Environ Health 2021 Sep 17;20(1):104. Epub 2021 Sep 17.
Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742, USA.
Toxic chemicals - "toxicants" - have been studied and regulated as single entities, and, carcinogens aside, almost all toxicants, single or mixed and however altered, have been thought harmless in very low doses or very weak concentrations. Yet much work in recent decades has shown that toxicants can injure wildlife, laboratory animals, and humans following exposures previously expected to be harmless. Additional work has shown that toxicants can act not only individually and cumulatively but also collectively and even synergistically and that they affect disadvantaged communities inordinately - and therefore, as argued by reformers, unjustly. Read More