1,037 results match your criteria γ-tubulin


Neomenthol prevents the proliferation of skin cancer cells by restraining tubulin polymerization and hyaluronidase activity.

J Adv Res 2021 Dec 10;34:93-107. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Bioprospection and Product Development Division, CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow 226015, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Introduction: Neomenthol, a cyclic monoterpenoid, is a stereoisomer of menthol present in the essential oil of spp. It is used in food as a flavoring agent, in cosmetics and medicines because of its cooling effects. However, neomenthol has not been much explored for its anticancer potential. Read More

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December 2021

First Report of Causing Anthracnose on Almond in Hungary.

Plant Dis 2021 Oct 27. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences - Budai Campus, 590182, Institute for Horticultural Scienses, Budapest, Budapest, Hungary;

Almond (Prunus dulcis [Mill.] D. A. Read More

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October 2021

Alcohol-Induced Lysosomal Damage and Suppression of Lysosome Biogenesis Contribute to Hepatotoxicity in HIV-Exposed Liver Cells.

Biomolecules 2021 10 11;11(10). Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Department of Environmental Health, Occupational Health, and Toxicology, College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA.

Although the causes of hepatotoxicity among alcohol-abusing HIV patients are multifactorial, alcohol remains the least explored "second hit" for HIV-related hepatotoxicity. Here, we investigated whether metabolically derived acetaldehyde impairs lysosomes to enhance HIV-induced hepatotoxicity. We exposed Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1)-expressing Huh 7. Read More

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October 2021

PDGF as an Important Initiator for Neurite Outgrowth Associated with Fibrovascular Membranes in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.

Curr Eye Res 2021 Oct 6:1-10. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Ocular Angiogenesis Group, Department of Ophthalmology, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose: The formation of fibrovascular membranes (FVMs) is a serious sight-threatening complication of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) that may result in retinal detachment and eventual blindness. During the formation of these membranes, neurite/process outgrowth occurs in retinal neurons and glial cells, which may both serve as a scaffold and have guiding or regulatory roles. To further understand this process, we investigated whether previously identified candidate proteins, from vitreous of PDR patients with FVMs, could induce neurite outgrowth in an experimental setting. Read More

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October 2021

Discovery of facile amides-functionalized rhodanine-3-acetic acid derivatives as potential anticancer agents by disrupting microtubule dynamics.

J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 2021 Dec;36(1):1996-2009

State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Green Pesticide and Agricultural Bioengineering, Key Laboratory of Green Pesticide and Agricultural Bioengineering, Ministry of Education, Guiyang, People's Republic of China.

Microtubule dynamics are crucial for multiple cell functions, and cancer cells are particularly sensitive to microtubule-modulating agents. Here, we describe the design and synthesis of a series of ()-2-(5-benzylidene-4-oxo-2-thioxothiazolidin-3-yl)--phenylacetamide derivatives and evaluation of their microtubule-modulating and anticancer activities . Proliferation assays identified as the most potent of the antiproliferative compounds, with 50% inhibitory concentrations ranging from 7. Read More

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December 2021

Rabbit Antidiethoxyphosphotyrosine Antibody, Made by Single B Cell Cloning, Detects Chlorpyrifos Oxon-Modified Proteins in Cultured Cells and Immunopurifies Modified Peptides for Mass Spectrometry.

J Proteome Res 2021 Oct 1;20(10):4728-4745. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198, United States.

Chronic low-dose exposure to organophosphorus pesticides is associated with the risk of neurodegenerative disease. The mechanism of neurotoxicity is independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Adducts on tyrosine, lysine, threonine, and serine can occur after exposure to organophosphorus pesticides, the most stable being adducts on tyrosine. Read More

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October 2021

In Vitro Evaluation of the Potential Pharmacological Activity and Molecular Targets of New Benzimidazole-Based Schiff Base Metal Complexes.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Jun 16;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Laboratorio de Investigación en Catálisis y Procesos (LICAP), Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Universidad del Valle, Cali 760001, Colombia.

Metal-based drugs, including lanthanide complexes, have been extremely effective in clinical treatments against various diseases and have raised major interest in recent decades. Hence, in this work, a series of lanthanum (III) and cerium (III) complexes, including Schiff base ligands derived from (1-benzimidazol-2-yl)aniline, salicylaldehyde, and 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde were synthesized and characterized using different spectroscopic methods. Besides their cytotoxic activities, they were examined in human U-937 cells, primate kidney non-cancerous COS-7, and six other, different human tumor cell lines: U251, PC-3, K562, HCT-15, MCF-7, and SK-LU-1. Read More

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Ligustilide enhances hippocampal neural stem cells activation to restore cognitive function in the context of postoperative cognitive dysfunction.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 08 14;54(3):5000-5015. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Anesthesiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

Ligustilide exerts potential neuroprotective effects against various cerebral ischaemic insults and neurodegenerative disorders. However, the function and mechanisms of LIG-mediated hippocampal neural stem cells (H-NSCs) activation as well as cognitive recovery in the context of post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) remain elusive and need to be explored. Mice were subjected to transient global cerebral ischaemia and reperfusion (tGCI/R) injury and treated with LIG (80 mg/kg) or vehicle for 1 month. Read More

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Rational design of novel N-alkyl amine analogues of noscapine, their chemical synthesis and cellular activity as potent anticancer agents.

Chem Biol Drug Des 2021 09 18;98(3):445-465. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Centre of Excellence in Natural Products and Therapeutics, Sambalpur University, Sambalpur, India.

The scaffold structure of noscapine (an antitussive plant alkaloid) was modified by inducting N-aryl methyl pharmacophore at C-9 position of the isoquinoline ring to rationally design and screened three novel 9-(N-arylmethylamino) noscapinoids, 15-17 with robust binding affinity with tubulin. The selected 9-(N-arylmethylamino) noscapinoids revealed improved predicted binding energy of -6.694 kcal/mol for 15, -7. Read More

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September 2021

Synthesis and biological evaluation of new 2-methoxyestradiol derivatives: Potent inhibitors of angiogenesis and tubulin polymerization.

Bioorg Chem 2021 08 13;113:104988. Epub 2021 May 13.

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100021,China.

Here, we report the structural optimization of a hit natural compound, 2-ME (2-methoxyestradiol), which exhibited inhibitory activity but low potency on tubulin polymerization, anti- angiogenesis, MCF-7 proliferation and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. A novel series of 3,17-modified and 17-modified analogs of 2-ME were synthesized and investigated for their antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 and another five different human cancer cell lines leading to the discovery of 9i. 9i bind to tubulin colchicine site tightly, inhibited tubulin polymerization and disrupted cellular microtubule networks. Read More

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Leishmania donovani chaperonin TCP1γ subunit protects miltefosine induced oxidative damage.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Dec 22;165(Pt B):2607-2620. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Biochemistry Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad 201002, India. Electronic address:

T-complex protein-1 (TCP1) is a chaperonin protein known to fold various proteins like actin and tubulin. In Leishmania donovani only one subunit of TCP1 that is gamma subunit (LdTCP1γ) has been functionally characterized. It not only performs ATP dependent protein folding but is also essential for survival and virulence. Read More

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December 2020

Phase III, randomized trial of mirvetuximab soravtansine versus chemotherapy in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer: primary analysis of FORWARD I.

Ann Oncol 2021 06 2;32(6):757-765. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, USA.

Background: Mirvetuximab soravtansine (MIRV) is an antibody-drug conjugate comprising a folate receptor alpha (FRα)-binding antibody, cleavable linker, and the maytansinoid DM4, a potent tubulin-targeting agent. The randomized, open-label, phase III study FORWARD I compared MIRV and investigator's choice chemotherapy in patients with platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).

Patients And Methods: Eligible patients with 1-3 prior lines of therapy and whose tumors were positive for FRα expression were randomly assigned, in a 2 : 1 ratio, to receive MIRV (6 mg/kg, adjusted ideal body weight) or chemotherapy (paclitaxel, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, or topotecan). Read More

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Analysis of the effects of Photodynamic therapy with Photodithazine on the treatment of 9l/lacZ cells, in vitro study.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Jun 24;34:102233. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Laboratory of Photobiology Applied to Health, University of Vale do Paraíba/Research and Development Institute, Avenida Shishima Hifumi, 2911, Urbanova, 12244-000, São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Gliosarcoma is an aggressive brain tumor. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is a treatment that can be used for various cancers of the CNS. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of PDT with Photodithazine (PDZ) in the treatment of gliosarcoma, using 9 L/lacZ cells and serial concentrations of 200 μg/mL to 3. Read More

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Analysis of m6A RNA Methylation-Related Genes in Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Their Correlation with Survival.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 2;22(3). Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification on RNA plays an important role in tumorigenesis and metastasis, which could change gene expression and even function at multiple levels such as RNA splicing, stability, translocation, and translation. In this study, we aim to conduct a comprehensive analysis on m6A RNA methylation-related genes, including m6A RNA methylation regulators and m6A RNA methylation-modified genes, in liver hepatocellular carcinoma, and their relationship with survival and clinical features. Data, which consist of the expression of widely reported m6A RNA methylation-related genes in liver hepatocellular carcinoma from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, Univariate Cox regression, a protein-protein interaction network, gene enrichment analysis, feature screening, a risk prognostic model, correlation analysis, and consensus clustering analysis. Read More

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February 2021

Activation of TRPV4 by mechanical, osmotic or pharmaceutical stimulation is anti-inflammatory blocking IL-1β mediated articular cartilage matrix destruction.

Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2021 01;29(1):89-99

Centre for Predictive In Vitro Models, School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, UK. Electronic address:

Objective: Cartilage health is maintained in response to a range of mechanical stimuli including compressive, shear and tensile strains and associated alterations in osmolality. The osmotic-sensitive ion channel Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is required for mechanotransduction. Mechanical stimuli inhibit interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mediated inflammatory signalling, however the mechanism is unclear. Read More

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January 2021

Chalcone Scaffolds as Anticancer Drugs: A Review on Molecular Insight in Action of Mechanisms and Anticancer Properties.

Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2021 ;21(13):1650-1670

Department of Chemistry, Sri Venkateswara College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110021, India.

Cancer is the deadliest disease worldwide and the development of safer chemical entities to treat cancer is one of the major challenges of medicinal chemistry. The emergence of new cases every year and the development of multiple drug resistance against available molecular entities have turned the focus of researchers towards natural products. Chalcones are pharmacologically active compounds, present in plants, which have been derivatized and screened by many researchers for the treatment of cancer. Read More

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January 2021

Synthesis and biological evaluation of oxazinonaphthalene-3-one derivatives as potential anticancer agents and tubulin inhibitors.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2020 Nov;23(11):1388-1395

Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Objectives: In the present study, a new series of oxazinonaphthalene-3-one analogs was designed and synthesized as novel tubulin inhibitors.

Materials And Methods: The cytotoxic activity of the synthesized compounds was evaluated against four human cancer cell lines including A2780 (human ovarian carcinoma), A2780/RCIS (cisplatin resistant human ovarian carcinoma), MCF-7 (human breast cancer cells), and MCF-7/MX (mitoxantrone resistant human breast cancer cells), those compounds which demonstrated the most antiproliferative activity in the MTT test were selected to investigate their tubulin inhibition activity and their effects on cell cycle arrest (at the G2/M phase). Moreover, molecular docking studies of the selected compounds in the catalytic site of tubulin (PDB ID: 4O2B) were carried out to describe the results of biological experiments. Read More

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November 2020

Anti-tumor efficacy of CKD-516 in combination with radiation in xenograft mouse model of lung squamous cell carcinoma.

BMC Cancer 2020 Nov 3;20(1):1057. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Laboratory of Medical Oncology, Cancer Research Institute, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Hypoxic tumors are known to be highly resistant to radiotherapy and cause poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. CKD-516, a novel vascular disrupting agent (VDA), mainly affects blood vessels in the central area of the tumor and blocks tubulin polymerization, thereby destroying the aberrant tumor vasculature with a rapid decrease in blood, resulting in rapid tumor cell death. Therefore, we evaluated the anti-tumor efficacy of CKD-516 in combination with irradiation (IR) and examined tumor necrosis, delayed tumor growth, and expression of proteins involved in hypoxia and angiogenesis in this study. Read More

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November 2020

Synthesis and evaluation of anticancer activities of 2- or 4-substituted 3-(-benzyltriazolylmethyl)-13α-oestrone derivatives.

J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 2021 Dec;36(1):58-67

Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary.

2- or 4-Substituted 3--benzyltriazolylmethyl-13α-oestrone derivatives were synthesised via bromination of ring A and subsequent microwave-assisted, Pd-catalysed C(sp)-P couplings. The antiproliferative activities of the newly synthesised brominated and phosphonated compounds against a panel of human cancer cell lines (A2780, MCF-7, MDA-MB 231) were investigated by means of MTT assays. The most potent compound, the 3--benzyltriazolylmethyl-4-bromo-13α-oestrone derivative exerted substantial selective cell growth-inhibitory activity against A2780 cell line with a submicromolar IC value. Read More

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December 2021

LRRC15 antibody-drug conjugates show promise as osteosarcoma therapeutics in preclinical studies.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 02 16;68(2):e28771. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.

Background: Osteosarcoma (OS), the most common bone tumor in children and adolescents, has high rates of metastasis leading to poor survival. Leucine-rich repeat containing 15 (LRRC15), a transmembrane protein whose expression is modulated by TGFβ, was recently shown to be highly expressed on the surface of OS tumor cells. Here, we evaluate a novel antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) targeting LRRC15 in OS human cell lines and murine xenografts. Read More

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February 2021

Synthesis and Evaluation of Cytotoxic Activity of Certain Benzo[h]chromene Derivatives.

Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2021 ;21(8):963-986

Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Benzo[h]chromenes attracted great attention because of their widespread biological activities, including anti-proliferate activity, and the discovery of novel effective anti-cancer agents is imperative.

Objective: The main objective was to synthesize new benzo[h]chromene derivatives and some reported derivatives, and then test all of them for their anti-cancer activities.

Methods: The structures of the newly synthesized derivatives were confirmed by elemental and spectral analysis (IR, Mass, H-NMR and C-NMR). Read More

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December 2021

9-PAN promotes tubulin- and ROS-mediated cell death in human triple-negative breast cancer cells.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2020 Nov 16;72(11):1585-1594. Epub 2020 Aug 16.

School of Biological Sciences, UM-DAE Centre for Excellence in Basic Sciences, University of Mumbai, Mumbai, India.

Objectives: To examine the antiproliferative effect of a rationally designed, novel noscapine analogue, 9-((perfluorophenyl)methylene) aminonoscapine, '9-PAN') on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line, and to elucidate the underlying mechanism of action.

Methods: The rationally designed Schiff base-containing compound, 9-PAN, was characterized using IR, NMR and mass spectra analysis. The effect of the compound on cell viability was studied using an MTT assay. Read More

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November 2020

Nucleotide Binding, Evolutionary Insights, and Interaction Partners of the Pseudokinase Unc-51-like Kinase 4.

Structure 2020 11 18;28(11):1184-1196.e6. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Institute for Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany; Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Structural Genomics Consortium, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 15, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany; German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) and Frankfurt Cancer Institute (FCI), 60596 Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Electronic address:

Unc-51-like kinase 4 (ULK4) is a pseudokinase that has been linked to the development of several diseases. Even though sequence motifs required for ATP binding in kinases are lacking, ULK4 still tightly binds ATP and the presence of the co-factor is required for structural stability of ULK4. Here, we present a high-resolution structure of a ULK4-ATPγS complex revealing a highly unusual ATP binding mode in which the lack of the canonical VAIK motif lysine is compensated by K39, located N-terminal to αC. Read More

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November 2020

Synthesis, biological evaluation, and modeling studies of 1,3-disubstituted cyclobutane-containing analogs of combretastatin A4.

J Mol Struct 2020 Jun 10;1210. Epub 2020 May 10.

Enamine Ltd. (www.enamine.net), Chervonotkatska Street 78, Kyiv 02094, Ukraine.

With the aim of circumventing the adverse /-isomerization of combretastatin A4 (CA4), a naturally occurring tumor-vascular disrupting agent, we designed novel CA4 analogs bearing 1,3-cyclobutane moiety instead of the -stilbene unit of the parent compound. The corresponding and cyclobutane-containing derivatives were prepared as pure diastereomers. The structure of the target compounds was confirmed by X-ray diffraction study. Read More

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The Antitumor Agent Ansamitocin P-3 Binds to Cell Division Protein FtsZ in .

Biomolecules 2020 04 30;10(5). Epub 2020 Apr 30.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, School of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

Ansamitocin P-3 (AP-3) is an important antitumor agent. The antitumor activity of AP-3 is a result of its affinity towards β-tubulin in eukaryotic cells. In this study, in order to improve AP-3 production, the reason for severe growth inhibition of the AP-3 producing strain WXR-24 under high concentrations of exogenous AP-3 was investigated. Read More

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Flavokawain A inhibits prostate cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis and regulating the glutamine metabolism pathway.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2020 Jul 4;186:113288. Epub 2020 Apr 4.

Department of Medical Analysis, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Ke Xue Road, Zhengzhou, China; Henan Key Laboratory of Targeting Therapy and Diagnosis for Critical Diseases, Zhengzhou University, Ke Xue Road, Zhengzhou, China. Electronic address:

Flavokawain A (FKA), a major chalcone in kava extracts, has exhibited anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects in the prostate cancer. However, the molecular mechanism of FKA remains unclear. In this study, FKA induces cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in a G2M phase to prostate cancer cells. Read More

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Apoptosis Activation in Thyroid Cancer Cells by Jatrorrhizine-Platinum(II) Complex via Downregulation of PI3K/AKT/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Pathway.

Med Sci Monit 2020 Apr 28;26:e922518. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Thyroid cancer, which is the most common endocrine cancer, has shown a drastic increase in incidence globally over the past decade. The present study investigated the thyroid cancer-inhibitory potential of jatrorrhizine-platinum(II) complex (JR-P(II) in vitro and in vivo. MATERIAL AND METHODS The JR-P(II)-mediated cytotoxicity in thyroid carcinoma cells was determined by using MTT assay. Read More

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Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of New Antitubulin Agents Containing 2-(3',4',5'-trimethoxyanilino)-3,6-disubstituted-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrothieno[2,3-]pyridine Scaffold.

Molecules 2020 Apr 7;25(7). Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e Biotecnologie, Università di Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy.

Two novel series of compounds based on the 4,5,6,7-tetrahydrothieno[2,3-]pyridine and 4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[]thiophene molecular skeleton, characterized by the presence of a 3',4',5'-trimethoxyanilino moiety and a cyano or an alkoxycarbonyl group at its 2- or 3-position, respectively, were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for antiproliferative activity on a panel of cancer cell lines and for selected highly active compounds, inhibition of tubulin polymerization, and cell cycle effects. We have identified the 2-(3',4',5'-trimethoxyanilino)-3-cyano-6-methoxycarbonyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrothieno[2,3-]pyridine derivative and its 6-ethoxycarbonyl homologue as new antiproliferative agents that inhibit cancer cell growth with IC values ranging from 1.1 to 4. Read More

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An albumin-bound drug conjugate of paclitaxel and indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase inhibitor for enhanced cancer chemo-immunotherapy.

Nanotechnology 2020 May 23;31(29):295101. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Despite the promising target of immunosuppressive enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) for cancer immunotherapy, IDO blockade monotherapy does not show significant benefit to cancer patients in the clinic. Recent research has focused on the combinatorial therapy of the IDO inhibitor and the immune checkpoint blockade or chemotherapy. Here, we synthesize a drug conjugate methyltryptophan-paclitaxel (MP) by linking the IDO inhibitor, D-1-methyltryptophan (D-1MT), to the chemotherapeutic agent, paclitaxel (PTX), through an ester bond. Read More

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Involvement of ER stress and reactive oxygen species generation in anti-cancer effect of CKD-516 for lung cancer.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2020 04 11;85(4):685-697. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: CKD-516 (Valecobulin), a vascular-disrupting agent, inhibits microtubule elongation. We evaluated the effect of CKD-516 on lung cancer cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms.

Methods: The effects of S516, an active metabolite of CKD-516, were evaluated in HUVECs and three lung cancer cell lines and by a microtubule polymerization assay. Read More

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