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Isotopic evidence for geographic heterogeneity in Ancient Greek military forces.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(5):e0248803. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.

Increased mobility and human interactions in the Mediterranean region during the eighth through fifth centuries BCE resulted in heterogeneous communities held together by political and cultural affiliations, periodically engaged in military conflict. Ancient historians write of alliances that aided the Greek Sicilian colony Himera in victory against a Carthaginian army of hired foreign mercenaries in 480 BCE, and the demise of Himera when it fought Carthage again in 409 BCE, this time unaided. Archaeological human remains from the Battles of Himera provide unique opportunities to test early written history by geochemically assessing the geographic origins of ancient Greek fighting forces. Read More

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Impact of Limited Dispersion Capacity and Natural Barriers on the Population Structure of the Grasshopper Ommexecha virens (Orthoptera: Ommexechidae).

Neotrop Entomol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Laboratório de Biodiversidade e Genética de Insetos, Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.

The grasshopper Ommexecha virens Serville has low dispersion capacity, and it is regarded as a specialist, only being found in sandy, dry environments with high incidence of sunlight. Considering these aspects, we evaluated the diversity and genetic structure of O. virens natural populations using ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeat) markers. Read More

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IL-23R gene polymorphisms in rheumatoid arthritis.

Rheumatol Int 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Pamukkale University Faculty of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common autoimmune disease in which many different genetic variants of functional gene polymorphisms may play a culprit role in the underlying pathogenetic mechanism. The recent studies suggest that interleukin-23 receptor (IL-23R) gene polymorphisms may increase susceptibility to the development of various autoimmune diseases. We aimed to examine the possible relationship of nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL-23R gene to susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis and their associations with disease characteristics in the South Aegean region of Turkey. Read More

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IL1A and IL1B gene polymorphisms and keratoconus susceptibility: evidence from an updated meta-analysis.

Ophthalmic Genet 2021 May 12:1-11. Epub 2021 May 12.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Resistant Tuberculosis Institute, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

: Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes have been associated with KTCN. However, the results of these studies were not conclusive. This meta-analysis association study is aimed to quantitatively estimate the association of ( and (), and () polymorphisms with KTCN susceptibility. Read More

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Effects of Trehalose on Lipid Membranes under Rapid Cooling using All-Atom and Coarse-Grained Molecular Simulations.

J Phys Chem B 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, United States.

We investigate the effect of the cryopreservative α-α-trehalose on a model 1,2-dimyristoyl--glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) lipid membrane undergoing cooling from 350 to 250 K using all-atom (AA) and coarse-grained (CG) molecular dynamics simulation. In the AA simulations, we find that the addition of trehalose alters the (liquid crystalline) to (ripple) phase transition, suppressing the major domain of the phase and increasing the degree of leaflet interdigitation (the minor domain) which yields a thinner membrane with a higher area per lipid. Calculation of dihedral angle distributions for the lipid tails shows a greater fraction of angles in the phase as trehalose concentration is increased, indicating that trehalose increases lipid disorder in the membrane. Read More

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Impact of heart failure drug therapy on rates of gastrointestinal bleeding in LVAD recipients: An INTERMACS analysis.

Int J Artif Organs 2021 May 12:3913988211013366. Epub 2021 May 12.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Introduction: Gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) remains a common and vexing complication of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support. Recent single-center analyses suggest that ACE inhibitors (ACEi)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) and digoxin may prevent GIB in LVAD patients. Here we evaluate the effect of guideline-directed medical therapies (GDMT) for heart failure (HF) on rates of GIB through analysis of the INTERMACS registry database. Read More

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Impact of DNA Adduct Size, Number, and Relative Position on the Toxicity of Aromatic Amines: A Molecular Dynamics Case Study of dG- and dG-Containing DNA Duplexes.

J Chem Inf Model 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Lethbridge, 4401 University Drive West, Lethbridge, AB T1K 3M4, Canada.

Human exposure to aromatic amines (AAs) can result in carcinogenic DNA adducts. To complement previous work geared toward understanding the mutagenicity of AA-derived adducts, which has almost exclusively studied (monoadducted) DNA containing a single lesion, the present work provides the first in-depth comparison of the structure of monoadducted and diadducted DNA duplexes. Specifically, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were initially performed on DNA containing the nonmutagenic single-ringed -(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-aniline (dG) or the mutagenic four-ringed -(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-1-aminopyrene (dG) lesion at G, G, or G in the AA deletion hotspot (5'-GGCGCC) in the or glycosidic orientation (B/S duplex conformation). Read More

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A Prospective Study of Predictors and Consequences of Hooking Up for Sexual Minority Women.

Arch Sex Behav 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Hooking up, which refers to a sexual encounter (ranging from kissing to penetrative sex) between individuals who are not in a committed relationship, is an increasingly normative form of sexual exploration among emerging adults. Past research has focused on hookups within a heteronormative context, and some of this work has examined hookups as a way to cope with distress. Building on this work, we examined the role of hookups as a means for lesbian and bisexual women to cope with minority stress through increasing connection and engagement with the LGBTQ (lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender/queer or questioning) community. Read More

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Free amino acid composition of saliva in patients with healthy periodontium and periodontitis.

Clin Oral Investig 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Acıbadem University, Ankara, Turkey.

Objectives: To identify and compare the free amino acids in the saliva of periodontitis patients and healthy individuals and to assess their levels in different periodontal disease types.

Materials And Methods: There were three groups: healthy individuals (control (C); n = 20), Stage III Grade B generalized periodontitis (GP-B; n = 20), and Stage III Grade C generalized periodontitis (GP-C; n = 20). Clinical periodontal parameters were measured. Read More

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Allelic variability of estrogen receptor (ESR) gene and its effect on litter traits of Doom pigs.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 May 12;53(2):316. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding, College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, Assam, 781022, India.

The present study was conducted to identify the polymorphism of estrogen receptor (ESR) gene and its biological association with litter traits (litter size at birth, litter size at weaning, litter weight at birth and litter weight at weaning) of Doom pigs native to Assam. A total of 50 adult pigs (12 males and 38 females) chosen randomly from three different herds (Herd I, Herd II, and Herd III) were utilized in the present study. Detection of polymorphism of ESR gene was done by means of PCR-RFLP method. Read More

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The Weight of HLA-DPA1 rs3077 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Prostate Cancer, a Multicenter Study.

Prostate Cancer 2021 21;2021:5539851. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafrelsheikh, Egypt.

Prostate cancer (PCa) has almost the highest genetic transmission that mimics an autosomal dominance hereditary pattern of cancers in some families. Its incidence in Arab countries was reported to be steadily increasing. . Read More

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Walnut Supplementation Restores the SIRT1-FoxO3a-MnSOD/Catalase Axis in the Heart, Promotes an Anti-Inflammatory Fatty Acid Profile in Plasma, and Lowers Blood Pressure on Fructose-Rich Diet.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 21;2021:5543025. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

VINČA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Laboratory for Radiobiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

The benefits of walnut () consumption for metabolic health are known, but the molecular background underlying their putative antioxidant and anti-inflammatory/immunomodulatory effects is underexplored. We assessed that walnut supplementation (6 weeks) reverted unfavorable changes of the SIRT1/FoxO3a/MnSOD/catalase axis in the heart induced by fructose-rich diet (FRD). Intriguingly, Nox4 was increased by both FRD and walnut supplementation. Read More

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Assessment of Knowledge and Attitudes of School Teachers Regarding Emergency Management of an Avulsed Permanent Tooth of Southern Region of Saudi Arabia.

Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2020 Nov-Dec;13(6):644-649

Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Najran University, Najran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Aim: An avulsion is defined as one of the most common dental injuries where the tooth is displaced completely from its socket, followed by trauma. The most important time in managing the avulsed tooth is the first few minutes and as children spend their most of waking time in school so the teacher is considering their immediate caregiver. Hence, this study was done to carry out the knowledge and attitude of school teachers regarding emergency management of avulsed permanent tooth in schools located in the southern region of Saudi Arabia. Read More

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Dynamic analysis of peripheral blood TCR β-chain CDR3 repertoire in occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis due to trichloroethylene.

Sci Rep 2021 May 11;11(1):9971. Epub 2021 May 11.

Medical Laboratory, Shenzhen Prevention and Treatment Center for Occupational Diseases, 2019 Buxin Rd., Luohu district, Shenzhen, 518020, China.

Previously, we had cross-sectionally explored the characteristics of T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires from occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis due to trichloroethylene (OMDT) patients, now we further analyzed the dynamic features of OMDT TCR repertoires. Peripheral blood TCR β-chain complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) genes were detected with the high throughput sequencing in 24 OMDT cases in their acute, chronic and recovery stages, respectively, and in 24 trichloroethylene-exposed healthy controls. The TCR repertoire diversity, TRBV/TRBD/TRBJ gene usage and combination, frequencies of CDR3 nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) sequences in the cases in different stages and in the controls were analyzed. Read More

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Mycobacteria Tolerate Carbon Monoxide by Remodeling Their Respiratory Chain.

mSystems 2021 May 11;6(3). Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Microbiology, Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia

Carbon monoxide (CO) gas is infamous for its acute toxicity. This toxicity predominantly stems from its tendency to form carbonyl complexes with transition metals, thus inhibiting the heme-prosthetic groups of proteins, including respiratory terminal oxidases. While CO has been proposed as an antibacterial agent, the evidence supporting its toxicity toward bacteria is equivocal, and its cellular targets remain poorly defined. Read More

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Prospective Case-Control Study of Cardiovascular Abnormalities 6 Months Following Mild COVID-19 in Healthcare Workers.

JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Barts Heart Centre, Barts Health NHS Trust, West Smithfield, London, United Kingdom; Institute of Cardiovascular Science, University College London, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to detect cardiovascular changes after mild severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection.

Background: Concern exists that mild coronavirus disease 2019 may cause myocardial and vascular disease.

Methods: Participants were recruited from COVIDsortium, a 3-hospital prospective study of 731 health care workers who underwent first-wave weekly symptom, polymerase chain reaction, and serology assessment over 4 months, with seroconversion in 21. Read More

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The impact of genetic risk on liver fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease as assessed by magnetic resonance elastography.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Division of Gastroenterology, NAFLD Research Center, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Background: Variants in multiple genetic loci modify the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cirrhosis but there are limited data on the quantitative impact of variant copies on liver fibrosis.

Aim: To investigate the effect of PNPLA3, TM6SF2, MBOAT7, GCKR and HSD17B13 genotype on liver fibrosis assessed by magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), a reproducible, accurate, continuous biomarker of liver fibrosis.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional analysis derived from a well-characterised cohort at risk for NAFLD who underwent genotyping and MRE assessment. Read More

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Dual lignin-derived polymeric systems for hazardous ion removals.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Apr 29;417:125970. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Green Processes Research Centre and Chemical Engineering Department, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, ON, Canada P7B5E1. Electronic address:

The functionalization of lignin derivatives for ion removals is a promising method to expedite their use in treating industrial wastewater. In this work, kraft lignin (KL) was polymerized with [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium methyl sulfate (METAM) or acrylic acid (AA) in an acidic aqueous suspension system to produce cationic and anionic water-soluble lignin polymers with high molecular weights. Then, the interaction of soluble ions and KL-METAM and KL-AA was investigated using a Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and a vertical scan analyzer (VSA). Read More

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Robust and double-layer micro-patterned bioadhesive based on silk nanofibril/GelMA-alginate for stroma tissue engineering.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran. Electronic address:

We develop a robust micro-patterned double-layer film that can adhere firmly to the tissue and provide a sustained release of ascorbic acid (AA) for corneal regeneration. This double-layer film consists of a AA reservoir sodium alginate (SA) adhesive and an anisotropic layer made of micro-patterned silk nanofibrils (SNF) incorporated gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) (S/G). The S/G layer facilitates the adhesion and orientation of corneal stroma cells, depending on the pattern sizes (50 μm (P1) and 100 (P2) μm). Read More

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African Americans With p16+ and p16- Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinomas Have Distinctly Poor Treatment Outcomes Independent of Medical Care Access.

JCO Oncol Pract 2021 May;17(5):e695-e702

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH.

Purpose: Human papilloma virus-positive (HPV+) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), diagnosed with p16 immunohistochemistry, is associated with favorable prognosis; however, this connection was established using European American (EA)-skewed populations. The impact of p16/human papillomavirus status on outcomes in African American (AA) OPSCC patients remains to be settled. In this study, we determine the association between cancer disparity and p16 status in an OPSCC cohort controlling for time to treatment initiation (TTI), a surrogate for medical care access. Read More

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Gene-gene Interactions of Gemcitabine Metabolizing-enzyme genes hCNT3 and WEE1 for Preventing Severe Gemcitabine-induced Hematological Toxicities.

J Clin Pharmacol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Pharmacy, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Most patients experience severe hematological toxicities during treatment with gemcitabine; thus, preventing such toxicities would improve the treatment effects and patients' quality of life. We analyzed 13 polymorphisms in the transporters, metabolizing enzymes, targets and genes involved in DNA damage and the folate pathway among 132 patients treated with gemcitabine and studied their association with the severity of the hematological toxicities. Single-locus analysis showed that the SNPs RRM1 rs12806698 and rs11031918 and DCTD rs7663494 were significantly associated with severe neutropenia; hENT1 rs760370, hCNT3 rs7867504 and rs4877831 were associated with severe leucopenia; CDA rs2072671, DCTD rs7663494 and WEE1 rs3910384 were associated with severe anemia; and MTHFR rs1801133 was associated with severe thrombocytopenia after stringent Bonferroni correction (P<0. Read More

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Human immunotypes impose selection on viral genotypes through viral epitope specificity.

J Infect Dis 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Centre for Genomic Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Understanding the genetic interplay between human hosts and infectious pathogens is crucial for how we interpret virulence factors. Here, we tested for associations between HIV and host genetics, and interactive genetic effects on viral load (VL) in HIV+ ART-naive clinical trial participants.

Methods: HIV genomes were sequenced and the encoded amino acid (AA) variants were associated with VL, human single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and imputed HLA alleles, using generalized linear models with Bonferroni correction. Read More

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Pesticides and lung function.

Authors:
Aalt Bast

Curr Opin Pulm Med 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Maastricht University, Campus Venlo, AA Venlo, The Netherlands.

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Sodium-containing versus sodium-trace preparations of IVIG for children with Kawasaki disease in the acute phase.

Eur J Pediatr 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Health Economics, School of Public Health, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis that most commonly causes acquired cardiac disease in children in developed countries. The most highly recommended treatment for KD is 2 g/kg intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). There are two types of IVIG, sodium-containing (high-Na) and sodium-trace (low-Na) preparations. Read More

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New freshwater mussels from two Southeast Asian genera Bineurus and Thaiconcha (Pseudodontini, Gonideinae, Unionidae).

Sci Rep 2021 May 10;11(1):8244. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mahasarakham University, Maha Sarakham, Thailand.

The Mekong and Chao Phraya rivers harbor a species-rich freshwater mussel assemblage containing a large radiation of the Pseudodontini species. Members of the genera Bineurus Simpson 1900 and Thaiconcha Bolotov et al., 2020 primarily inhabit small and medium-sized tributaries of these rivers. Read More

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[Antibacterial Prophylaxis in Children and Adolescents Undergoing Therapy for Cancer - Statement of the Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology (GPOH) and of the German Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases (DGPI) on Two Current International Guidelines].

Klin Padiatr 2021 May 10;233(3):101-106. Epub 2021 May 10.

Infectious Disease Research Program, Center for Bone Marrow Transplantation, Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, University Children's Hospital, Muenster, Muenster, Germany.

Immunocompromised children and adolescents receiving treatment for cancer have an increased risk for potentially life-threatening infectious complications such as blood stream infections with Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. Therefore, several centers for Pediatric Hematology and Oncology administer antibacterial prophylaxis to these patients to lower morbidity and mortality. Two pediatric specific guidelines on antibacterial prophylaxis were recently published. Read More

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Multi-layer graphene pirani pressure sensors.

Nanotechnology 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Microelectronics, Delft University of Technology, Feldmannweg 17, Delft, 2628CT, NETHERLANDS.

The operating principle of Pirani pressure sensors is based on the pressure dependence of a suspended strip's electrical conductivity, caused by the thermal conductance of the surrounding gas which changes the Joule heating of the strip. To realize such sensors, not only materials with high temperature dependent electrical conductivity are required, but also minimization of the suspended strip dimensions is essential to maximize the responsivity and minimize the power consumption. Due to this, nanomaterials are especially attractive for this application. Read More

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Novel luteolin sensor of tannic acid-stabilized copper nanoclusters with blue-emitting fluorescence.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Apr 30;259:119887. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

College of Arts, Taiyuan University of Technology, Jinzhong, 030600, Shanxi, China. Electronic address:

In this work, the fluorescent copper nanoclusters (Cu NCs) were firstly adopted to detect luteolin with excellent performance. The blue-emitting Cu NCs was successfully prepared through a facile one-pot approach by protection of tannic acid (TA) and chemical reduction of ascorbic acid (AA). The water-soluble nanoclusters possessed uniform size and displayed good stability. Read More

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High-throughput insertional mutagenesis reveals novel targets for enhancing lipid accumulation in Nannochloropsis oceanica.

Metab Eng 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Wageningen University, Bioprocess Engineering, PO Box 16, 6700 AA, Wageningen, Netherlands.

The microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica is considered a promising platform for the sustainable production of high-value lipids and biofuel feedstocks. However, current lipid yields of N. oceanica are too low for economic feasibility. Read More

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PDGF-PDGFR network differentially regulates, myogenic cell fate, migration, proliferation, and cell cycle progression.

Cell Signal 2021 May 7:110036. Epub 2021 May 7.

Departamento de Biología Celular y Molecular and Center for Aging and Regeneration (CARE-ChileUC), Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 8331150 Santiago, Chile; Fundación Ciencia & Vida, 7780272 Santiago, Chile.

Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) regulate embryonic development, tissue regeneration, and wound healing through their binding to PDGF receptors, PDGFRα and PDGFRβ. However, the role of PDGF signaling in regulating muscle development and regeneration remains elusive, and the cellular and molecular responses of myogenic cells are understudied. Here, we explore the PDGF-PDGFR gene expression changes and their involvement in skeletal muscle myogenesis and myogenic fate. Read More

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