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The Suboptimal Pediatric HIV Viral Load Cascade: Multidistrict Cohort Study Among Children Taking Antiretroviral Therapy in Lesotho, Southern Africa.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2021 Nov 30. Epub 2021 Nov 30.

From the SolidarMed, Partnerships for Health, Maseru, Lesotho Institute of Global Health, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland Department of Medicine, Swiss Tropical & Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland Molecular Virology, Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Ministry of Health of Lesotho, Maseru, Lesotho Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: Children living with HIV and taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) are a priority group for routine viral load (VL) monitoring. As per Lesotho guidelines, a VL ≥1000 copies/mL ("unsuppressed") should trigger adherence counseling and a follow-up VL; 2 consecutive unsuppressed VLs ("virologic failure") qualify for switching to second-line ART, with some exceptions. Here, we describe the pediatric VL cascade in Lesotho. Read More

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November 2021

The burden & contributing factors of psychological distress across India during the COVID pandemic.

Arch Psychiatr Nurs 2021 Dec 22;35(6):678-684. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Department of Community Medicine & Family Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubneswar, India. Electronic address:

The unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic spread rapidly and engulfing the entire world, forcing people to stay home, muting the hustle and bustle of modern world with tide of fear for contracting disease and death. This brutal disease has infected millions of people worldwide, many lost their job, world economies have ravaged and many more uncountable consequences.

Objective: To assess the psychological distress due to COVID-19 outbreak and to determine contributing factors towards psychological distress. Read More

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December 2021

Genetic variation of as a protective genotype for the development of colorectal cancer in men.

World J Gastrointest Oncol 2021 Nov;13(11):1766-1780

Department of Molecular Biology, Immunology and Medical Genetics, Medical Faculty, Trakia University, Stara Zagora 6000, Bulgaria.

Background: The role of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling, including both the cytokine and their receptors, in the etiology of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been of particular interest lately.

Aim: To investigate the association between promoter polymorphism in TGF-β receptor 2 TGF-ΒR2GA with a CRC risk in a cohort of Bulgarian patients using a case-control gene association study approach, as well as the protein levels of TGF-β1 in the peripheral blood.

Methods: A cohort of 184 CRC patients and 307 sex and age-matched healthy subjects were recruited in the study. Read More

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November 2021

Variation in Dexamethasone Dosing and Use Outcomes for Inpatient Croup.

Hosp Pediatr 2021 Dec 1. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

Department of Pediatrics, Kravis Children's Hospital and Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York City, New York.

Objectives: Evaluate the association between dexamethasone dosing and outcomes for children hospitalized with croup.

Methods: This study was nested within a multisite prospective cohort study of children aged 6 months to 6 years admitted to 1 of 5 US children's hospitals between July 2014 and June /2016. Multivariable linear and logistic mixed-effects regression models were used to examine the association between the number of dexamethasone doses (1 vs >1) and outcomes (length of stay [LOS], cost, and 30-day same-cause reuse). Read More

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December 2021

Global, regional and national burden of bladder cancer and its attributable risk factors in 204 countries and territories, 1990-2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease study 2019.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 11;6(11)

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA

Introduction: The current study determined the level and trends associated with the incidence, death and disability rates for bladder cancer and its attributable risk factors in 204 countries and territories, from 1990 to 2019, by age, sex and sociodemographic index (SDI; a composite measure of sociodemographic factors).

Methods: Various data sources from different countries, including vital registration and cancer registries were used to generate estimates. Mortality data and incidence data transformed to mortality estimates using the mortality to incidence ratio (MIR) were used in a cause of death ensemble model to estimate mortality. Read More

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November 2021

Molecular adaptation response of Oenococcus oeni in non-Saccharomyces fermented wines: A comparative multi-omics approach.

Int J Food Microbiol 2021 Nov 20;362:109490. Epub 2021 Nov 20.

Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Departament de Bioquímica i Biotecnologia, Facultat d'Enologia, Grup de Biotecnologia Enològica, C/ Marcel·lí Domingo 1, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia, Spain. Electronic address:

Oenococcus oeni is the main agent responsible for malolactic fermentation (MLF) in wine. This usually takes place in red wines after alcoholic fermentation (AF) carried out by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In recent years, there is an increasing interest in using non-Saccharomyces yeast, usually in combination with S. Read More

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November 2021

A systematic review of cases of CNS demyelination following COVID-19 vaccination.

J Neuroimmunol 2021 Nov 9;362:577765. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt.

Background: Since the emergency use approval of different types of COVID-19 vaccines, several safety concerns have been raised regarding its early and delayed impact on the nervous system.

Objective: This study aims to systematically review the reported cases of CNS demyelination in association with COVID-19 vaccination, which has not been performed, to our knowledge.

Methods: A systematic review was performed by screening published articles and preprints of cases of CNS demyelination in association with COVID-19 vaccines in PubMed, SCOPUS, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Ovid and medRxiv databases, until September 30, 2021. Read More

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November 2021

The Blood Lead Levels of Children and the Loss of Ca from Neurons Owing to Lead.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Nov 17;18(22). Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

In order to understand current blood lead levels (BLLs), we investigated the BLLs of children in Sichuan Province from 2011 to 2020. We then monitored the treatment effects of calcium in children with high BLLs to assess their treatment status. Finally, we explored the effects of lead on Ca through in-situ experiments. Read More

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November 2021

Clinical Outcome and Drug Expenses of Intravitreal Therapy for Diabetic Macular Edema: A Retrospective Study in Sardinia, Italy.

J Clin Med 2021 Nov 16;10(22). Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Ophthalmology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria di Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy.

Background: Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a leading cause of visual loss in working-age adults. The purpose of this retrospective study was to perform an epidemiological analysis on DME patients treated with intravitreal drugs in a tertiary hospital. The clinical outcome, adverse drug reactions (ADRs), and intravitreal drug expenses were assessed. Read More

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November 2021

Functional and Cost Audit of Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty in Public vs Private Hospitals: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Indian J Orthop 2021 Oct 20;55(5):1306-1316. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Orthopaedics, HBT Medical College and Dr. R.N. Cooper Municipal General Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra India.

Background: Government funded hospitals are believed to be stigmatised with 'substandard care' and constant fear of infection. The aim of this study is to compare the results and direct expenditure incurred for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) done at a government funded public teaching hospital with an economy packaged private hospital in India.

Materials And Methods: A review of electronic and physical records of the patients operated by the senior author for primary TKA at a government funded hospital and a private hospital spanning 2007 to 2019 was done. Read More

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October 2021

Clinical burden of relapses in aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: A single center cohort analysis.

J Neuroimmunol 2021 Nov 2;362:577761. Epub 2021 Nov 2.

Alexion, AstraZeneca Rare Disease, Boston, MA, USA.

A retrospective, observational analysis of 47 patients with aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (AQP4-IgG+ NMOSD) enrolled at the University of Utah healthcare system was conducted. Visual acuity, neurological disability, and pain medication use were compared in relapsing versus non-relapsing patients. The median observation period was 3. Read More

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November 2021

Baseline factors associated with death in a COVID-19 hospital cohort, Sao Paulo, 2020.

Rev Saude Publica 2021 22;55:76. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Escola Paulista de Medicina. Departamento de Medicina. São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

This study aimed to verify socio-demographic and baseline clinical factors associated with death in a hospital cohort of patients with COVID-19. A retrospective cohort study was conducted between February and December 2020 in a university hospital in the city of São Paulo, using Hospital Epidemiology Center data. RT-PCR-positive patients were selected to compose the sample (n = 1,034). Read More

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November 2021

Oral health status and self- assessment of oral health risk factors among South Indian diabetic patients.

Indian J Dent Res 2021 Apr-Jun;32(2):140-146

Department of Public Health Dentistry, Panineeya Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Background: The disease profile of the world is changing at an astonishingly fast rate. It is essential that the impending nature of chronic disease is recognized and acted on urgently. India leads the world with the largest number of diabetics earning the dubious distinction of being termed the "diabetic capital" of the world. Read More

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November 2021

Amyloid-Related Imaging Abnormalities in 2 Phase 3 Studies Evaluating Aducanumab in Patients With Early Alzheimer Disease.

JAMA Neurol 2021 Nov 22. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Biogen, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Importance: The EMERGE and ENGAGE phase 3 randomized clinical trials of aducanumab provide a robust data set to characterize amyloid-related imaging abnormalities (ARIA) that occur with treatment with aducanumab, an amyloid-β (Aβ)-targeting monoclonal antibody, in patients with mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer disease or mild Alzheimer disease dementia.

Objective: To describe the radiographic and clinical characteristics of ARIA that occurred in EMERGE and ENGAGE.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Secondary analysis of data from the EMERGE and ENGAGE trials, which were 2 double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, phase 3 randomized clinical trials that compared low-dose and high-dose aducanumab treatment with placebo among participants at 348 sites across 20 countries. Read More

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November 2021

Personality of hosts and their brood parasites.

Curr Zool 2021 Dec 2;67(6):625-630. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Zhejiang Tiantong Forest Ecosystem National Observation and Research Station, School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China.

Brood parasites such as the common cuckoo exploit the parental abilities of their hosts, hosts avoid brood parasitism and predation by showing specific behavior such as loss of feathers, emission of fear screams and contact calls, displaying wriggle behavior to avoid hosts or potential prey, pecking at hosts and prey, and expressing tonic immobility (showing behavior like feigning death or rapid escape from predators and brood parasites). These aspects of escape behavior are consistent for individuals but also among sites, seasons, and years. Escape behavior expressed in response to a broad range of cuckoo hosts and prey are consistently used against capture by humans, but also hosts and brood parasites and predators and their prey. Read More

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December 2021

Agreement between heart rate at first ventilatory threshold on treadmill and at 6-min walk test in coronary artery disease patients on β-blockers treatment.

J Exerc Rehabil 2021 Oct 26;17(5):362-368. Epub 2021 Oct 26.

Physical Education Department, Health Sciences Institute, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Governador Valadares, Brazil.

The purpose of this study was to verify the accuracy of the agreement between heart rate at the first ventilatory threshold (HR) and heart rate at the end of the 6-min walk test (HR) in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients on β-blockers treatment. This was a cross-sectional study with stable CAD patients, which performed a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) on a treadmill and a 6-min walk test (6MWT) on nonconsecutive days. The accuracy of agreement between HR and HR was evaluated by Bland-Altman analysis and Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (r), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), and standard error of estimate (SEE). Read More

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October 2021

Bilberry/red grape juice decreases plasma biomarkers of inflammation and tissue damage in aged men with subjective memory impairment -a randomized clinical trial.

BMC Nutr 2021 Nov 22;7(1):75. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Few randomized clinical trials have explored the health effects of bilberries in humans. The aim was to test the effect of bilberry and red grape-juice consumption on visual memory, motor speed and dexterity as well as inflammatory and tissue damage biomarkers of plasma in aged men with subjective memory impairment.

Methods: Nine-week double-blind, placebo-controlled, dietary intervention study of aged men (n = 60, age ≥ 67 years) with subjective memory impairment randomized to consume a 50/50 mix of bilberry/red grape-juice or an iso-caloric placebo juice. Read More

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November 2021

Epidemiological comparison of the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria, February 2020-April 2021.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 11;6(11)

Nigeria COVID-19 Research Coalition, Abuja, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria.

Background: With reports of surges in COVID-19 case numbers across over 50 countries, country-level epidemiological analysis is required to inform context-appropriate response strategies for containment and mitigation of the outbreak. We aimed to compare the epidemiological features of the first and second waves of COVID-19 in Nigeria.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the Surveillance Outbreak Response Management and Analysis System data of the first and second epidemiological waves, which were between 27 February and 24 October 2020, and 25 October 2020 to 3 April 2021, respectively. Read More

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November 2021

[Application effects of failure mode and effect analysis on the limb posture positioning nursing of extremely severe burn patients].

Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi 2021 Nov;37(11):1078-1084

Department of Burns and Cutaneous Surgery, Burn Center of PLA, the First Affiliated Hospital of Air Force Medical University, Xi'an 710032, China.

To explore the application effects of risk assessment method of failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) on the limb posture positioning nursing of extremely severe burn patients. A retrospective observational study was conducted. According to the different limb posture positioning methods, 30 extremely severe burn patients who met the inclusion criteria and underwent routine limb posture positioning in the First Affiliated Hospital of Air Force Medical University from January 2018 to June 2019 were included into routine limb positioning group (19 males and 11 females, aged (40±10) years), and 30 extremely severe burn patients who met the inclusion criteria and underwent limb posture positioning with FMEA risk assessment from July 2019 to December 2020 in the department were included into FMEA limb positioning group (20 males and 10 females, aged (38±10) years). Read More

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November 2021

A post-surgical rehabilitation program for women over 60 years old who underwent surgery in trauma and orthopedic hospital after distal radius fracture.

J Bodyw Mov Ther 2021 Oct 10;28:362-368. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile. Electronic address:

Introduction: Distal radius fractures (DRFs) are associated with a high economic burden and an impact on quality of life on these patients. Its high prevalence demonstrates the importance of registering functional results, with emphasis on vulnerable population such as elderly females.

Methods: Thirty-six patients were admitted to a multimodal rehabilitation program. Read More

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October 2021

[Efficacy and safety of percutaneous closure of ventricular septal rupture after acute myocardial infarction: a clinical study of 69 cases].

Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi 2021 Nov;49(11):1094-1101

Department of Cardiology, Central China Fuwai Hospital (Central China Fuwai Hospital of Zhengzhou University), Heart Center of Henan Provincial People's Hospital, Henan Key Laboratory of Coronary Heart Disease Control, Henan Research Center for Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Zhengzhou 450003, China.

To investigate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous closure of ventricular septal rupture (VSR) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the risk factors of all-cause mortality at 30 days after operation. This is a retrospective case series study. A total of 69 patients with post-AMI VSR, underwent percutaneous closure of VSR from October 2013 to May 2020 in Department of Cardiology of Henan Provincial People's Hospital and Department of Cardiology of Central China Fuwai Hospital, were included. Read More

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November 2021

The Effect of Switching to Long-Acting Injection (LAI) Antipsychotic Therapy on Patients with Schizophrenia.

Curr Health Sci J 2021 Apr-Jun;47(2):237-248. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Romania.

Material And Method: We analyzed 362 patients with schizophrenia admitted during 2016 in an acute psychiatric ward and in a chronic psychiatric ward, diagnosed with paranoid or other schizophrenia, according to DSM-IV-TR, which, after remission of the symptoms of the acute episode, they benefited from antipsychotic therapy only in oral formulation. For some of these patients we instituted maintenance therapy with depot formulas. Patients were followed for up to two years. Read More

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Non intubated video-assisted thoracoscopic lung resections (NI-VATS) in COVID times.

Saudi J Anaesth 2021 Jul-Sep;15(3):362-367. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Minimally Invasive Thoracic Surgery (UCTMI), Coruña, Spain.

The emergence of epidemic Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in December 2019 in Wuhan, China causing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its rapid expansion around the world, leading to a global pandemic of dimensions not observed at least since the "Spanish influenza" pandemic in 1917-18, has had great consequences at all levels, including social, health and economic spheres. This pandemic situation forces us, as health care workers, to redefine our medical and surgical actions to adapt them to this new reality. It is important, when the rules of the game change, to rethink and to reevaluate if the balance between risk and benefit have moved to a different point of equilibrium, and if our indications of certain surgical interventions need to be redefined. Read More

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Lasting symptoms and long-term health-related quality of life after totally minimally invasive, hybrid and open Ivor Lewis esophagectomy.

Eur J Surg Oncol 2021 Nov 3. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Department of Surgery, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Aim: Compared to open esophagectomy (OE), both totally minimally invasive (TMIE) and laparoscopy-assisted hybrid minimally invasive (HMIE) reduce postoperative morbidity and improve short-term health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We aimed to compare lasting symptoms and long-term HRQoL in an international population-based setting between patients who underwent Ivor Lewis TMIE, HMIE or OE.

Methods: Patients who were relapse-free at least one year after TMIE, HMIE or OE for esophageal or junctional carcinoma between January 2010 and June 2016 were included. Read More

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November 2021

Health literacy and its dimensions in elderly people in Farsan city, Iran.

J Educ Health Promot 2021 30;10:362. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Health Education and Promotion, Health Faculty, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Health literacy is an important variable in the promotion and improvement of the health of all social groups, especially the elderly people. It indicates cognitive and social skills that specify the individuals' motivation and ability to access and perceive information using methods for health retention and improvement. The present research aimed to study health literacy and its relevant dimensions in a population over 60 years of age in Farsan city. Read More

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September 2021

Quantitative Assessment of Nitrous Oxide Levels in Room Air of Operation Theaters and Recovery Area: An Observational Study.

Indian J Occup Environ Med 2021 Jul-Sep;25(3):147-151. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Post Graduate Institute Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Background: Nitrous oxide has been used during surgical anesthesia for many years. However, information about occupational exposure and related risks due to NO exposure to the health care personnel in India are still poorly understood. Here, we measured the residual NO levels during the working time of operation theatre room air in our tertiary care hospital. Read More

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October 2021

Utility of oral glucose tolerance test in predicting type 2 diabetes following gestational diabetes: Towards personalized care.

World J Diabetes 2021 Oct;12(10):1778-1788

Department of Endocrinology, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai 123, United Arab Emirates.

Background: Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at a seven-fold higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) within 7-10 years after childbirth, compared with those with normoglycemic pregnancy. Although raised fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels has been said to be the main significant predictor of postpartum progression to T2D, it is difficult to predict who among the women with GDM would develop T2D. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional retrospective study to examine the glycemic indices that can predict postnatal T2D in Emirati Arab women with a history of GDM. Read More

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October 2021

Arterial stiffness and age moderate the association between physical activity and global cognition in older adults.

J Hypertens 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Health Sciences, School of Health and Human Sciences, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

Background: Evidence supports that time spent on physical activity has beneficial effects on cognition in older adults. Nevertheless, whether these beneficial effects are still present at the intersection of different levels of arterial stiffness and age is uncertain.

Methods: One hundred and ten healthy older adults aged 60-75 years were examined for arterial stiffness [carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV)], global cognition (composite score of Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and Mini-Mental State Examination), and self-reported physical activity (PACED diary). Read More

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Can intracranial time-of-flight-MR angiography predict extracranial carotid artery stenosis?

J Neurol 2021 Nov 9. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Center for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB), Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität Zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Objectives: Extracranial stenosis of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is an important cause of ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA). It can be diagnosed using contrast-enhanced CT or MR angiography (MRA) as well as Doppler ultrasound. In this study, we assessed the diagnostic value of intracranial time-of-flight (TOF) MRA to predict extracranial ICA stenosis (ICAS). Read More

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November 2021

Orofacial injuries in child family homicide: a population study.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2021 Dec 8;17(4):553-564. Epub 2021 Nov 8.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Monash University, Victoria, 3006, Australia.

Child family violence homicide (FVH) is a significant public health problem in Australia and globally. Population-wide studies of orofacial injuries in child FVH are uncommon despite their recognized importance. This whole population descriptive study of orofacial injuries in child FVH in Victoria, Australia aims to implement a novel methodological approach to provide an overview of child FVH and describe frequency and patterns of abusive orofacial injuries. Read More

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December 2021