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Leadership Competencies for Knowledge Translation in Public Health: A consensus study.

J Public Health (Oxf) 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of International Health, CAPHRI - Care and Public Health Research Institute, Maastricht University, The Netherlands.

Background: In 2010, 240 billion US dollars was invested worldwide to conduct research for health; unfortunately, 200 billion was misused in the production and reporting of the evidence researched. Universities could facilitate students to acquire leadership competencies to move well-conducted research findings into practical use; this could be an essential move to reduce the misuse of investment.

Methods: A literature review was done based on the Equator Network and Cochrane guidelines, followed by three Delphi rounds to select competencies. Read More

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Low Quality of Life, Falls, and Pre-Frailty are Associated with Depressive Symptoms in Virologically Suppressed PLWHIV in Salvador, Brazil.

AIDS Behav 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Brazil.

Depression is the leading cause of years lived with disability worldwide and PLWHIV present a higher risk of developing depressive symptoms. We aimed to evaluate depressive symptoms and their predictors in virologically suppressed PLWHIV. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 200 PLWHIV. Read More

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Impact evaluation of the Care Tipping Point Initiative in Nepal: study protocol for a mixed-methods cluster randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open 2021 07 26;11(7):e042032. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Gender Justice Team, CARE USA, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Introduction: Girl child, early and forced marriage (CEFM) persists in South Asia, with long-term consequences for girls. CARE's Tipping Point Initiative (TPI) addresses the causes of CEFM by challenging repressive gender norms and inequalities. The TPI engages different participant groups on programmatic topics and supports community dialogue to build girls' agency, shift inequitable power relations, and change community norms sustaining CEFM. Read More

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Sex Differences in Muscle Metaboreflex Activation following Static Handgrip Exercise.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada Toronto General Research Institute, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose: Larger blood pressure (BP) responses to relative-intensity static exercise in males vs. females is thought to involve altered muscle metaboreflex activation, but whether this is due to an intrinsic sex difference in metabolite production or to differences in muscle strength and absolute load is unknown.

Methods: Continuous BP and heart rate were recorded in 200 healthy young males and females (females: n = 109) during 2 minutes of static handgrip exercise at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), followed by 2 minutes of post-exercise circulatory occlusion (PECO). Read More

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Quality of Oncology Nursing Care as Perceived by Patients With Cancer: Results From Three Arab Countries.

Cancer Nurs 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Author Affiliations: Department of Nursing, Al Zaytoonah University of Jordan (Drs Abu Sharour and Bani Salameh), Amman; Department of Adult Health and Critical Care, Sultan Qaboos University (Drs Al Sabei, Al Harrasi, and Al Qadire), Muscat, Oman; and Department of Adult Health and Critical Care, Alexandria University (Dr Anwar), Egypt.

Background: Patient satisfaction was defined as expectation and perception of the patients about real nursing care they receive.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of oncology nursing care as perceived by patients with cancer in 3 Arabic countries (Jordan, Oman, and Egypt).

Methods: A cross-sectional design with convenience sampling approach was used. Read More

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Comparison of Plasma Phosphorylated Tau Species With Amyloid and Tau Positron Emission Tomography, Neurodegeneration, Vascular Pathology, and Cognitive Outcomes.

JAMA Neurol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Importance: Cerebrospinal fluid phosphorylated tau (p-tau) 181, p-tau217, and p-tau231 are associated with neuropathological outcomes, but a comparison of these p-tau isoforms in blood samples is needed.

Objective: To conduct a head-to-head comparison of plasma p-tau181 and p-tau231 measured on the single-molecule array (Simoa) platform and p-tau181 and p-tau217 measured on the Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) platform on amyloid and tau positron emission tomography (PET) measures, neurodegeneration, vascular pathology, and cognitive outcomes.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This study included data from the Mayo Clinic Study on Aging collected from March 1, 2015, to September 30, 2017, and analyzed between December 15, 2020, and May 17, 2021. Read More

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Higher dose docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during pregnancy and early preterm birth: A randomised, double-blind, adaptive-design superiority trial.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Jun 17;36:100905. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, United States.

Background: Several meta analyses have concluded n-3 fatty acids, including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), reduce early preterm birth (EPB, < 34 weeks), however, the amount of DHA required is unclear. We hypothesized that 1000 mg DHA per day would be superior to 200 mg, the amount in most prenatal supplements.

Methods: This randomised, multicentre, double-blind, adaptive-design, superiority trial was conducted in three USA medical centres. Read More

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The Role of Lateral Internal Sphincterotomy in Haemorrhoidectomy: A Study in a Tertiary Care Center.

Cureus 2021 Jun 13;13(6):e15630. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

General Surgery, ACS Medical College Hospital, Chennai, IND.

Background Hemorrhoids are a common condition that presents with bleeding per rectum, pain at rest and defecation, mucosal discharge, and prolapse. Surgical hemorrhoidectomy is the treatment method of choice for Grade 3 and Grade 4 hemorrhoids. Hemorrhoidectomy is associated with postoperative pain and no single surgical technique has been proved to significantly reduce the pain. Read More

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Fixed-dose combination bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide in adolescents and children with HIV: week 48 results of a single-arm, open-label, multicentre, phase 2/3 trial.

Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Virology Clinical Research, Gilead Sciences, Foster City, CA, USA.

Background: Bictegravir is a potent integrase strand-transfer inhibitor (INSTI) with a high genetic barrier to resistance. Bictegravir, coformulated with emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide, is recommended by key European and US HIV treatment guidelines as the preferred single-tablet regimen for adults and adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of switching to this regimen in virologically suppressed children and adolescents with HIV. Read More

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Associations of Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Young Adulthood with Later Life Incident Diabetes.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Division of General Medicine; Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Context: The independent contribution of young adult exposure to overweight and obesity to later life incident diabetes is not well studied.

Objective: To assess the associations of exposures to elevated body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in young adulthood (ages 18 to 39 years) with incident diabetes later in life (≥40 years).

Design: Pooled data from six US prospective cohorts (ARIC, CARDIA, CHS, Framingham Offspring, Health ABC, MESA). Read More

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Efficacy of Daily Supplementation of Milk Fortified With Vitamin D2 for Three Months in Healthy School Children: A Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial.

Indian Pediatr 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Homeopathy, BR Sur Homeopathic college, New Delhi, India.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of daily supplementation of 200 mL milk fortified with 240IU of vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).

Design: Double blind randomized controlled trial.

Settings: School-based study in Delhi between October and December, 2019. Read More

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Personalized Postprandial Glucose Response-Targeting Diet Versus Mediterranean Diet for Glycemic Control in Prediabetes.

Diabetes Care 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel

Objective: To compare the clinical effects of a personalized postprandial-targeting (PPT) diet versus a Mediterranean (MED) diet on glycemic control and metabolic health in prediabetes.

Research Design And Methods: We randomly assigned adults with prediabetes ( = 225) to follow a MED diet or a PPT diet for a 6-month dietary intervention and additional 6-month follow-up. The PPT diet relies on a machine learning algorithm that integrates clinical and microbiome features to predict personal postprandial glucose responses. Read More

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Incidence of childhood injuries and modifiable household risk factors in rural Ghana: a multistage, cluster-randomised, population-based, household survey.

BMJ Open 2021 07 23;11(7):e039243. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Objective: We aimed to describe the incidence of childhood household injuries and prevalence of modifiable household risk factors in rural Ghana to inform prevention initiatives.

Setting: 357 randomly selected households in rural Ghana.

Participants: Caregivers of children aged <5 years. Read More

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Evaluation of an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander strengths based coaching program: a study protocol.

BMC Public Health 2021 07 23;21(1):1451. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Increasingly, strength-based approaches to health and wellbeing interventions with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians are being explored. This is a welcome counter to deficit-based initiatives which can represent a non-Indigenous view of outcomes of interest. However, the evidence base is not well developed. Read More

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Low and High Frequency Vibration Perception Thresholds Can Improve the Diagnosis of Diabetic Neuropathy.

J Clin Med 2021 Jul 12;10(14). Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Physical Therapy, Speech, and Occupational Therapy, Faculdade de Medicina, Universdade de São Paulo, São Paulo 05360-160, Brazil.

Recent studies demonstrate neuropathic changes with respect to vibration sensitivity for different measurement frequencies. This study investigates the relationship between vibration perception thresholds (VPTs) at low and high frequencies at two plantar locations and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) severity in diabetes mellitus (DM) subjects with DPN. We examine differences of VPTs between participants with DM, with DPN, as well as healthy controls. Read More

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TREND database: Retinal images of healthy young subjects visualized by a portable digital non-mydriatic fundus camera.

PLoS One 2021 23;16(7):e0254918. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Faculty for Information Systems and Technologies, University of Donja Gorica, Podgorica, Montenegro.

Topological characterization of the Retinal microvascular nEtwork visualized by portable fuNDus camera (TREND) is a database comprising of 72 color digital retinal images collected from the students of the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Montenegro, in the period from February 18th to March 11th 2020. The database also includes binarized images of manually segmented microvascular networks associated with each raw image. The participant demographic characteristics, health status, and social habits information such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking history, alcohol use, as well as previous medical history was collected. Read More

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20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) signaling regulates amnioserosa morphogenesis during Drosophila dorsal closure: EcR modulates gene expression in a complex with the AP-1 subunit, Jun.

Biol Open 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6, Canada.

Steroid hormones influence diverse biological processes throughout the animal life cycle, including metabolism, stress resistance, reproduction, and lifespan. In insects, the steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), is the central hormone regulator of molting and metamorphosis, and plays roles in tissue morphogenesis. For example, amnioserosa contraction, which is a major driving force in Drosophila dorsal closure (DC), is defective in embryos mutant for 20E biosynthesis. Read More

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Association between HIV and incident pulmonary hypertension in US Veterans: a retrospective cohort study.

Lancet Healthy Longev 2021 Jul 16;2(7):e417-e425. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

Background: Pulmonary hypertension incidence based on echocardiographic estimates of pulmonary artery systolic pressure in people living with HIV remains unstudied. We aimed to determine whether people living with HIV have higher incidence and risk of pulmonary hypertension than uninfected individuals.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we evaluated data from participants in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) referred for echocardiography with baseline pulmonary artery systolic pressure measures of 35 mm Hg or less. Read More

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EXPRESS: The effect of low frequency equalisation on preference and sensorimotor synchronisation in music.

Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 2021 Jul 22:17470218211037145. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland 27218.

Equalisation, a signal processing technique commonly used to shape the sound of music, is defined as the adjustment of the energy in specific frequency components of a signal. In this work we investigate the effects of equalisation on preference and sensorimotor synchronisation in music. Twenty-one participants engaged in a goal-directed upper body movement in synchrony with stimuli equalised in three low-frequency sub-bands (0 - 50 Hz, 50 - 100 Hz, 100 - 200 Hz). Read More

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EXPRESS: Effects of a Neutral Warning Signal on Spatial Two-Choice Reactions.

Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 2021 Jul 22:17470218211037604. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Purdue University, West Lafayette, United States.

Posner et al. (1973) reported that, at short fixed foreperiods, a neutral warning tone reduced reaction times (RTs) in a visual two-choice task while increasing error rates for both spatially compatible and incompatible stimulus-response mappings. Consequently, they concluded that alertness induced by the warning does not affect the efficiency of information processing but the setting of a response criterion. Read More

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Combining tumor deposits with the number of lymph node metastases to improve the prognostic accuracy in stage III colon cancer: a post hoc analysis of the CALGB/SWOG 80702 phase III study (Alliance).

Ann Oncol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber/Partners Cancer Care, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: In colon cancer, tumor deposits (TD) are considered in assigning prognosis and staging only in the absence of lymph node metastasis (i.e., stage III pN1c tumors). Read More

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Incidence and associated risk factors for falls in older adults following elective total knee replacement surgery - a prospective cohort study.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Australia Institute for Health Research, The University of Notre Dame Australia, Fremantle, Australia School of Nursing and Midwifery, The University of Notre Dame Australia, Fremantle, Australia Australian Centre for Health Services Innovation and Centre of Healthcare Transformation, School of Public Health and Social Work, Faculty of Health, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia Clinical Informatics Directorate, Metro South Health, Brisbane, Australia Centre for Nursing and Midwifery Research, St John of God Hospital, Murdoch, Australia WA Centre for Health and Ageing, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences: Surgery, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia Western Orthopaedic Clinic, St John of God Hospital Murdoch and Hollywood, Perth, Australia School of Nursing and Midwifery, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Australia Ngangk Yira Research Centre for Aboriginal Health and Social Equity, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Australia.

Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the incidence and associated risk factors for falls in older adults in the 12 months after elective, primary total knee replacement (TKR) surgery.

Design: A prospective observational cohort of older adults undergoing TKR were followed. Baseline measurements included risk factors of history of falls, using a gait aid and number of medications. Read More

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Truth is its own reward: Completeness of information, the feeling of truth knowing, and victims' closure.

Br J Soc Psychol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Victims of crime often want the truth about what happened. Yet, how exactly is truth valuable? Commonly, truth is thought to be instrumentally valuable by providing useful knowledge. Truth would be beneficial for victims because specific information may afford re-appraisals or greater understanding. Read More

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Growth and tolerance of healthy, term infants fed lower protein extensively hydrolyzed or amino acid-based formula: double-blind, randomized, controlled trial.

BMC Pediatr 2021 Jul 21;21(1):323. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Medical Affairs and Scientific Affairs, Reckitt/Mead Johnson Nutrition Institute, Evansville, IN, 47721, USA.

Background: Optimal protein level in hypoallergenic infant formulas is an area of ongoing investigation. The aim was to evaluate growth of healthy term infants who received extensively hydrolyzed (EH) or amino acid (AA)-based formulas with reduced protein.

Methods: In this prospective, multi-center, double-blind, controlled, parallel group study, infants were randomized to receive a marketed EH casein infant formula at 2. Read More

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Intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment for inflammatory choroidal neovascularization in non-infectious uveitis.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 Jul 18. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK; UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London, UK; Ophthalmology Department, Carmel Medical Center, Technion, Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.

Purpose: To compare visual outcome and recurrence rates of eyes with non-infectious inflammatory CNV treated with or without anti-VEGF injections and immunosuppression.

Design: Retrospective, non-randomized clinical study METHODS: : Participants: Patients with CNV secondary to non-infectious inflammatory causes who attended uveitis clinics at Moorfields Eye Hospital between January 2000 and April 2016. Data was gathered from the clinical notes of all subjects examined in clinic. Read More

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Evaluation of the Pharmacokinetics of Trazpiroben (TAK-906), a Peripherally Selective D/D Dopamine Receptor Antagonist, in the Presence and Absence of Itraconazole, a Potent CYP 3A4 Inhibitor.

Clin Pharmacol 2021 12;13:145-155. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Takeda Development Center Americas, Inc, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Purpose: Treatment options for gastroparesis, such as metoclopramide and domperidone, are limited because of safety concerns, which may be exacerbated in the presence of inhibitors of drug metabolism. This study evaluated the effect of itraconazole on the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of trazpiroben (previously TAK-906), a novel, peripherally selective D/D dopamine receptor antagonist.

Methods: This was a phase 1, two-period, crossover trial in healthy participants (NCT03161405). Read More

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Urine Cell-Free Mitochondrial DNA as a Marker of Weight Loss and Body Composition in Older Adults with HIV.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY Clinical and Translational Science Center, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN.

Background: Older adults with HIV (OAH) experience more comorbidities and geriatric syndromes than their HIV-negative peers, perhaps due to chronic inflammation. Cell-free mitochondrial DNA (cfmtDNA) released from cells undergoing necrosis-mediated cell death potentially acts as both a mediator and marker of inflammatory dysregulation. We hypothesized that urinary cfmtDNA would be associated with frailty, body composition and fall history in OAH. Read More

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Pharmacokinetics of bictegravir and tenofovir in combination with darunavir/cobicistat in treatment-experienced persons with HIV.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

University of California San Diego Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, La Jolla, CA. Pediatrics Department, University of California San Diego - Rady Children's Hospital San Diego, San Diego, CA.

Background: Bictegravir co-formulated with tenofovir alafenamide and emtricitabine as a fixed-dose combination (BIC/FTC/TAF 50/200/50 mg) is recommended as an initial regimen in patients who are antiretroviral (ARV)-naïve or virologically suppressed on a stable ARV regimen. However, no real-world pharmacokinetic (PK) data are available in treatment-experienced patients with antiretroviral resistance receiving BIC/FTC/TAF plus a boosted protease inhibitor.Setting/Methods: This prospective, single-center, non-randomized pharmacokinetic study enrolled adult treatment-experienced persons with HIV and creatinine clearance > 30 mL/min receiving BIC/FTC/TAF + DRV/c as part of routine clinical care. Read More

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Impact of violence on the burnout status of paramedics in the emergency department: A multicenter survey study.

Australas Emerg Care 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Yeungnam University School of Medicine and College of Medicine, 170, Hyeonchung-ro, Nam-gu, Daegu 42415, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Violence in emergency departments poses a threaten to both medical personnel and patients. We investigated the risk factors for high burnout status and the association between the impact of violence and burnout status of paramedics in emergency departments.

Methods: We included paramedics of emergency departments in Korea. Read More

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