3,640 results match your criteria 2008 flu


Self-Amplifying Pestivirus Replicon RNA Encoding Influenza Virus Nucleoprotein and Hemagglutinin Promote Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses in Pigs.

Front Immunol 2020 28;11:622385. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

The Institute of Virology and Immunology IVI, Mittelhäusern, Switzerland.

Self-amplifying replicon RNA (RepRNA) promotes expansion of mRNA templates encoding genes of interest through their replicative nature, thus providing increased antigen payloads. RepRNA derived from the non-cytopathogenic classical swine fever virus (CSFV) targets monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs), potentially promoting prolonged antigen expression in the DCs, contrasting with cytopathogenic RepRNA. We engineered pestivirus RepRNA constructs encoding influenza virus H5N1 (A/chicken/Yamaguchi/7/2004) nucleoprotein (Rep-NP) or hemagglutinin (Rep-HA). Read More

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February 2021

Pathogenicity and transmissibility assessment of two strains of human influenza virus isolated in China in 2018.

J Int Med Res 2021 Jan;49(1):300060520982832

College of Veterinary Medicine, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, Hebei, China.

Objective: Influenza season occurs every year in China, but its presentation was unusual in the period from December 2017 to early 2018. During this period, influenza activity was increasing across the country and was much greater than during the same period in previous years, with great harm to people's health.

Methods: In this study, we isolated two human influenza virus strains-A/Hebei/F076/2018(H1N1) and B/Hebei/16275B/2018-from patients with severe influenza in Hebei, China, during the flu season in January 2018, and explored their genetic characteristics, pathogenicity, and transmissibility. Read More

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January 2021

Seasonality and immunity to laboratory-confirmed seasonal coronaviruses (HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, and HCoV-229E): results from the Flu Watch cohort study.

Wellcome Open Res 2020 10;5:52. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

UCL Public Health Data Science Research Group, Institute of Health Informatics, UCL, London, NW1 2DA, UK.

There is currently a pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. The intensity and duration of this first and second waves in the UK may be dependent on whether SARS-CoV-2 transmits more effectively in the winter than the summer and the UK Government response is partially built upon the assumption that those infected will develop immunity to reinfection in the short term. In this paper we examine evidence for seasonality and immunity to laboratory-confirmed seasonal coronavirus (HCoV) from a prospective cohort study in England. Read More

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December 2020

Quality of Care in Patients With Cirrhosis: Trends in Recommended Adult Vaccination Coverage.

Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes 2020 Dec 22;4(6):667-682. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, MN.

Objective: To assess the proportion of patients with cirrhosis up to date with vaccinations and associations of vaccination with age, sex, race, ethnicity, marital status, and type of provider follow-up.

Patients And Methods: Patients with cirrhosis diagnosed at Mayo Clinic in Rochester and Mayo Clinic Health System in Minnesota from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2009, were followed up from diagnosis until May 31, 2015. Data were abstracted from Mayo Clinic and Minnesota State records. Read More

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December 2020

Immunization Coverage of Inmates in Spanish Prisons.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 10 31;17(21). Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Department of Community Nursing, Preventive Medicine, Public Health and History of Science, University of Alicante, 03690 Alicante, Spain.

The correct immunization of the inmate population minimizes the risk of transmission of vaccine-preventable diseases in prisons. The objective of this study was to evaluate the vaccine coverage of long-term prisoners in the Spanish penitentiary system through a retrospective longitudinal study. One-thousand and five prisoners were selected, who were imprisoned from 2008 and 2018 in three Spanish prisons. Read More

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October 2020

Ten Years of National Seasonal Surveillance for Severe Complications of Influenza in Australian Children.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2021 03;40(3):191-198

From the The Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit, Kid's Research, Sydney Children's Hospitals Network, Westmead.

Background: Severe complications of influenza in children are uncommon but may result in admission to hospital or an intensive care unit (ICU) and death.

Methods: Active prospective surveillance using the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit with monthly reporting by pediatricians of national demographic and clinical data on children with <15 years of age hospitalized with severe complications of laboratory-confirmed influenza during ten influenza seasons 2008-2017.

Results: Of 722 children notified, 613 had laboratory-confirmed influenza and at least one severe complication. Read More

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Nowcasting (Short-Term Forecasting) of Influenza Epidemics in Local Settings, Sweden, 2008-2019.

Emerg Infect Dis 2020 11;26(11):2669-2677

The timing of influenza case incidence during epidemics can differ between regions within nations and states. We conducted a prospective 10-year evaluation (January 2008-February 2019) of a local influenza nowcasting (short-term forecasting) method in 3 urban counties in Sweden with independent public health administrations by using routine health information system data. Detection-of-epidemic-start (detection), peak timing, and peak intensity were nowcasted. Read More

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November 2020

Impact of Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Regimens on Outcomes in Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma Undergoing Allogeneic Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Jan 19;27(1):58-66. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Electronic address:

Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens are frequently used for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, the RIC regimen with the best risk/benefit profile for allo-HCT in DLBCL is not known. This is particularly important because patients with DLBCL undergoing allo-HCT in the future would be enriched for those whose lymphoma has failed chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy or other novel immunotherapies, with potentially more advanced disease and suboptimal performance scores. Read More

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January 2021

Efficacy of Heterologous Prime-Boost Vaccination with H3N2 Influenza Viruses in Pre-Immune Individuals: Studies in the Pig Model.

Viruses 2020 09 1;12(9). Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Laboratory of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Ghent University, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium.

In a previous study in influenza-naïve pigs, heterologous prime-boost vaccination with monovalent, adjuvanted whole inactivated vaccines (WIV) based on the European swine influenza A virus (SwIAV) strain, A/swine/Gent/172/2008 (G08), followed by the US SwIAV strain, A/swine/Pennsylvania/A01076777/2010 (PA10), was shown to induce broadly cross-reactive hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies against 12 out of 15 antigenically distinct H3N2 influenza strains. Here, we used the pig model to examine the efficacy of that particular heterologous prime-boost vaccination regimen, in individuals with pre-existing infection-immunity. Pigs were first inoculated intranasally with the human H3N2 strain, A/Nanchang/933/1995. Read More

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September 2020

Novel reassortant swine H3N2 influenza A viruses in Germany.

Sci Rep 2020 08 31;10(1):14296. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Section of Experimental Virology, Institute for Medical Microbiology, Jena University Hospital, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, 07745, Jena, Germany.

Analysis of 228 H3N2 swine influenza A virus isolates collected between 2003 and 2015 in Germany revealed important changes in molecular epidemiology. The data indicate that a novel reassortant, Rietberg/2014-like swine H3N2, emerged in February 2014 in Northern Germany. It is comprised of a hemagglutinin gene of seasonal H3N2 (A/Denmark/129/2005-like), a neuraminidase gene of Emmelsbuell/2009-like swine H1N2 and the internal gene cassette of pandemic H1N1 viruses. Read More

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The relationship between cyclonic weather regimes and seasonal influenza over the Eastern Mediterranean.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jan 12;750:141686. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Braun School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Hadassah - Hebrew University, Jerusalem 9110202, Israel.

The prediction of the occurrence of infectious diseases is of crucial importance for public health, as clearly seen in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we analyze the relationship between the occurrence of a winter low-pressure weather regime - Cyprus Lows - and the seasonal Influenza in the Eastern Mediterranean. We find that the weekly occurrence of Cyprus Lows is significantly correlated with clinical seasonal Influenza in Israel in recent years (R = 0. Read More

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January 2021

Adaptation of influenza B virus by serial passage in human airway epithelial cells.

Virology 2020 10 16;549:68-76. Epub 2020 Aug 16.

Division of Biotechnology Review and Research II, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, 20993, United States.

Influenza B viruses cause seasonal epidemics and are a considerable burden to public health. To understand their adaptation capability, we examined the genetic changes that occurred following 15 serial passages of two influenza B viruses, B/Brisbane/60/2008 and B/Victoria/504/2000, in human epithelial cells. Thirteen distinct amino acid mutations were found in the PB1, PA, hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and M proteins after serial passage in the human lung epithelial cell line, Calu-3, and normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. Read More

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October 2020

Predicting the dominant influenza A serotype by quantifying mutation activities.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 Nov 22;100:255-257. Epub 2020 Aug 22.

JC School of Public Health and Primary Care, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; CUHK Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: Characterizing and predicting the evolutionary process of influenza, which remains challenging, are of importance in capturing the patterns of influenza activities and the development of prevention and control strategies. In this study, we quantified genetic mutation activity and developed a statistical model to predict dominant influenza A serotype with limited sequencing data.

Data And Methods: A total number of 8097 and 7090 HA sequences for A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 were collected from 2008/09 to 2018/19 flu season in seven countries or regions. Read More

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November 2020

Applying Machine Learning Models with An Ensemble Approach for Accurate Real-Time Influenza Forecasting in Taiwan: Development and Validation Study.

J Med Internet Res 2020 08 5;22(8):e15394. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Taiwan Centers for Disease Control, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: Changeful seasonal influenza activity in subtropical areas such as Taiwan causes problems in epidemic preparedness. The Taiwan Centers for Disease Control has maintained real-time national influenza surveillance systems since 2004. Except for timely monitoring, epidemic forecasting using the national influenza surveillance data can provide pivotal information for public health response. Read More

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Evolutionarily missing and conserved tRNA genes in human and avian.

Infect Genet Evol 2020 11 15;85:104460. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Institute of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Chengdu, Sichuan, China; Key Laboratory of Animal Disease and Human Health of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Chengdu, Sichuan, China; Research Center of Avian Disease, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Chengdu, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

Viral infection heavily relies on host transfer RNA (tRNA) for viral RNA decoding. Counterintuitively, not all tRNA species based on anticodon are matched to all 64-triplet codons during evolution. Life solves this problem by cognate tRNA species via wobbling decoding. Read More

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November 2020

Disease Outbreak Surge Response: How a Singapore Tertiary Hospital Converted a Multi-story Carpark Into a Flu Screening Area to Respond to the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2020 Jul 14:1-6. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Singapore General Hospital, Department of Emergency Medicine, Singapore.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), first documented in December 2019, was declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization (WHO) on January 30, 2020 (https://www.who.int/westernpacific/emergencies/covid-19). Read More

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Monoclonal Antibody Therapy Protects Pharmacologically Immunosuppressed Mice from Lethal Infection with Influenza B Virus.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2020 08 20;64(9). Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA

Human influenza A and B viruses are highly contagious and cause similar illnesses and seasonal epidemics. Currently available antiviral drugs have limited efficacy in humans with compromised immune systems; therefore, alternative strategies for protection are needed. Here, we investigated whether monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) targeting hemagglutinin (HA) and/or neuraminidase (NA) proteins would protect immunosuppressed mice from severe infections with influenza B virus. Read More

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Seasonality and coinfection of bronchiolitis: epidemiological specificity and consequences in terms of prophylaxis in tropical climate.

Trop Med Int Health 2020 10 5;25(10):1291-1297. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Virology Department, University Hospital of Martinique, Martinique, France.

Objective: To describe the viruses involved, seasonality and coinfection in hospitalised children with suspected bronchiolitis.

Methods: Over the period 1/07/2007 to 31/12/2008, all children hospitalised for bronchiolitis in the paediatric ward were prospectively included, and had respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) screenings. We retrospectively tested all samples for RSVA, RSVB, rhinovirus (RV), human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza 1, 2, 3, 4, influenza A and influenza B. Read More

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October 2020

Addressing challenges for clinical research responses to emerging epidemics and pandemics: a scoping review.

BMC Med 2020 06 25;18(1):190. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, New Richards Building, Old Road Campus, Oxford, OX3 7LG, UK.

Background: Major infectious disease outbreaks are a constant threat to human health. Clinical research responses to outbreaks generate evidence to improve outcomes and outbreak control. Experiences from previous epidemics have identified multiple challenges to undertaking timely clinical research responses. Read More

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Implications of localized charge for human influenza A H1N1 hemagglutinin evolution: Insights from deep mutational scans.

PLoS Comput Biol 2020 06 25;16(6):e1007892. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States of America.

Seasonal influenza A viruses of humans evolve rapidly due to strong selection pressures from host immune responses, principally on the hemagglutinin (HA) viral surface protein. Based on mouse transmission experiments, a proposed mechanism for immune evasion consists of increased avidity to host cellular receptors, mediated by electrostatic charge interactions with negatively charged cell surfaces. In support of this, the HA charge of the globally circulating H3N2 has increased over time since its pandemic. Read More

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Association of Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Regimens With Overall Survival Among Patients With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Undergoing Allogeneic Transplant.

JAMA Oncol 2020 07;6(7):1011-1018

Department of Medicine, Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee.

Importance: Reduced-intensity conditioning and nonmyeloablative conditioning (RIC-NMAC) regimens are frequently used in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. However, the optimal RIC-NMAC regimen in allogeneic HCT for non-Hodgkin lymphoma is not known.

Objective: To investigate whether RIC-NMAC regimens at a higher end of the intensity spectrum are associated with increased nonrelapse mortality and lower overall survival compared with RIC-NMAC regimens at the lower end of the intensity spectrum in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma undergoing allogeneic HCT. Read More

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Genetic and antigenic characterization of influenza A/H5N1 viruses isolated from patients in Indonesia, 2008-2015.

Virus Genes 2020 Aug 1;56(4):417-429. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Since the initial detection in 2003, Indonesia has reported 200 human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (HPAI H5N1), associated with an exceptionally high case fatality rate (84%) compared to other geographical regions affected by other genetic clades of the virus. However, there is limited information on the genetic diversity of HPAI H5N1 viruses, especially those isolated from humans in Indonesia. In this study, the genetic and antigenic characteristics of 35 HPAI H5N1 viruses isolated from humans were analyzed. Read More

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Committee Opinion No. 399: Management of Tick Bites and Lyme Disease During Pregnancy.

J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2020 05;42(5):644-653

Halifax, NS.

Objective: Lyme disease is an emerging infection in Canada caused by the bacterium belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species complex, which is transmitted via the bite of an infected blacklegged tick. Populations of blacklegged ticks continue to expand and are now established in different regions in Canada. It usually takes more than 24 hours of tick attachment to transfer B. Read More

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The burden of laboratory-confirmed influenza infection in Lebanon between 2008 and 2016: a single tertiary care center experience.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 May 12;20(1):339. Epub 2020 May 12.

Center for Infectious Diseases Research, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, PO Box: 11-0236, Riad El-Solh, Beirut, 1107 2020, Lebanon.

Background: Influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Following the 2009 pandemic, there was widened interest in studying influenza burden in all regions. However, since data from the World Health Organization (WHO) Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region remain limited, we aimed to contribute to the understanding of influenza burden in Lebanon. Read More

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Hospitalization and death among patients with influenza, Guatemala, 2008-2012.

BMC Public Health 2019 May 10;19(Suppl 3):463. Epub 2019 May 10.

Division of Global Health Protection, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 1600 Clifton Road NE, MS E-04, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA.

Background: Influenza is a major cause of respiratory illness resulting in 3-5 million severe cases and 291,243-645,832 deaths annually. Substantial health and financial burden may be averted by annual influenza vaccine application, especially for high risk groups.

Methods: We used an active facility-based surveillance platform for acute respiratory diseases in three hospitals in Guatemala, Central America, to estimate the incidence of laboratory-confirmed hospitalized influenza cases and identify risk factors associated with severe disease (defined as admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) or death). Read More

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Impact of type of reduced-intensity conditioning regimen on the outcomes of allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation in classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

Br J Haematol 2020 08 21;190(4):573-582. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Medicine, CIBMTR® (Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research), Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is a curative option for select relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients; however, there are sparse data to support superiority of any particular conditioning regimen. We analyzed 492 adult patients undergoing human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling or unrelated donor allo-HCT for HL between 2008 and 2016, utilizing RIC with either fludarabine/busulfan (Flu/Bu), fludarabine/melphalan (Flu/Mel140) or fludarabine/cyclophosphamide (Flu/Cy). Multivariable regression analysis was performed using a significance level of <0·01. Read More

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Genetic analysis of HA1 domain of influenza A/H3N2 viruses isolated in Kenya during the 2007-2013 seasons reveal significant divergence from WHO-recommended vaccine strains.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 Jun 7;95:413-420. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

College of Health Sciences (COHES), Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT), Nairobi, Kenya.

Background: Influenza viruses evolve rapidly and cause regular seasonal epidemics in humans challenging effective vaccination. The virus surface HA glycoprotein is the primary target for the host immune response. Here, we investigated the vaccine efficacy and evolution patterns of human influenza A/H3N2 viruses that circulated in Kenyan in the period before and after the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic, targeting the HA1 domain. Read More

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Infectious diseases in children and adolescents in China: analysis of national surveillance data from 2008 to 2017.

BMJ 2020 04 2;369:m1043. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Objectives: To outline which infectious diseases in the pre-covid-19 era persist in children and adolescents in China and to describe recent trends and variations by age, sex, season, and province.

Design: National surveillance studies, 2008-17.

Setting: 31 provinces in mainland China. Read More

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A Population-Based Propensity Score-Matched Study to Assess the Impact of Repeated Vaccination on Vaccine Effectiveness for Influenza-Associated Hospitalization Among the Elderly.

Clin Interv Aging 2020 3;15:301-312. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Graduate Institute of Microbiology and Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan.

Background: Influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly worldwide. Influenza vaccination can prevent morbidity/mortality from influenza infection. A gap of 1-2 years, before an epidemic strain is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to be the vaccine strain in Southeast Asia, has been reported; this results in a high rate of vaccine mismatch and excess influenza-associated morbidity. Read More

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September 2020

Higher Total Body Irradiation Dose Intensity in Fludarabine/TBI-Based Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Regimen Is Associated with Inferior Survival in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 06 9;26(6):1099-1105. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas.

Disease relapse is the most common cause of therapy failure in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) undergoing reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). It is not known whether or not increasing total body irradiation (TBI) dose from 2 to 4 Gy in a RIC platform can provide improved disease control without increasing nonrelapse mortality (NRM). Using the Center for International Blood & Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) database, we evaluated the outcomes of patients with NHL receiving RIC allo-HCT with either fludarabine (Flu)/2-Gy TBI versus Flu/4-Gy TBI. Read More

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