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Incidence of multiple sclerosis in China: A nationwide hospital-based study.

Lancet Reg Health West Pac 2020 Aug 6;1:100010. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100070, China.

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a leading cause of disability among young adults and effects considerable social and economic burdens. Data of MS incidence in China at the national level is lacking. We conducted the first nationwide hospital-based study to estimate the incidence and hospitalization burden of MS in China. Read More

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Association between cirrhosis and herpes zoster in a cohort study in Taiwan.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Jul 29:e14677. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Occupational Safety and Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess if an association exists between cirrhosis and herpes zoster in Taiwan.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was designed to analyze the 2000-2013 claims dataset of 1 million insured residents who were randomly sampled from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. Totally, 16190 subjects ages 20-84 years old with newly diagnosed cirrhosis since 2000 to 2012 were identified as the cirrhosis group and 16190 sex- and age-matched subjects without cirrhosis were selected as the non-cirrhosis group. Read More

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Antipsychotic drug use in Greenland and Denmark: longitudinal and cross-sectional data.

Nord J Psychiatry 2021 Jul 26:1-6. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Psykiatri i Nordjylland, Aalborg Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the consumption of antipsychotic drugs in Denmark and Greenland between 2014 and 2019. We also investigated the use of antipsychotic medication for schizophrenic and non-affective psychotic patients in both countries.

Methods: This study was performed as a register study using data from the medical register in Denmark and Greenland. Read More

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Effects of Weight Gain after 20 Years of Age and Incidence of Hyper-Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterolemia: The Iki Epidemiological Study of Atherosclerosis and Chronic Kidney Disease (ISSA-CKD).

J Clin Med 2021 Jul 14;10(14). Epub 2021 Jul 14.

General Medicine, Fukuoka University Hospital, Fukuoka 814-0180, Japan.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term weight gain from the age of 20 on incidence of hyper-low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterolemia in the general population of Japanese people.

Methods: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using annual health checkup data for residents of Iki City, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. A total of 3179 adult (≥30 years old) men and women without hyper-LDL cholesterolemia at baseline, who underwent two or more health checkups were included in the analysis. Read More

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Characterization of groundwater hydrogeochemistry, quality, and associated health hazards to the residents of southwestern Bangladesh.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, Chemistry Division, Atomic Energy Center, Dhaka, 1000, Bangladesh.

In this research, we intended to appraise the hydrogeochemistry and human health risks of groundwater (GW) in southwestern Bangladesh, applying hydrogeochemical techniques, GW quality index (GWQI), several pollution indices, and mathematical health risk models. The trace elements (TEs) and ionic composition of GW samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy and ion chromatography (AAS-IC) technique. The evaporate dissolution, silicate weathering, and ionic exchange processes control the hydrogeochemistry in GW. Read More

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Impact of the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumonia in The Gambia: 10 years of population-based surveillance.

Lancet Infect Dis 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Medical Research Council Unit The Gambia at London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Fajara, The Gambia.

Background: The Gambia introduced seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in August 2009, followed by PCV13 in May, 2011, using a schedule of three primary doses without a booster dose or catch-up immunisation. We aimed to assess the long-term impact of PCV on disease incidence.

Methods: We did 10 years of population-based surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and WHO defined radiological pneumonia with consolidation in rural Gambia. Read More

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Sociodemographic changes in emergency department visits due to alcohol during COVID-19.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 Jun 30;226:108877. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; ICES, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Bruyère Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: Little detailed sociodemographic information is available about how alcohol use and associated health care visits have changed during COVID-19. Therefore, we assessed how rates of emergency department (ED) visits due to alcohol have changed during COVID-19 by age and sex and for individuals living in urban and rural settings and low and high-income neighborhoods.

Methods: Our cohort included 13,660,516 unique Ontario residents between the ages of 10-105. Read More

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Teaching on Rounds and in Small Groups.

Surg Clin North Am 2021 Aug;101(4):555-563

Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Surgery, 96 Jonathan Lucas Street, Charleston, SC 29425, USA. Electronic address:

Bedside teaching plays a vital role the training future physicians, allowing for instruction in history taking, physical examination skills, differential diagnosis development, professionalism, teamwork integration, effective communication, and discussions of medical ethics. Due to changes in the health care system, accreditation bodies, and shortened admittance of patients, rates of bedside teaching have declined. Attending surgeons feel increased external pressures to meet performance metrics while resident physicians adhere to duty hour restrictions. Read More

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Association of Travel Distance to Nearest Abortion Facility With Rates of Abortion.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Jul 1;4(7):e2115530. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Advancing New Standards in Reproductive Health, Bixby Center for Global Reproductive Health, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco.

Importance: Travel distance to abortion services varies widely in the US. Some evidence shows travel distance affects use of abortion care, but there is no national analysis of how abortion rate changes with travel distance.

Objective: To examine the association between travel distance to the nearest abortion care facility and the abortion rate and to model the effect of reduced travel distance. Read More

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Beyond the Learning Curve of Prostate MRI/TRUS Target Fusion Biopsy after More than 1000 Procedures.

Urology 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Oncology, Division of Urology, University of Turin, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, Turin, 10043.

Objective: To evaluate the learning curve (LC) of two urology residents in the execution of fusion biopsy (FB) in terms of overall prostate cancer (PCa) and clinically significant (cs) PCa detection rate (DR) and according to different characteristics of the lesions on MRI MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed data from our prospective maintained FB database between January 2015 and December 2019. FB was performed using the BioJet fusion system (D&K Technologies, Barum, Germany) with a transrectal or transperineal approach. An ANOVA test was used to evaluate the homogeneity of our cohort. Read More

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Hospitalisation for lower respiratory viral infections in older people in residential aged care facilities.

Australas J Ageing 2021 Jun 30. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Registry of Senior Australians (ROSA), South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

Objective: To quantify incidence, trends and outcomes associated with lower respiratory viral infection (LRVI) hospitalisations in Australian residential aged care facilities (RACFs).

Methods: A population-based cohort study of residents in RACFs aged ≥65 years from New South Wales (NSW), South Australia (SA) and Victoria (VIC) using data from the Registry of Senior Australians (2013-2016) was conducted. Age- and sex-standardised monthly and yearly LRVI hospitalisation incidences were calculated, and time trends and risk factors were assessed. Read More

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[First wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Navarre, Spain, February-June 2020].

An Sist Sanit Navar 2021 Jun 18;0(0). Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Instituto de Salud Pública y Laboral de Navarra. Pamplona..

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic was declared in 2020. The shortage of diagnostic tests limited monitoring of the first wave of the pandemic. This study estimates and describes the wave in Navarre (Spain). Read More

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Mortality trends of stroke and dementia: Changing landscapes and new challenges.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Departments of Clinical Pharmacology and Aged Care, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales, Australia.

Background/importance: Stroke and dementia are important causes of death in the United States and may be interrelated as competing risks for mortality. No previous studies have simultaneously compared age- and sex-specific mortality trends between stroke and subtypes of dementia at a population level. Insights gained from this study can help identify high-risk populations and inform healthcare service requirements for managing stroke and dementia in the United States. Read More

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Surveys about attended births appear to be deceptive in CAR: are the population saying what they think NGO's want to hear?

Confl Health 2021 Jun 13;15(1):48. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Program on Forced Migration and Health, Columbia University - Mailman School of Public Health, New York, USA.

Background: Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and donors often promote certain practices to a community, such as in-facility births and then evaluate the efficacy of those interventions, in part, by surveying those populations.

Methods: A project to assess the accuracy of birth and death monitoring by local community-based monitors was undertaken with a partner health agency in areas (pop. 94,000) where they supported medical facilities. Read More

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Are antimicrobial stewardship interventions effective and safe in long-term care facilities? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Infectious Diseases Research Group, Institute of Biomedicine of Seville (IBiS), University of Seville/CSIC/University Hospital Virgen del Rocio, Seville, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: Long-term care facilities (LTCFs) are health-care settings with high antimicrobial consumption and hence need to develop effective antimicrobial stewardship programmes (ASPs).

Objective: To assess the effects of ASPs on care-related, clinical and ecological outcomes in LTCFs.

Methods: Data sources were PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and SCOPUS. Read More

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Comparison of thyroid doses to the public from radioiodine following the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents.

Ann ICRP 2021 Jun 10:1466453211006816. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

State Research Centre - Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre, Federal Medical Biological Agency, Zhivopisnaya St. 46, 123098 Moscow, Russian Federation; e-mail:

Estimates of thyroid doses to the public from radioiodine intake following the accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants are compared. The basis for thyroid dose estimates after the Chernobyl accident was a large set of measurements of I thyroidal content for approximately 400,000 residents in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia. Due to a lack of direct thyroid measurements after the Fukushima accident (just over 1000 residents were measured), thyroid doses were estimated based on ecological models and are therefore associated with much higher uncertainty than those based on direct thyroid measurements. Read More

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Traffic Noise Annoyance in the Population of North Mexico: Case Study on the Daytime Period in the City of Matamoros.

Front Psychol 2021 24;12:657428. Epub 2021 May 24.

Unidad Académica Multidisciplinaria Matamoros, Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas, Matamoros, Mexico.

The presence of noise in urban environments is rarely considered a factor that causes damage to the environment. The primary generating source is transportation means, with vehicles being the ones that affect cities the most. Traffic noise has a particular influence on the quality of life of those who are exposed to it and can cause health alterations ranging from annoyance to cardiovascular diseases. Read More

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Adherence to daily HIV Pre-exposure prophylaxis in a large-scale implementation study in New South Wales, Australia.

AIDS 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

The Kirby Institute, UNSW Sydney, NSW Department of Health Systems and Populations, Macquarie University, NSW Ministry of Health, NSW Government, NSW Westmead Clinical School, Sydney University, NSW AIDS Council New South Wales, NSW Sydney Sexual Health Centre, Sydney, NSW North Coast HIV/Sexual Health Services, Lismore, NSW Sexual Health Service, Sydney Local Health District Sydney and Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Objectives: To examine patterns of long-term PrEP adherence and its association with HIV seroconversion in NSW, Australia.

Design: Population-based HIV PrEP implementation study.

Methods: EPIC-NSW was an open-label study of daily oral PrEP which recruited participants from March 2016 to April 2018. Read More

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Associations of Race/Ethnicity and Food Insecurity With COVID-19 Infection Rates Across US Counties.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 06 1;4(6):e2112852. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

College of Agricultural Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

Importance: Food insecurity is prevalent among racial/ethnic minority populations in the US. To date, few studies have examined the association between pre-COVID-19 experiences of food insecurity and COVID-19 infection rates through a race/ethnicity lens.

Objective: To examine the associations of race/ethnicity and past experiences of food insecurity with COVID-19 infection rates and the interactions of race/ethnicity and food insecurity, while controlling for demographic, socioeconomic, risk exposure, and geographic confounders. Read More

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The short-term effectiveness of real-time video counselling on smoking cessation among residents in rural and remote areas: An interim analysis of a randomised trial.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 Apr 29;131:108448. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, New South Wales 2308, Australia; Hunter New England Population Health, Hunter New England Local Health District, Locked Mail Bag 10, Wallsend, New South Wales 2287, Australia; Hunter Medical Research Institute, Locked bag 1000, New Lambton Heights, New South Wales 2305, Australia.

Background: Real-time video counselling for smoking cessation uses readily accessible software (e.g. Skype). Read More

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Incidence and prevalence of epilepsy and associated factors in a health district in North-West Cameroon: A population survey.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 08 1;121(Pt A):108048. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

NIHR University College London Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, London WC1N 3BG and Chalfont Centre for Epilepsy, Chalfont St Peter, Bucks SL9 0RJ, United Kingdom; Stichting Epilepsie Instelligen Nederland (SEIN), Heemstede, Netherlands.

This population-based cross-sectional survey with a follow-up case-control study assessed the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for epilepsy in a rural health district in the North-West Region of Cameroon. Community-based epilepsy screening targeted all inhabitants, six years and older, in all 16 health areas in the Batibo Health District. During door-to-door visits, trained fieldworkers used a validated questionnaire to interview consenting household heads to screen for epilepsy in eligible residents. Read More

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Incidence of diabetes mellitus in Italy in year 2018. A nationwide population-based study of the ARNO Diabetes Observatory.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 Jul 3;31(8):2338-2344. Epub 2021 May 3.

CINECA - Interuniversity Consortium, Bologna, Italy.

Backgrounds And Aims: To assess incidence of diabetes in Italy in 2018 by the use of administrative claims from several million residents. Differences in rates in men and women across decades of age were investigated. Incident rates of insulin or noninsulin treated subjects were also examined. Read More

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Human Biomonitoring Data Enables Evidence-Informed Policy to Reduce Internal Exposure to Persistent Organic Compounds: A Case Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 05 22;18(11). Epub 2021 May 22.

VITO Health, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol, Belgium.

Human biomonitoring (HBM) monitors levels of environmental pollutants in human samples, which often is a topic of concern for residents near industrially contaminated sites (ICSs). Around an ICS area in Menen (Belgium), including a (former) municipal waste incinerator and a metal recovery plant, increasing environmental concentrations of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were observed, causing growing concern among residents and authorities. The local community succeeded in convincing the responsible authorities to investigate the problem and offer research funding. Read More

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Prospective Surveillance of Healthcare-Associated Infections in Residents in Four Long-Term Care Facilities in Graz, Austria.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 May 7;10(5). Epub 2021 May 7.

Section of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, 8036 Graz, Austria.

Healthcare-associated infections (HCAI) are a common cause for residents' mortality and morbidity associated with a significant socio-economic burden. Data on HCAIs in Austrian long-term care facilities are scare. Therefore, we evaluated the incidence rate of HCAIs per 1000 resident days in four LTC facilities in Graz, Austria, characterized the spectrum of HCAIs and the use of antimicrobial substances. Read More

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COVID-19 Cases and Death in Nursing Homes: The Role of Racial and Ethnic Composition of Facilities and Their Communities.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 07 9;22(7):1345-1351. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA; Geriatrics & Extended Care Data & Analyses Center (GEC DAC), Canandaigua Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Canandaigua, NY, USA.

Objectives: To examine the extent to which the racial and ethnic composition of nursing homes (NHs) and their communities affects the likelihood of COVID-19 cases and death in NHs, and whether and how the relationship between NH characteristics and COVID-19 cases and death varies with the racial and ethnic composition of the community in which an NH is located.

Methods And Design: Centers for Medicare & Medicare Services Nursing Home COVID-19 data were linked with other NH- or community-level data (eg, Certification and Survey Provider Enhanced Reporting, Minimum Data Set, Nursing Home Compare, and the American Community Survey).

Setting And Participants: NHs with more than 30 occupied beds (N=13,123) with weekly reported NH COVID-19 records between the weeks of June 7, 2020, and August 23, 2020. Read More

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Malnutrition in Relation with Dietary, Geographical, and Socioeconomic Factors among Older Chinese.

Biomed Environ Sci 2021 May;34(5):337-347

National Institute of Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: Nutrition is closely related to the health of the elderly population. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive picture of the nutrition status of elderly Chinese and its related dietary, geographical, and socioeconomic factors.

Methods: A total of 13,987 ≥ 60-year-old persons from the 2010-2013 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey were included to evaluate various aspects of malnutrition, including underweight, overweight or obesity, and micronutrient inadequacy. Read More

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Engineered bioclimatic responses in ancient settlements: a case study.

Int J Biometeorol 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

The Mandya district of Karnataka, India, houses a unique Jain settlement constructed about 1000 years ago. Recent excavations by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) indicate a high degree of engineering skills among the builders of this settlement. Adapting to heat-stresses in a region where the Monsoons often failed was and is still a matter of concern. Read More

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Long-term macrolide therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a population-based time series analysis.

CMAJ Open 2021 Apr-Jun;9(2):E576-E584. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Medicine (Yan, Garber, Gershon), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont.; Department of Medicine (Yan), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC; ICES (Saxena, Calzavara, Brown, Gershon, Kumar, Lee, Schwartz, Daneman), Toronto, Ont.; Dalla Lana School of Public Health (Brown, Johnstone), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont.; Public Health Ontario (Brown, Garber, Johnstone, Langford, Schwartz, Daneman), Toronto, Ont.; Ottawa Hospital Research Institute (Garber), Ottawa, Ont.; Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre (Gershon, Daneman); Sinai Health System (Johnstone); Unity Health Toronto (Schwartz), Toronto, Ont.

Background: Macrolides are recommended as an adjunctive treatment for patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who experience recurrent exacerbations. The objective of this study was to examine temporal trends in the provision of long-term macrolide therapy, specifically before and after publication of the landmark MACRO trial in August 2011 showing efficacy of macrolides for this indication.

Methods: We performed an interrupted time series analysis using population-level health administrative data. Read More

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Relationship of urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein with cardiovascular risk factors in the Japanese population without chronic kidney disease: Sasayama study.

BMC Nephrol 2021 May 21;22(1):189. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1, Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo, 663-8501, Japan.

Background: Urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) is a well-known marker of proximal tubular impairment. We evaluated the relationship between cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and levels of L-FABP in a cross-sectional community-based study. Participants with normoalbuminuria and normal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), that is, non-chronic kidney disease (non-CKD), were enrolled in this study. Read More

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