40 results match your criteria 15-deoxi-Δ-prostaglondin 15-d-pgj2

Thymopentin improves the survival of septic mice by promoting the production of 15-deoxy-prostaglandin J2 and activating the PPARγ signaling pathway.

FASEB J 2020 09 11;34(9):11772-11785. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Center for New Drug Safety Evaluation and Research, State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China.

Sepsis, a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) caused by infection, is a major public health concern with limited therapeutic options. Infection disturbs the homeostasis of host, resulting in excessive inflammation and immune suppression. This has prompted the clinical use of immunomodulators to balance host response as an alternative therapeutic strategy. Read More

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September 2020

Prostaglandin D stimulates phenotypic changes in vascular smooth muscle cells.

Exp Mol Med 2019 11 18;51(11):1-10. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Gene and Cell Therapy Center for Vessel-Associated Disease, Medical Research Institute, and Department of Pharmacology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Gyungnam, 50612, Republic of Korea.

Since chronic inflammation is associated with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, inflammatory cytokines might contribute to the phenotypic modulation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) facilitated the transformation of contractile VSMCs to the synthetic phenotype, as determined by the expression of marker proteins and a collagen gel contraction assay. Western blot analysis and a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) promoter assay revealed that TNFα stimulation resulted in the induction of COX2. Read More

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November 2019

Altered Lipid Metabolism in Blood Mononuclear Cells of Psoriatic Patients Indicates Differential Changes in Psoriasis Vulgaris and Psoriatic Arthritis.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Aug 30;20(17). Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Medical University of Bialystok, 15-089 Białystok, Poland.

The aim of this study was to investigate possible stress-associated disturbances in lipid metabolism in mononuclear cells, mainly lymphocytes of patients with psoriasis vulgaris (Ps, n = 32) or with psoriatic arthritis (PsA, n = 16) in respect to the healthy volunteers (n = 16). The results showed disturbances in lipid metabolism of psoriatic patients reflected by different phospholipid profiles. The levels of non-enzymatic lipid metabolites associated with oxidative stress 8-isoprostaglandin F2α (8-isoPGF2α) and free 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) were higher in PsA, although levels of 4-HNE-His adducts were higher in Ps. Read More

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15-Deoxy-Δ-prostaglandin J2 promotes phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α and activates the integrated stress response.

J Biol Chem 2019 04 5;294(16):6344-6352. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

From the Department of Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 and

Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic RNA-protein aggregates formed in response to inhibition of translation initiation. SGs contribute to the stress response and are implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer and some forms of neurodegeneration. Neurodegenerative diseases often involve chronic phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), with deletions of eIF2α kinases or treatment with eIF2α kinase inhibitors being protective in some animal models of disease. Read More

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A Snake Venom-Secreted Phospholipase A Induces Foam Cell Formation Depending on the Activation of Factors Involved in Lipid Homeostasis.

Mediators Inflamm 2018 14;2018:2547918. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Pharmacology Laboratory, Butantan Institute, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

MT-III, a snake venom GIIA sPLA, which shares structural and functional features with mammalian GIIA sPLAs, activates macrophage defense functions including lipid droplet (LDs) formation, organelle involved in both lipid metabolism and inflammatory processes. Macrophages (Ms) loaded with LDs, termed foam cells, characterize early blood vessel fatty-streak lesions during atherosclerosis. However, the factors involved in foam cell formation induced by a GIIA sPLA are still unknown. Read More

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December 2018

Arachidonic Acid Metabolism Pathway Is Not Only Dominant in Metabolic Modulation but Associated With Phenotypic Variation After Acute Hypoxia Exposure.

Front Physiol 2018 16;9:236. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

Institute of Medicine and Hygienic Equipment for High Altitude Region, College of High Altitude Military Medicine, Army Medical University, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

The modulation of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism pathway is identified in metabolic alterations after hypoxia exposure, but its biological function is controversial. We aimed at integrating plasma metabolomic and transcriptomic approaches to systematically explore the roles of the AA metabolism pathway in response to acute hypoxia using an acute mountain sickness (AMS) model. Blood samples were obtained from 53 enrolled subjects before and after exposure to high altitude. Read More

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The influence of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) ligands on cancer cell tumorigenicity.

Gene 2018 Apr 31;649:14-22. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Department of Cellular Biotechnology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Biotechnology, ACECR, Isfahan, Iran.

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily of PPARs (PPARα, PPARβ/δ, PPARγ). Numerous studies have concentrated on the key role of PPARs in inflammation and a variety of cancers which include prostate, breast, glioblastoma, neuroblastoma, pancreatic, hepatic, leukemia, and bladder and thyroid tumors. This review, specifically deals with anti-tumor and tumorigenicity effects of PPARγ and its natural and synthetic agonists including Troglitazone, Cladosporol A, B, 15-Deoxi-Δ-Prostaglondin J2 (15-d-PGJ2), Ciglitazon, docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid Alpha-eleostreac acid, Amorfrutin C, Sphingosine 1-phosphate, Evodiamine, Excavatolide B vs respected antagonists as GW9662, bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether. Read More

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Ligands of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ inhibit hepatoce llular carcinoma cell proliferation.

Oncol Lett 2017 Oct 8;14(4):4767-4771. Epub 2017 Aug 8.

Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021, P.R. China.

This study was designed to investigate the regulatory role of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells under the hypothesis that the levels of the phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) mRNA and the phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) protein would be affected by the presence of different receptor ligand concentrations. SMMC-7721 hepatocellular carcinoma cells were cultured in the presence of different concentrations of either 15-deoxyprostaglandin J2 (15-d-PGJ2) or pioglitazone and experiments were conducted in order to determine cell growth changes and measure levels of PTEN mRNA and pAkt protein. Our results after treatment with MTT showed the addition of ligands to the cultured cells inhibited their proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Read More

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October 2017

A snake venom group IIA PLA with immunomodulatory activity induces formation of lipid droplets containing 15-d-PGJ in macrophages.

Sci Rep 2017 06 22;7(1):4098. Epub 2017 Jun 22.

Pharmacology Laboratory, Butantan Institute, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Crotoxin B (CB) is a catalytically active group IIA sPLA from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom. In contrast to most GIIA sPLAs, CB exhibits anti-inflammatory effects, including the ability to inhibit leukocyte functions. Lipid droplets (LDs) are lipid-rich organelles associated with inflammation and recognized as a site for the synthesis of inflammatory lipid mediators. Read More

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Mutant KRAS Enhances Tumor Cell Fitness by Upregulating Stress Granules.

Cell 2016 Dec;167(7):1803-1813.e12

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. Electronic address:

There is growing evidence that stress-coping mechanisms represent tumor cell vulnerabilities that may function as therapeutically beneficial targets. Recent work has delineated an integrated stress adaptation mechanism that is characterized by the formation of cytoplasmic mRNA and protein foci, termed stress granules (SGs). Here, we demonstrate that SGs are markedly elevated in mutant KRAS cells following exposure to stress-inducing stimuli. Read More

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December 2016

Effect of 15-Deoxy-△(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 on Expression of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in Mouse Monocyte/macrophage Cell Line J774A.1.

Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 2016 06;38(3):247-52

Municipal Laboratory for Liver Protection and Regulation of Regeneration,Department of Cell Biology,Capital Medical University,Beijing 100069,China.

Objective To investigate the effect of 15-Deoxy-△(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15 d-PGJ2) on the expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and its underlying mechanism in J774A.1. Methods The murine monocyte/macrophage cell line J774A. Read More

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15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 induces expression of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase through Elk-1 activation in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.

Mutat Res 2014 Oct 24;768:6-15. Epub 2014 Jun 24.

Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Sungshin Women's University, Seoul 142-732, South Korea. Electronic address:

Overproduction of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been reported to be implicated in carcinogenesis. The intracellular level of PGE2 is maintained not only by its biosynthesis, but also by inactivation/degradation. 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) is the key enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of oncogenic PGE2 to a biologically inactive keto metabolite. Read More

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October 2014

Synergistic effects of atorvastatin and rosiglitazone on endothelium protection in rats with dyslipidemia.

Lipids Health Dis 2014 Oct 31;13:168. Epub 2014 Oct 31.

Department of Cardiology, Hospital of Economic and Technological Development Zone, Yantai, Shandong Province 264001, China.

Background: Endothelial dysfunction is implicated in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Whether atorvastatin combined with rosiglitazone has synergistic effects on endothelial function improvement in the setting of dyslipidemia is unknown.

Methods: Dyslipidemia rat model was produced with high-fat and high-cholesterol diet administration. Read More

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October 2014

PPARγ agonists regulate tobacco smoke-induced Toll like receptor 4 expression in alveolar macrophages.

Respir Res 2014 Mar 11;15:28. Epub 2014 Mar 11.

Institute of Respiratory Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shen Yang City, China.

Background: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that exerts multiple biological effects. Growing evidence suggests that PPARγ plays an important role in inflammation; however, the effects of this transcription factor on the inflammation caused by smoking are unclear.

Methods: We measured the expression of inflammatory cytokines (leukotriene B4, LTB4 and interleukin 8, IL-8), PPARγ and toll-like receptors (TLR2 and TLR4) in alveolar macrophages (AMs) harvested from rats exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) for 3 months in vivo. Read More

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Role of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma in bacillus Calmette-Guérin bladder cancer therapy.

J Urol 2012 Dec 22;188(6):2384-90. Epub 2012 Oct 22.

Área Investigación, Instituto de Oncología Ángel H Roffo, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Purpose: We evaluated the effects of combined PPARg agonist with bacillus Calmette-Guérin in bladder cancer growth in vitro and in vivo, focusing on the tissue remodeling mechanisms induced by bacillus Calmette-Guérin.

Materials And Methods: PPARs are a superfamily of nuclear receptors that are transcription factors activated by ligands. Activation of PPARg, the γ subtype, causes proliferation inhibition or differentiation of tumor cells. Read More

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December 2012

[Effect of atorvastatin on advanced glycation end products induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in cultured human endothelial cells].

Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi 2011 Jun;39(6):512-7

Department of Cardiology, Affiliated Nanping First Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Nanping 353000, China.

Objective: To investigate the effects of atorvastatin on advanced glycation end products (AGE) induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and whether this effect could be linked to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB).

Methods: Grouping: (1) Blank control group; (2) BSA group; (3) AGE group: cells were incubated with different concentrations of AGE (10(-4), 10(-3), 10(-2) and 10(-1) g/L) for 24 hours; (4) AGE + Atorvastatin group: cells were incubated with different concentrations of atorvastatin (0.1, 1, 10 µmol/L) for 1 hour, then incubated with AGE (10(-1) g/L) for 24 hours; (5) PPAR-γ agonist (15 d-PGJ2) group: cells were incubated with 15 d-PGJ2 (10 µmol/L) for 1 hour, then incubated with AGE (10(-1) g/L) for 24 hours; (6) PPAR-γ inhibitor (GW9662) group: cells were incubated with GW9662 (5000 nmol/L) for 1 hour, then incubated with atorvastatin (1 µmol/L) and AGE (10(-1) g/L) for 24 hours. Read More

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The anti-inflammatory prostaglandin 15d-PGJ2 and its nuclear receptor PPARgamma are decreased in schizophrenia.

Schizophr Res 2011 May 18;128(1-3):15-22. Epub 2011 Feb 18.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain.

A number of findings suggest that inflammation plays a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Taking into account a physiological balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, we measured the plasma levels of cyclooxygenase-derived mediators and other key pro- and anti-inflammatory transcription factors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Forty healthy subjects and 46 treated chronic schizophrenic patients with an acutely exacerbated condition who met DSM-IV criteria were included. Read More

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[Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma inhibits transforming growth factor beta1-induced connective tissue growth factor expression in rat hepatic stellate cells].

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2009 Jul;29(7):1354-8

Department of General Surgery, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China.

Objective: To investigate the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) activation on transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1)-induced connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression in rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs).

Methods: Cultured HSCs with or without PPARgamma-specific antagonist GW9662 treatment prior to the addition of an increasing amount of PPARgamma natural ligand (15-d-PGJ2) or synthetic ligand (GW7845) were stimulated with TGF-beta1. The mRNA and protein levels of CTGF expression were detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Read More

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[15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) induces anoikis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells: an in vitro experiment].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2007 Nov;87(42):3001-5

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Objective: To investigate the effect of 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15-d-PGJ(2)) on the anoikis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HC) cells and mechanisms thereof.

Methods: Fibronectin or polyhydroxyethyl methacrylate (poly-HEMA) were coated onto tissue culture plates, cell growth status and morphological changes were detected by optical microscope. DNA fragmentation analysis and Flow cytometry were used to measure cell apoptotic activity. Read More

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November 2007

Cyclopentenone prostaglandin, 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-PGJ2, is metabolized by HepG2 cells via conjugation with glutathione.

Chem Res Toxicol 2007 Oct 14;20(10):1528-35. Epub 2007 Sep 14.

Department of Medicine and Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.

15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15-d-PGJ2) is a dehydration product of PGD2. This compound possesses a highly reactive polyunsaturated carbonyl moiety that is a substrate for Michael addition with thiol-containing biomolecules such as glutathione and cysteine residues on proteins. By reacting with glutathione and proteins, 15-d-PGJ2 is believed to exert potent biological activity. Read More

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October 2007

Inhibition of adhesive interaction between multiple myeloma and bone marrow stromal cells by PPARgamma cross talk with NF-kappaB and C/EBP.

Blood 2007 Dec 4;110(13):4373-84. Epub 2007 Sep 4.

Basic Research Program, SAIC-Frederick, Frederick, MD, USA.

Binding of multiple myeloma (MM) cells to bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) triggers expression of adhesive molecules and secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6), promoting MM cell growth, survival, drug resistance, and migration, which highlights the possibility of developing and validating novel anti-MM therapeutic strategies targeting MM cells-host BMSC interactions and their sequelae. Recently, we have found that expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and its ligands can potently inhibit IL-6-regulated MM cell growth. Here we demonstrate that PPARgamma agonists 15-d-PGJ2 and troglitazone significantly suppress cell-cell adhesive events, including expression of adhesion molecules and IL-6 secretion from BMSCs triggered by adhesion of MM cells, as well as overcome drug resistance by a PPARgamma-dependent mechanism. Read More

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December 2007

Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma inhibits cell growth via apoptosis and arrest of the cell cycle in human colorectal cancer.

J Dig Dis 2007 May;8(2):82-8

Department of Gastroenterology of Taizhou People's Hospital, Jiangsu Province, and Soochow University, China.

Objective: To investigate the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)gamma and the effects of PPARgamma ligands on cells growth in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell line HT-29, and to explore whether the activation of PPARgamma by its selective ligand can induce apoptosis and the arrest of the cell cycle in these cells.

Methods: A CRC cell line, HT-29, was used in this study. PPARgamma mRNA and the protein expressions were measured by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Read More

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Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion induces renal heme oxygenase-1 via NF-E2-related factor 2 in rats and mice.

Mol Pharmacol 2007 Mar 6;71(3):817-25. Epub 2006 Dec 6.

Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160-7417, USA.

Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) results in Kupffer cell activation and subsequent tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha release, leading to localized hepatic injury and remote organ dysfunction. Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is an enzyme that is induced by various stimuli, including proinflammatory cytokines, and exerts antioxidative and anti-inflammatory functions. Up-regulation of HO-1 is known to protect against hepatic IR injury, but the effects of hepatic IR on the kidney are poorly understood. Read More

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Bacillus Calmette-Guérin induces the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in bladder cancer cells.

Int J Mol Med 2006 Feb;17(2):269-73

Angel H. Roffo Institute of Oncology, University of Buenos Aires, CP1417 DTB, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is considered to be one of the most effective treatments for superficial and in situ bladder cancer. The exact mechanism of the antitumor activity of BCG is not completely understood. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors that is involved in cell growth and differentiation as well as inflammatory processes. Read More

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February 2006

Inhibition of skin sclerosis by 15deoxy delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 and retrovirally transfected prostaglandin D synthase in a mouse model of bleomycin-induced scleroderma.

Biomed Pharmacother 2006 Jan 25;60(1):18-25. Epub 2005 Oct 25.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan.

Hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (PGDS) is a key enzyme involved in production of the PGD and J series, which have various role in inflammation and immunity. We evaluated the effect of treatment with 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) or the injection of prostaglandin D(2) synthase (PGDS) cDNA expressing-retrovirally transfected fibroblasts on bleomycin (BLM)-induced scleroderma-like skin sclerosis. Daily injection of BLM (30 microg) for 4 weeks induced histological evidence of dermal sclerosis in C3H mice. Read More

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January 2006

Enhancement of antitumor activity of docetaxel by celecoxib in lung tumors.

Int J Cancer 2006 Jan;118(2):396-404

College of Pharmacy, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, FL 32307, USA.

Our study investigates the effect of a highly selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, celecoxib, on the cytotoxicity of docetaxel in nude mice bearing A549 tumor xenografts and elucidates the molecular mechanisms of the antitumor effect of this combination. Female nu/nu mice, xenografted with s.c. Read More

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January 2006

15-deoxy-Delta12, 14-prostaglandin J2 activates the expression of p15INK4b gene, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor.

Int J Oncol 2005 Aug;27(2):497-503

Department of Molecular-Targeting Cancer Prevention, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kawaramachi-Hirokoji, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan.

15-deoxy-Delta12, 14-prostaglandin J2 (15-d-PGJ2) inhibits cellular proliferation primarily in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for this effect has not been sufficiently elucidated. Here, we show that the treatment of human immortalized keratinocyte HaCaT cells with 15-d-PGJ2 arrests the cell cycle at the G1 phase. Read More

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[PPAR gamma: a novel pharmacological target against retinal and choroidal neovascularization].

C Bonne

J Fr Ophtalmol 2005 Mar;28(3):326-30

Consultant, 2 rue sur les Murs, 17000 La Rochelle.

PPARg (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) is a nuclear receptor that regulates the transcription of numerous genes involved in the differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis of various cell types. It was initially discovered in adipocytes as a differentiation agent, then was characterized in vascular endothelium and recently in choroidal and retinal endothelial cells. Agonists that bind to PPARgamma and stimulate its transcriptional activity are endogenous lipids such as lysophosphatidic acid and 15-d-PGJ2 as well as the synthetic pharmacological compounds, thiazolidinediones, used for treating type 2 diabetes. Read More

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[Cytokines, prostaglandins, nutritive and non-nuitritive factors in inflammatory bowel diseases].

Orv Hetil 2004 Dec;145(50):2523-9

Semmelweis Egyetem, Altalános Orvostudományi Kar, II. Belgyógyászati Klinika, Budapest.

Therapeutic interventions in the case of gastrointestinal disease are based on the understanding of the role of different inflammatory mediators. Reactive O2 and N2 metabolites are involved in IBD. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, apoptosis signalling and redox-response transcription factors are depended on free radicals. Read More

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December 2004

15-Deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 and thiazolidinediones transactivate epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor receptors in vascular smooth muscle cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2004 Oct;323(2):402-8

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Japan.

Proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is induced by various mitogens through activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathway. We recently reported that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma activators such as 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15-d-PGJ2) and thiazolidinediones (TZDs) activated MEK/ERK pathway through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) and induced proliferation of VSMCs. However, the precise mechanisms of PPARgamma activators-induced activation of PI3-K/ERK pathway have not been determined. Read More

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October 2004