1,897 results match your criteria 2008 places

The Opioid Hydra: Understanding Overdose Mortality Epidemics and Syndemics Across the Rural-Urban Continuum.

Rural Sociol 2020 Sep 27;85(3):589-622. Epub 2019 Oct 27.

Department of Sociology and Criminology, University of Iowa.

The rapid increase of fatal opioid overdoses over the past two decades is a major U.S. public health problem, especially in non-metropolitan communities. Read More

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September 2020

A Low-Cost Active Reflector for Interferometric Monitoring Based on Sentinel-1 SAR Images.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 12;21(6). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Centre Técnologic de Telecommunicacions de Catalunya (CTTC/CERCA), Division of Geomatics, Av. Gauss 7, Castelldefels, E-08860 Barcelona, Spain.

The effectiveness of radar interferometric techniques in non-urban areas can often be compromised due to the lack of stable natural targets. This drawback can be partially compensated through the installation of reference targets, characterized by a bright and stable radar response. The installation of passive corner reflectors (PCR) often represents a valid aid, but these objects are usually cumbersome, and suffer from severe weather conditions; furthermore, the installation of a PCR can be difficult and costly, especially in places with hard accessibility. Read More

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Mothers' Parenting Stress and Neighborhood Characteristics in Early Childhood (Ages 0-4).

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Mar 5;18(5). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

School of Architecture, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Korea.

Neighborhood characteristics are important when raising children. Traditional approaches to parental stress research have focused on the impacts of daily hassles and how individual factors, such as children's temperament, family resources, and social support from friends and family reduce or exacerbate parental stress. There have been few studies on neighborhood characteristics and parental stress, and even fewer studies have examined the association longitudinally. Read More

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Psychiatric symptoms and behavioral adjustment during the COVID-19 pandemic: evidence from two population-representative cohorts.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 03 17;11(1):174. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Psychology, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.

This study examined prevalences of anxiety and depression and their correlations with daily routines among Hong Kong Chinese during the COVID-19 pandemic. Random digit dialing recruited two population-representative samples of 6029 residents during a period of low infection and limited intervention (survey 1: n = 4021) and high incidence and intensive measures (survey 2: n = 2008). Prevalence of anxiety for survey 1 and survey 2 were 14. Read More

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Internal migration, urban living, and non-communicable disease risk in South Africa.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Apr 20;274:113785. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Brown University, USA. Electronic address:

This paper offers theoretical and substantive contributions to migration-health scholarship by employing rich panel data with biomarkers to estimate the effect of migration and urban living on non-communicable disease risk in South Africa. Internal migration and urbanization continue to be pervasive demographic and socio-economic phenomena that structure daily life in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs). Yet, how these processes affect illness and disease in low-resource settings is still not well understood. Read More

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Identification of organophosphorus simulants for the development of next-generation detection technologies.

Org Biomol Chem 2021 03;19(9):2008-2014

School of Physical Sciences, University of Kent, Park Wood Road, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NH, UK.

Organophosphorus (OP) chemical warfare agents (CWAs) represent an ongoing threat but the understandable widespread prohibition of their use places limitations on the development of technologies to counter the effects of any OP CWA release. Herein, we describe new, accessible methods for the identification of appropriate molecular simulants to mimic the hydrogen bond accepting capacity of the P[double bond, length as m-dash]O moiety, common to every member of this class of CWAs. Using the predictive methodologies developed herein, we have identified OP CWA hydrogen bond acceptor simulants for soman and sarin. Read More

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Could Contracts between Pharmaceutical Firms and French Veterinarians Bias Prescription Behaviour: A Principal-Agency Theory Approach in the Context of Oligopolies.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Feb 10;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Université de Toulouse, LEREPS, ENSFEA, 31300 IEP de Toulouse, France.

In France, veterinarians can both prescribe and deliver veterinary medicines, which is a questionable situation from the perspective of antimicrobial use (AMU) reduction to avoid antimicrobial resistance (AMR). This situation places veterinarians in direct commercial relationships with the pharmaceutical industry as purchase contracts are signed between veterinarians and pharmaceutical companies. The aim of the present work is to analyse the relationships between veterinarians and pharmaceutical firms in the oligopoly market context of French veterinary medicine to determine whether the prescription behaviour of practitioners can be biased by joint prescription and delivery. Read More

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February 2021

Features of personality and professional burnout syndrome of physicians - analysis based on questionnaires studies.

Przegl Epidemiol 2020 ;74(3):531-542

Gajda-Med Medical Center.

Introduction: This observational study was ordered by the Medical Practitioners' Chamber in Warsaw.

The Objective: of the study was to evaluate the problem of professional burnout of physicians correlation between professional burnout and features of personality.

Material And Methods: Professional burnout was considered relative to different features of personality. Read More

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January 2020

Exploring neighborhood socioeconomic disparity in self-rated health: a multiple mediation analysis.

Prev Med 2021 Apr 28;145:106443. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

There is still a need for more empirical investigations to better understand the causal pathways by which neighborhood socioeconomic contexts translate into states of health. This study explored the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic position and health, as well as the role of social cohesion, violence, places to buy healthy food, and sports and leisure spaces in mediating this relationship in a diverse set of neighborhoods in Brazil. We applied a general multiple mediation approach to analyze a cross-sectional survey of 4. Read More

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Achieving Population Health Impacts Through Health Promotion Programs Offered by Community-based Organizations.

Med Care 2021 Mar;59(3):273-279

Department of Sociology and Gerontology, and Scripps Gerontology Center, Miami University, Oxford, OH.

Background: Evidence-based health promotion programs can help older adults manage chronic conditions and address behavioral risk factors, and translating these interventions to population-scale impact depends on reaching people outside of clinical settings. Area Agencies on Aging (AAAs) have emerged as important delivery sites for health promotion programs, but the impacts of their expanded role in delivering these interventions remain unknown.

Objective: The objective of this study was to test whether evidence-based health promotion programs implemented by AAAs from 2008 to 2016 influenced health care use and spending by older adults and to examine how agencies' organizational capacity for implementation influenced these population-level impacts. Read More

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Trajectories in mental health and socio-spatial conditions in a time of economic recovery and austerity: A longitudinal study in England 2011-17.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Feb 29;270:113654. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Durham University, UK. Electronic address:

This paper examines trends in mental health among adults in England during the period of economic recovery and austerity following the 2008 'great recession'. We report analysis of data on 17,212 individuals living in England, from the longitudinal Understanding Society Survey (USS). We examined how individual's self-reported mental health over time (2011-2017), related to their changing socio-geographical status. Read More

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February 2021

Privilege and Place: an exploratory study about healthcare bypass behavior.

Rural Remote Health 2021 Jan 13;21(1):5952. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Brigham Young University, 2008 JFSB, Provo, UT 84602, USA

Aim: Bypass, or utilizing healthcare outside of one's community rather than local health care, can have serious consequences on rural healthcare availability, quality, and outcomes. Previous studies of the likelihood of healthcare bypass used various individual and community characteristics. This study includes measures for individuals and communities, as well as place-based characteristics. Read More

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January 2021

Southward spreading of the Changjiang Diluted Water in the La Niña spring of 2008.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 11;11(1):307. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

State Key Laboratory of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics, Second Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Hangzhou, 310012, China.

The La Niña of 2007/2008 was particularly strong, so was the southward flow of the cold, nutrient-rich Changjiang (Yangtze River) Diluted Water (CDW) when the winter monsoon started to blow in the fall. Here we use shipboard data in 2008 in two transects, one in the southwestern East China Sea and one in the southern Taiwan Strait, to show that as late as April in 2008 the CDW was still clearly identifiable when the winter monsoon had weakened. Waters as cold as 16 °C with a salinity lower than 30 still occupied the southwestern East China Sea. Read More

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January 2021

The role of a cosmetologist in the area of health promotion and health education: A systematic review.

Monika Michalak

Health Promot Perspect 2020 7;10(4):338-348. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Institute of Medical Sciences, Collegium Medicum, Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce, Poland.

Contemporary cosmetology, apart from beautifying and caring for the human body, deals also with prevention aimed at maintaining health and physical fitness as long as possible. The profession of a cosmetologist so understood is closely related to the modern concept of health promotion, the part of which is health education. The objective of this review was to evaluate whether a cosmetologist may be a health promoter, and whether a beauty salon mayserve as a place for conducting educational programs. Read More

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November 2020

Implications of Tumor Characteristics and Treatment Modality on Local Recurrence and Functional Outcomes in Children with Chest Wall Sarcoma: A Pediatric Surgical Oncology Research Collaborative Study.

Ann Surg 2020 Nov 4. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Division of Pediatric Surgery, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.

Objective: To determine the impact of tumor characteristics and treatment approach on (1) local recurrence, (2) scoliosis development and (3) patient-reported quality of life in children with sarcoma of the chest wall.

Summary Background Data: Children with chest wall sarcoma require multimodal therapy including chemotherapy, surgery and/or radiation. Despite aggressive therapy which places them at risk for functional impairment and scoliosis, these patients are also at significant risk for local recurrence. Read More

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November 2020

Definitions of "rural" and "urban" and understandings of economic transformation: Evidence from Tanzania.

J Rural Stud 2020 Oct;79:254-268

Daniel J. Evans School of Public Policy and Governance, University of Washington, Parrington Hall, 4100 15th Ave NE, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA.

Designing effective policies for economic development often entails categorizing populations by their rural or urban status. Yet there exists no universal definition of what constitutes an "urban" area, and countries alternately apply criteria related to settlement size, population density, or economic advancement. In this study, we explore the implications of applying different urban definitions, focusing on Tanzania for illustrative purposes. Read More

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October 2020

The origin and spread of CRF85_BC, driven by heterosexual transmission among older people in Sichuan, China.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Oct 19;20(1):772. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Sichuan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China.

Background: CRF_BC recombinants, including CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC, were considered the predominant subtypes in China. Since the discovery of HIV-1 circulating recombinant form CRF 85_BC in Southwest China in 2016, this BC recombinant forms had been reported in different regions of China. However, the history and magnitude of CRF85_BC transmission were still to be investigated. Read More

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October 2020

GalliForm, a database of Galliformes occurrence records from the Indo-Malay and Palaearctic, 1800-2008.

Sci Data 2020 10 13;7(1):344. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

School of Biology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK.

Historical as well as current species distribution data are needed to track changes in biodiversity. Species distribution data are found in a variety of sources, each of which has its own distinct bias toward certain taxa, time periods or places. We present GalliForm, a database that comprises 186687 galliform occurrence records linked to 118907 localities in Europe and Asia. Read More

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October 2020

Association of Geographic Differences in Prevalence of Uncontrolled Chronic Conditions With Changes in Individuals' Likelihood of Uncontrolled Chronic Conditions.

JAMA 2020 10;324(14):1429-1438

Veterans Affairs New York Harbor Healthcare System, New York, New York.

Importance: The prevalence of leading risk factors for morbidity and mortality in the US significantly varies across regions, states, and neighborhoods, but the extent these differences are associated with a person's place of residence vs the characteristics of the people who live in different places remains unclear.

Objective: To estimate the degree to which geographic differences in leading risk factors are associated with a person's place of residence by comparing trends in health outcomes among individuals who moved to different areas or did not move.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This retrospective cohort study estimated the association between the differences in the prevalence of uncontrolled chronic conditions across movers' destination and origin zip codes and changes in individuals' likelihood of uncontrolled chronic conditions after moving, adjusting for person-specific fixed effects, the duration of time since the move, and secular trends among movers and those who did not move. Read More

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October 2020

Water footprint coupled economic impact assessment for maize production in China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jan 24;752:141963. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Qingdao 266237, China; Shandong University Climate Change and Health Center, Public Health School, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, China. Electronic address:

Nowadays, agricultural production places an enormous burden on freshwater resources, and the environmental external cost caused by the restoration of water quality degradation has attracted great attention. Maize is regarded as one of the world's major food security crops, and China is the second-largest maize producer. Thus, this study conducts an impact-oriented water footprint coupled economic impact assessment to quantify the water-related environmental impacts and economic burden caused by China's maize production from 2008 to 2017. Read More

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January 2021

Canine leishmaniosis in the Italian northeastern Alps: A survey to assess serological prevalence in dogs and distribution of phlebotomine sand flies in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol, Italy.

Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports 2020 07 4;21:100432. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Unit of Vector-borne Diseases, Department of Infectious Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Roma (RM), Italy. Electronic address:

The Autonomous Province of Bolzano-South Tyrol (APB), located in the northernmost territory of the Italian eastern Alps, is still considered non-endemic for canine leishmaniosis (CanL) despite clinical cases being observed and a competent Leishmania infantum vector (Phlebotomus perniciosus) having been recorded since 2008. A serological survey of leishmaniosis among a randomly-selected subpopulation of registered owned dogs was carried in 2018, followed by entomological investigations performed in 2019 and driven by canine survey results. A total of 457 resident dogs from all over the APB territory were examined through IFAT for antibodies against L. Read More

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Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Targeted literature review of the epidemiology, current treatment and disease burden in the Asia Pacific region.

Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2020 Aug 25. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Janssen Global Services, LLC, Horsham, PA, USA.

Objective: To understand the epidemiology, current treatment and disease burden of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in the Asia Pacific region (APAC).

Methods: A targeted literature review of published evidence on SLE in APAC was conducted, using the MEDLINE® database (2008-2018), conference proceedings and other supplementary sources.

Results: The review identified 70 studies conducted in China (n=15), Japan (n=13), Taiwan (n=12), Korea (n=9), Australia (n=7), Hong Kong (n=6), Singapore (n=4), and multiple places within the APAC region (n=4). Read More

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Urban regeneration policies and mental health in a context of economic crisis in Andalusia (Spain).

J Hous Built Environ 2020 Aug 19:1-13. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Department of Sociology, The Urban Governance Lab (CSPL-UPO), Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Ctra. de Utrera, km. 1 41013, Building 11, Office 4-22, Seville, Spain.

Literature suggests that urban regeneration policies might contribute towards improving mental health of residents, but to date there is a lack of empirical research on how these policies and downward social mobility can interact and influence health outcomes. The current study aims to explicitly test whether regeneration policies implemented in deprived Andalusian urban places (southern Spain) moderate the use of anxiolytics and/or antidepressants, taking into consideration families' downward social mobility during the recent period of economic crisis in Spain. We designed a post intervention survey to retrospectively compare the evolution of psychotropic drug consumption in target and comparison areas. Read More

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Disclosure of a communication disorder during a job interview: A theoretical model.

Derek Isetti

J Commun Disord 2020 Sep - Oct;87:106038. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Department of Speech-Language Pathology, University of the Pacific, 3601 Pacific Ave., Stockton, CA, 95211, United States. Electronic address:

With the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments Act of 2008 (ADAAA), the definition of disability was expanded and the terms "speaking, hearing, and communicating" were given status as major life activities. Therefore, any communication disorder which substantially limits these major life activities in the workplace can qualify as a disability under the law. This legal protection means that no employer can ever ask about the presence of a communication disorder, and a job applicant is never required to disclose their communication disorder during the hiring process. Read More

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Residential dust lead levels and the risk of childhood lead poisoning in United States children.

Pediatr Res 2020 Jul 28. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BCV5A 1S6, Canada.

Background: The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently lowered residential floor and windowsill dust lead hazard standards, but maintained previous post-abatement clearance standards. We examined whether the discrepancy in these regulations places children at higher risk of lead poisoning.

Methods: In 250 children from Cincinnati, Ohio (2004-2008) living in homes built before 1978, we measured residential floor and windowsill dust lead loadings and blood lead concentrations at ages 1 and 2 years. Read More

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Georgian Med News 2020 May(302):147-154

1National Pirogov Memorial Medical University, Vinnytsya; Ukraine.

Public health is a multidimensional concept that includes the following medical indicators: number, age, and gender composition, symbols of fertility and mortality, disability, morbidity, and prevalence of diseases. But during the period of independence and the implementation of medical reform in the country, the medical and demographic situation has caused concern. It reflects the poor state of the health of the majority of the population of Ukraine. Read More

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Prevalence of congenital malformations and deformities of the osteomuscular system in live newborns in Mexico, 2008-2017.

Cir Cir 2020 ;88(3):277-285

División de Gineco Obstetricia, Hospital General Dr. Manuel Gea González. Ciudad de México, México.

Background: From 2009 to 2010 in Mexico. CMDOMS prevalence was 27.4/10,000 births. Read More

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January 2020

Recommendations for the evaluation and management of the anticipated and non-anticipated difficult airway of the Societat Catalana d'Anestesiologia, Reanimació i Terapèutica del Dolor, based on the adaptation of clinical practice guidelines and expert consensus.

Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim 2020 Jun - Jul;67(6):325-342. Epub 2020 May 27.

Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Barcelona, España. Electronic address:

The Airway Division of the Catalan Society of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Management (SCARTD) presents its latest guidelines for the evaluation and management of the difficult airway. This update includes the technical advances and changes observed in clinical practice since publication of the first edition of the guidelines in 2008. The recommendations were defined by a consensus of experts from the 19 participating hospitals, and were adapted from 5 recently published international guidelines following an in-depth analysis and systematic comparison of their recommendations. Read More

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Impact of UK Tobacco Control Policies on Inequalities in Youth Smoking Uptake: A Natural Experiment Study.

Nicotine Tob Res 2020 10;22(11):1973-1980

MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Introduction: UK countries implemented smoke-free public places legislation and increased the legal age for tobacco purchase from 16 to 18 years between 2006 and 2008. We evaluated the immediate and long-term impacts of these UK policy changes on youth smoking uptake and inequalities therein.

Aims And Methods: We studied 74 960 person-years of longitudinal data from 14 992 youths (aged 11-15 years) in annual UK household surveys between 1994 and 2016. Read More

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October 2020