitors to improve clinical benefit: A systematic review.

Cancer Treat Rev 2021 Mar 17;97:102171. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Medical Oncology, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Innovative strategies to fully exploit the antitumor activity of multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are urgently needed. Higher concentrations of TKIs at their target site, i.e. Read More

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Differential Induction of Allergen-specific IgA Responses following Timothy Grass Subcutaneous and Sublingual Immunotherapy.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

National Heart and Lung Institute, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Imperial College NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Asthma UK Centre in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma, London, United Kingdom; Immune Tolerance Network, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Introduction: There is no detailed comparison of allergen-specific immunoglobulin responses following sublingual (SLIT) and subcutaneous (SCIT) immunotherapy.

Objective: To compare nasal and systemic Timothy grass pollen (TGP)-specific antibody responses during two years of SCIT and SLIT and one year after treatment discontinuation in a double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled trial.

Methods: Nasal fluid and serum were obtained yearly (per-protocol population, n=84). Read More

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Azelaic Acid/Expanded Graphite Composites with High Latent Heat Storage Capacity and Thermal Conductivity at Medium Temperature.

ACS Omega 2021 Mar 16;6(12):8469-8476. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Research Institute of Clean Manufacturing System, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, 89 Yangdaegiro-gil, Ipjang-myeon, Cheonan 31056, South Korea.

A novel azelaic acid/expanded graphite (AA/EG) phase change composite (PCC) was fabricated as a shape-stabilized phase change material (PCM) for latent heat storage at medium temperatures. The composite exhibited a low supercooling degree and high heat storage capacity. Despite the impregnation of a high quantity of AA (85 wt %) in the porous network of EG, there was no leakage of liquid AA. Read More

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Pain and function deteriorate in patients awaiting total joint arthroplasty that has been postponed due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

World J Orthop 2021 Mar 18;12(3):152-168. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, Johannesburg 2193, Gauteng, South Africa.

Background: Elective total joint arthroplasty (TJA) procedures have been postponed as part of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) response to avert healthcare system collapse. Total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) procedures comprise the highest volume of elective procedures performed at health care facilities worldwide.

Aim: To determine the demand for TJA despite the pandemic and the impact of surgery postponement on physical and mental health. Read More

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Increased mortality associated with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus in patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis: a single US cohort study.

Ther Adv Infect Dis 2021 Jan-Dec;8:20499361211004367. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Colorado Denver, 12700 E. 19th Avenue, Mail Stop B168, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.

Background: Diabetes mellitus is an established risk factor for bacterial infections, but its role in cryptococcosis is unclear. The study aimed to determine whether uncontrolled diabetes (HbA1c >7%) was an independent risk factor for mortality in cryptococcosis.

Methods: A retrospective case-control study partially matched by age and gender was performed in patients tested for infection at the University of Colorado Hospital from 2000 to 2019. Read More

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Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Treatment of Heart Failure in Diabetes.

Authors:
Jin Joo Park

Diabetes Metab J 2021 Mar 25;45(2):146-157. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Cardiovascular Center, Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam, Korea.

The cardiovascular disease continuum begins with risk factors such as diabetes mellitus (DM), progresses to vasculopathy and myocardial dysfunction, and finally ends with cardiovascular death. Diabetes is associated with a 2- to 4-fold increased risk for heart failure (HF). Moreover, HF patients with DM have a worse prognosis than those without DM. Read More

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Hair Growth Promoting Activity of Cedrol Nanoemulsion in C57BL/6 Mice and Its Bioavailability.

Molecules 2021 Mar 23;26(6). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Traditional Chinese Medicine College, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, China.

As the main component of , cedrol has known germinal activity. A range of cedrol formulations have been developed to prevent hair-loss, but compliance remains key issues. In this study, we prepared cedrol nanoemulsion (CE-NE) and determined the particle size and PDI (polydispersion coefficient), investigated the hair growth activity and studied the bioavailability in vitro and in vivo. Read More

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An Investigation of Airborne Bioaerosols and Endotoxins Present in Indoor Traditional Wet Markets before and after Operation in Taiwan: A Case Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Mar 13;18(6). Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Microbiology, Soochow University, Taipei 11102, Taiwan.

Customers in Taiwan prefer to purchase fresh foods and household supplies at indoor traditional wet markets (TWMs). The health risk to indoor TWM staff exposed to bioaerosols needs to be evaluated, since these workers spend long periods of time in the market for stall preparation, selling, and stall cleaning. This study investigated the bioaerosols present in two indoor TWMs. Read More

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Enhanced Skin Permeation of Estradiol by Dimethyl Sulfoxide Containing Transdermal Patches.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Mar 1;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Pharmacy, University of Bonn, Gerhard-Domagk-Str. 3, 53121 Bonn, Germany.

Dimethyl sulfoxide is a well-known and widely used dermal penetration enhancer. Its incorporation in transdermal patches would be highly desirable; however, due to its volatility this is extremely challenging. Here, we report on the feasibility of a dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) containing transdermal system containing estradiol as a model compound. Read More

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An Emerging Syndemic of Smoking and Cardiopulmonary Diseases in People Living with HIV in Africa.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Mar 18;18(6). Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY 10029, USA.

Background: African countries have the highest number of people living with HIV (PWH). The continent is home to 12% of the global population, but accounts for 71% of PWH globally. Antiretroviral therapy has played an important role in the reduction of the morbidity and mortality rates for HIV, which necessitates increased surveillance of the threats from pernicious risks to which PWH who live longer remain exposed. Read More

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Oestrogen receptor α in T cells controls the T cell immune profile and glucose metabolism in mouse models of gestational diabetes mellitus.

Diabetologia 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan.

Aims/hypothesis: The imbalance between maternal insulin resistance and a relative lack of insulin secretion underlies the pathogenesis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Alterations in T cell subtypes and increased levels of circulating proinflammatory cytokines have been proposed as potential mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of insulin resistance in GDM. Since oestrogen modulates T cell immunity, we hypothesised that oestrogen plays a homeostatic role in visceral adipose tissue by coordinating T cell immunity through oestrogen receptor α (ERα) in T cells to prevent GDM. Read More

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Triton X-114 and Amine-Based Wash Strategy Reduces Lipopolysaccharides to FDA Limit and Achieves Purer, More Potent Recombinant Immunotoxin.

Bioconjug Chem 2021 Apr 1;32(4):713-720. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Internal Medicine 5, Haematology and Oncology, University Hospital of Erlangen, 91054 Erlangen, Germany.

Many proteins are still routinely expressed prokaryotically in , some because they are toxic to eukaryotes. Immunotoxins, which are fusion proteins of a targeting moiety and a truncated Pseudomonas exotoxin A, kill target cells by arresting protein synthesis. Thus, immunotoxins must be expressed in . Read More

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Changes in the National Cancer Institute's R01 workforce: growth, aging, retention, and policy implications.

J Clin Invest 2021 Apr;131(7)

Scientific progress and discovery of preventions and cures for life-threatening diseases depend on the vitality of the biomedical research workforce. We analyzed the workforce of cancer researchers applying for and receiving R01 awards from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) from fiscal years 1990 to 2016, the last year prior to implementation of the Next Generation Researchers Initiative. Here we report that the NCI R01 Principal Investigator (PI) workforce expanded 1. Read More

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Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Have Altered Levels of Four Cytokines Associated with Cardiovascular and Kidney Disease, but Near Normal Levels with Airways Therapy.

Nat Sci Sleep 2021 25;13:457-466. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Clinical and Administrative Pharmacy, Clinical and Translational Research Unit, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602, USA.

Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) results in chronic intermittent hypoxia leading to systemic inflammation, increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-Alpha and IL-6, and increased risk for a number of life threatening medical disorders such as cardiovascular and kidney disease.

Methods: A BioPlex Array was used to examined the serum levels of four cytokines also expressed in endothelial cells and/or macrophages and associated with cardiovascular and kidney disease risk.

Results: Relative to untreated OSA patients, airways treated OSA patients had a 5. Read More

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Hepatocyte growth factor induces pErk and pSTAT3 (Ser 727) to promote mitochondrial activity and neurite outgrowth in primary dorsal root ganglion cultures.

Neuroreport 2021 Apr;32(6):525-530

Division of Gene Therapy, Helixmith Co Ltd., Seoul, Korea.

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) promotes the neurite outgrowth of sensory neurons in developmental stages, but its role in injured peripheral nerves in adult mice remains largely been unexplored. In this study, we investigated the role of HGF in the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves using cultured dorsal root ganglions (DRGs). When cells were treated with HGF protein, the length of the neurite was increased 1. Read More

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