Dermatol Clin 2021 Oct 22;39(4):533-543. Epub 2021 Jul 22.
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, Room HSE1001E, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. Electronic address:
Many skin manifestations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection reflect activation of cutaneous and systemic immune responses involving effector pathways of both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. This article reviews evidence from the recent clinical and scientific literature that informs the current understanding of the consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-induced immune cell activation, as relevant to dermatology. Topics include the clinical consequences of autoantibody production in patients with COVID-19, immunologic evidence for chilblains as a manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the relationship between type I interferons and COVID-19 disease severity. Read More