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The influence of castration on intramural neurons of the urinary bladder trigone in male pigs.

J Anat 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Animal Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Olsztyn, Poland.

The present study investigated the influence of castration performed at neonatal age on neuronal elements in the intramural ganglia of the urinary bladder trigone (UBT) in male pigs using double-labeling immunohistochemistry. The ganglia were examined in intact (IP) 7-day-old (castration day) pigs, and at 3 and 6 months after surgery. In IP and control (3- and 6-month-old noncastrated pigs) groups, virtually, all neurons were adrenergic (68%) or cholinergic (32%) in nature. Read More

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Efficacy and Safety of Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants in Pediatric Venous Thromboembolism Treatment and Thromboprophylaxis: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

Semin Thromb Hemost 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Johns Hopkins All Children's Institute for Clinical and Translational Research, St. Petersburg, Florida.

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) in children can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Traditionally, treatment for thrombotic events in pediatric patients has been limited mainly to unfractionated heparin, low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), or vitamin K antagonists. Since the first non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC) was approved for adult use, these agents have gained popularity for a variety of indications. Read More

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[Frequency Distribution and Risk Factors for Latent Tuberculosis in Contact Persons: Cologne 2012-2016].

Pneumologie 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Gesundheitsamt der Stadt Köln, Abteilung Infektions- und Umwelthygiene, Tuberkulose-Beratungsstelle.

Background:  As part of tuberculosis control and the WHO end-TB strategy, contact persons of tuberculosis patients in Germany are examined for a possible infection with latent tuberculosis (LTBI). Activation of LTBI contributes a considerable proportion of newly reported tuberculosis cases in low-incidence countries such as Germany. Therefore, the aim is to detect cases of LTBI and, through chemopreventive treatment of these cases, prevent future, post-primary, active tuberculosis. Read More

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The use of first-generation long-acting injectable antipsychotics in children and adolescents-A retrospective audit from India.

Asian J Psychiatr 2021 May 4;61:102663. Epub 2021 May 4.

Dept of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, NIMHANS, Bangalore, India.

Objectives: There is a dearth of knowledge regarding the usage of first-generation long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics in children and adolescents, despite their off-label use, in low and middle-income countries (LAMIC).

Methods: Case records of subjects less than 18 years of age who received any first-generation LAI antipsychotics in the last 10 years(between 2010-19) were reviewed. Details documented for the study from the records included ICD-10 diagnoses, clinical profile, indication for use, medication details, severity of illness, improvement, and global functioning. Read More

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Re-infection of SARS-CoV-2: A case in a young dental healthcare worker.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Mar 6;14(6):685-688. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Reinfection with SARS-CoV-2 is a rare phenomenon. To date, there has been some cases reported from countries such as United States, Ecuador, Hong Kong, the Netherlands and Belgium. This case report presents the first case of reinfection from Saudi Arabia, and probably the first dental student to have been re-infected with COVID-19. Read More

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Untargeted metabolomics of newborn dried blood spots reveals sex-specific associations with pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.

Leuk Res 2021 Apr 24;106:106585. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Center for Integrative Research on Childhood Leukemia and the Environment, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA; Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA.

The etiology of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is largely unknown, but evidence for mutations in utero and long latency periods suggests that environmental factors play a role. Therefore, we used untargeted metabolomics of archived newborn dried blood spots (DBS) to investigate neonatal exposures as potential causal risk factors for AML. Untargeted metabolomics profiling was performed on DBS punches from 48 pediatric patients with AML and 46 healthy controls as part of the California Childhood Leukemia Study (CCLS). Read More

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Diagnostic value of electrocardiogram during routine electroencephalogram.

Seizure 2021 Apr 25;89:19-23. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Assistant Professor of Neurology; Division of Neurology, Department of Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan.

Introduction: A single-lead electrocardiogram (EKG) is routinely recorded with electroencephalogram (EEG). This study investigates the frequency and types of EKG abnormalities during routine EEG.

Methods: All routine EEGs (20-60 min) over one year were retrospectively analyzed. Read More

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Executive function as a mechanism linking socioeconomic status to internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents.

J Adolesc 2021 May 7;89:149-160. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Psychology, Harvard University, USA.

Introduction: The association between low socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood and increased risk for psychopathology is well established, but the mechanisms explaining this relationship are poorly understood. Here, we investigate the potential role of difficulties in executive functioning (EF) as a mechanism linking childhood and adolescent SES with externalizing and internalizing psychopathology.

Methods: We examined whether difficulties with EF mediated the association between SES and externalizing and internalizing psychopathology in two cross-sectional samples of children and adolescents (Study 1: N = 94, ages 6-18, 51. Read More

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A cross-lagged panel model for testing the bidirectional relationship between depression and smartphone addiction and the influences of maladaptive metacognition on them in Chinese adolescents.

Addict Behav 2021 May 4;120:106978. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Macau, Taipa, Macao, China; Centre for Cognitive and Brain Sciences, University of Macau, Taipa, Macao, China. Electronic address:

Aims: Despite the high prevalence of both depression and smartphone addiction among Chinese adolescents, research examining their bidirectional relationship has been limited. Moreover, longitudinal research regarding the influence of maladaptive metacognitive beliefs on smartphone addiction is scarce. This 6-month longitudinal study aimed to address these research gaps by testing a cross-lagged panel model of maladaptive metacognition, depression, and smartphone addiction. Read More

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Sex differences in the association between serum BDNF and cognitive impairment in schizophrenia patients using various antipsychotics.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Apr 30;138:492-499. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Cognitive impairment is one of the core symptoms of schizophrenia patients. There are often various differences in the efficacy of different antipsychotics in the treatment of cognitive impairment by sex. The purpose of this study was to explore whether there are gender differences in the association between serum BDNF levels and cognitive performance in patients with schizophrenia taking different antipsychotics. Read More

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Gonadal steroid hormone receptors in the medial amygdala contribute to experience-dependent changes in stress vulnerability.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 May 3;129:105249. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Psychology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, United States.

Social experience can generate neural plasticity that changes how individuals respond to stress. Winning aggressive encounters alters how animals respond to future challenges and leads to increased plasma testosterone concentrations and androgen receptor (AR) expression in the social behavior neural network. In this project, our aim was to identify neuroendocrine mechanisms that account for changes in stress-related behavior following the establishment of dominance relationships over a two-week period. Read More

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Transgenerational effects of selenomethionine on behaviour, social cognition, and the expression of genes in the serotonergic pathway in zebrafish.

Environ Pollut 2021 May 3;286:117289. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, 112 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5E2, Canada; Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 44 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5B3, Canada.

Elevated levels of contaminants from human activities have become a major threat to animals, particularly within aquatic ecosystems. Selenium (Se) is a naturally occurring element with a narrow range of safe intake, but excessive Se has toxicological effects, as it can bioaccumulate and cause cognitive and behavioural impairments. In this study, we investigated whether exposure to Se would also have transgenerational effects, causing changes in the descendants of exposed individuals. Read More

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Shift in skin microbiota and immune functions of zebrafish after combined exposure to perfluorobutanesulfonate and probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 May 7;218:112310. Epub 2021 May 7.

State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, China. Electronic address:

Dysbiosis of fish skin microbiome and immunity by environmental pollutants are rarely studied in toxicological research in spite of their importance for fish health. In the present study, adult zebrafish were exposed to 0 and 10 μg/L of perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) for 40 days, with or without the supplementation of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus, with objectives to explore the interaction between PFBS pollutant and probiotic bacteria on skin mucosal microbiota and immune response. Amplicon sequencing analysis found that PFBS alone significantly disturbed the microbial community composition and abundance on the skin, favoring the growth of stress-tolerant bacteria (e. Read More

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Sexual differences in bone porosity, osteocyte density, and extracellular matrix organization due to osteoblastic-specific Bmp2 deficiency in mice.

Bone 2021 May 7:116002. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO, United States of America. Electronic address:

Clinical studies have come to conflicting conclusions regarding BMP2 deficiency's link to regulating bone mass and increasing fracture risk. This may be due to the signaling protein having sex- or age-dependent effects. Previous pre-clinical studies have supported a role, but have not adequately determined the physical mechanism causing altered bulk material properties. Read More

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Characterization of pharmaco-EEG fingerprint and sleep-wake profiles of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. essential oil inhalation and diazepam administration in rats.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 May 7:114193. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90110, Thailand; Biosignal Research Center for Health, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, 90110, Thailand. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Lavandula angustifolia Mill. essential oil (Lavender EO) has a long history of medicinal use and is particularly claimed to possess anxiolytic and sedative properties. Lavender EO aromatherapy has been used to reduce distress and improve insomnia naturally. Read More

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Sudden unexpected improvement in the atrioventricular conduction. What is the mechanism?

Indian Pacing Electrophysiol J 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Cardiology, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

The 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) of a 79-year-old male patient with recurrent pre-syncope showed irregular sinus rhythm with constant PR interval and left bundle branch block (LBBB) with intermittently blocked P waves. The beat following the blocked P wave had a narrower QRS with shorter PR interval. The phenomenon of bilateral bundle branch block explains sudden improvement in the atrioventricular conduction. Read More

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Inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin does not improve hypoxic pulmonary hypertension-induced right heart failure in old mice.

Exp Gerontol 2021 May 7:111395. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Kinesiology & Health, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, United States of America. Electronic address:

Inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) by rapamycin attenuates heart failure (HF) and age-associated changes in left ventricular (LV) function. Rapamycin has also been suggested as a therapy for pulmonary hypertension (PH) and concomitant right heart failure (PH-RHF) based on reports of elevated mTOR signaling in young models with PH. However, rapamycin has yet to be tested in the setting of aging, PH, and right heart disease despite the fact that RV function predicts survival in both age-related HF as well as several pulmonary disease states including PH. Read More

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Unravelling ipsilateral interactions between left dorsal premotor and primary motor cortex: a proof of concept study.

Neuroscience 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Neuroplasticity and Movement Control Research Group, Rehabilitation Research Institute (REVAL), Hasselt University, Diepenbeek, Belgium; Movement Control and Neuroplasticity Research Group, Department of Movement Sciences, Group Biomedical Sciences, KU Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium. Electronic address:

Few studies have identified the intrahemispheric functional connectivity between the ipsilateral dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and the primary motor hand area (M1) due to technical limitations. In this proof-of-concept study, a novel neuronavigated dsTMS set-up was employed, combining stimulation over left PMd and left M1 using the edge of a butterfly coil and a small cooled-coil. This arrangement was warranted because coil (over)heating and inter coil distance are limiting factors when investigating connectivity between stimulation targets in close proximity and over a longer duration. Read More

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Changes in the mesocorticolimbic pathway after low dose reserpine-treatment in Wistar and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR): implications for cognitive deficits in a progressive animal model for Parkinson's Disease.

Behav Brain Res 2021 May 7:113349. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Pharmacology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Reserpine (RES) is an irreversible inhibitor of VMAT2 used to study Parkinson's disease (PD) and screening for antiparkinsonian treatments in rodents. Recently, the repeated treatment with a low dose of reserpine was proposed as a model capable of emulating progressive neurochemical, motor and non-motor impairments in PD. Conversely, compared to Wistar rats, Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) are resistant to motor changes induced by repeated treatment with a low dose of RES. Read More

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Oxytocin excites BNST interneurons and inhibits BNST output neurons to the central amygdala.

Neuropharmacology 2021 May 7:108601. Epub 2021 May 7.

Center for the Neurobiology of Stress Resilience and Psychiatric Disorders, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL 60064, USA; Discipline of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL 60064, USA; School of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL 60064, USA. Electronic address:

The dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) has high expression of oxytocin (OT) receptors (OTR), which were shown to facilitate cued fear. However, the role of OTR in the modulation of BNST activity remains elusive. BNST contains GABA-ergic neurons classified based on intrinsic membrane properties into three types. Read More

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Salvage Enbloc Thulium Fiber Laser Enucleation of Prostate for Giant Prostatomegaly after Prostatic Urethral Lift.

Urology 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine-1400 NW 12th Ave, Miami, FL 33136. Electronic address:

Objective: Prostatic urethral lift (PUL) is an accepted treatment modality for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and is currently recommended for surgical management of prostates < 80 grams in size. However, in reality some patients with prostate > 80 gram also receive PUL. A substantial number of these patients may requirement re-treatment for recurrent or persistent lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) after PUL. Read More

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Glucocorticoids and androgens protect from gastric metaplasia by suppressing group 2 innate lymphoid cell activation.

Gastroenterology 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Molecular Endocrinology Group; Signal Transduction Laboratory. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: The immune compartment is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis. A weak immune response increases susceptibility to infection, but immune hyperactivation causes tissue damage, and chronic inflammation may lead to cancer development. In the stomach, inflammation damages the gastric glands and drives the development of potentially pre-neoplastic metaplasia. Read More

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The Paradox of Readmission Prevention Interventions: Missing Those Most in Need.

Am J Med 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine. Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1800 Orleans St, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA; The Johns Hopkins Hospital.Department of Care Coordination and Clinical Resource Management. 1800 Orleans St. Baltimore, MD 21287 USA; Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, 615 N. Wolfe St, Baltimore, MD 21205. Electronic address:

Background: Post hospitalization transition interventions remain a priority in preventing rehospitalization. However, not all patients referred for readmission prevention interventions receive them. We sought to (1) define patient characteristics associated with non-receipt of readmission prevention interventions (amongst those eligible for them), and (2) determine whether these same patient characteristics are associated with hospital readmission at the state-level. Read More

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Levels and trends in Chagas disease-related mortality in Brazil, 2000-2019.

Acta Trop 2021 May 7:105948. Epub 2021 May 7.

Institute of Studies in Public Health, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Avenida Horácio Macedo, S/N, Ilha do Fundão - Cidade Universitária, 21941-598 Rio de Janeiro, Rio deJaneiro, Brazil; Department of Epidemiology, Social Medicine Institute, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rua São Francisco Xavier 524, Maracanã, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Chagas disease remains an important public health problem with high morbidity and mortality in several Latin American countries. This nationwide population-based ecological study analyzes the epidemiological characteristics and time trends of Chagas disease-related mortality in Brazil, 2000-2019. We included all deaths reported in Brazil in which Chagas disease was mentioned in the death certificate either as an underlying or associated cause of death (multiple causes of death). Read More

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Socioeconomic factors and adherence to CPAP - the population-based DISCOVERY study.

Chest 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Respiratory Medicine & Allergology, Lund University, Box 188, SE-221 00, Lund, Sweden.

Background: Early identification of poor adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment is of major clinical importance to optimize treatment outcomes in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).

Research Question: How does socioeconomic factors influence CPAP adherence?

Study Design And Methods: Nationwide, population-based cohort study on patients with OSA on CPAP reported to the Swedish quality registry Swedevox between 2010 and 2018 was cross-linked with individual socioeconomic data from Statistics Sweden. Socioeconomic factors associated with CPAP adherence were identified using a multivariable linear regression model, adjusted for age and gender. Read More

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The Effects of Chronic Exposure to Ambient Traffic-Related Air Pollution on Alzheimer's Disease Phenotypes in Wildtype and Genetically Predisposed Male and Female Rats.

Environ Health Perspect 2021 May 10;129(5):57005. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of California Davis (UC Davis) School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, California, USA.

Background: Epidemiological data link traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) to increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Preclinical data corroborating this association are largely from studies of male animals exposed acutely or subchronically to high levels of isolated fractions of TRAP. What remains unclear is whether chronic exposure to ambient TRAP modifies AD risk and the influence of sex on this interaction. Read More

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Individual differences in behavior and gut bacteria are associated in collared peccary (Mammalia, Tayassuidae).

J Appl Microbiol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil.

Aims: We tested the hypothesis that the behavior of an individual is associated with the diversity of its gut bacteria, using the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) as a model.

Methods And Results: Twenty-four adult male collared peccaries received either low- (n = 12) or high-fiber diet (n = 12) to induce contrasting gut fermentation profiles. They were submitted to three short-term challenges, allowing us to rate the animals in a coping-style dimension named 'calmness'. Read More

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Anthracycline Treatment, Cardiovascular Risk Factors and the Cumulative Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease in a Cohort of Newly Diagnosed Lymphoma Patients from the Modern Treatment Era.

Am J Hematol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

The development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in long-term survivors of lymphoma is of increasing importance. Here, we characterize the cumulative incidence and risk factors for CVD in lymphoma patients diagnosed in the current treatment era. From 2002-2015, newly diagnosed lymphoma patients (>18 years) were enrollment into a prospective cohort study that captured incident CVD, consisting of congestive heart failure (CHF), acute coronary syndrome (ACS), valvular heart disease (VHD), and arrhythmia. Read More

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Does lack of parental involvement affect school dropout among Indian adolescents? evidence from a panel study.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(5):e0251520. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Mathematical Demography and Statistics, International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Despite the gross enrolment ratio of Indian children, being almost 91% in grades 6-8, the equivalently soaring rates of school dropout after 8th grade remains a huge concern for the policymakers. Researches from the developed countries and some developing countries have shown the benefits of parental involvement in their children's education in terms of reduced dropout rates. However, there is a stark absence of similar evidence in the Indian context. Read More

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Effect of prolonged sitting immobility on shear wave velocity of the lower leg muscles in healthy adults: A proof-of-concept study.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(5):e0251532. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, School of Medical Technology, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Japan.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the physical changes of the lower leg muscles in the compartment by observing the changes in the shear wave velocity of the gastrocnemius, soleus and tibialis anterior muscles with time in the sitting position for 2 hours and after elevation of the lower leg.

Materials And Methods: The subjects were 24 healthy adult males (average age 26.6 years). Read More

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