1,177 results match your criteria [skull roof

Reconstruction of Anterior Skull Base Fracture Using Autologous Fractured Fragments: A Simple Stitching-Up Technique.

Korean J Neurotrauma 2021 Apr 14;17(1):25-33. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon, Korea.

Objective: A displaced fracture in the anterior cranial base may be complicated by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea and enophthalmos. This study introduces a reconstruction technique with direct dural repair and reduction and fixation of the autologous fractured fragments.

Methods: Displaced fractures in the anterior cranial base were reconstructed using a stitching-up technique: A bicoronal scalp incision and frontal craniotomy was performed and the displaced bone was withdrawn. Read More

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The Endonasal Endoscopic Management of Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea.

Cureus 2021 Feb 20;13(2):e13457. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, SAU.

Introduction Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea is the result of a bony defect at the skull base with disruption of the arachnoid, dura mater, and sinonasal mucosa that leads to an active CSF leak and flow of clear fluid from the nose. The endoscopic repair of CSF leaks and skull defects have been used by an increasing number of surgeons and is the standard of care for repairing CSF leaks. Materials and methods We conducted a retrospective study of all cases of CSF leaks managed via the endonasal endoscopic approach from 2010 to 2020 at a tertiary referral hospital of King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam (KFSH-D). Read More

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February 2021

Osteocutaneous radial forearm free flap for anterior cranial base reconstruction: Technical note.

Neurochirurgie 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Département de neurochirurgie, Hôpital Gui-de-Chauliac, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Montpellier, 80, avenue Augustin-Fliche, 34295 Montpellier cedex 5, France.

The reconstruction of anterior skull base defects after carcinologic surgery is challenging. Large defects can require the use of autologous free tissue transfer. Currently, most reconstructions use soft-tissue flaps. Read More

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Cesk Slov Oftalmol 2021 ;77(1):45-48

Orbital fractures may be accompanied with severe damage of the eye bulb and other intraorbital tissues. Early clinical findings can be very mild, therefore it is vital to actively seek not only for any damage done to the soft tissues of the orbit, but also for extraorbital complications such as liquorrhea or meningitis. We report a relatively rare case of blow-in fracture of orbital roof in eleven years old boy. Read More

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Gross and radiographic appearance of porotic hyperostosis and cribra orbitalia in thalassemia affected skulls.

Anat Cell Biol 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

Porotic hyperostosis (PH) is the expansion of the cranial diploë, generating 'hair-on-end' appearance on X-rays. This condition is extremely rare and had a prevalence of 0.08%. Read More

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Thermal Conductance Through the Skull Base From Endoscopic Surgery Cauterization Instruments: Cadaver and Goat Model.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2021 Mar 9:1945998211000372. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Tina and Rick Caruso Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Objective: Cauterization prevents hemorrhage and optimizes the surgical field during endoscopic sinus surgery but may cause injury to nearby structures. The objective of this study is to examine thermal conductance from cauterization equipment across the skull base.

Study Design: Cadaver and animal model. Read More

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A remarkable group of thick-headed Triassic Period archosauromorphs with a wide, possibly Pangean distribution.

J Anat 2021 Mar 3. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

The radiation of archosauromorph reptiles in the Triassic Period produced an unprecedented collection of diverse and disparate forms with a mix of varied ecologies and body sizes. Some of these forms were completely unique to the Triassic, whereas others were converged on by later members of Archosauromorpha. One of the most striking examples of this is with Triopticus primus, the early dome-headed form later mimicked by pachycephalosaurid dinosaurs. Read More

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Development of the chicken skull: A complement to the external staging table of Hamburger and Hamilton.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2021 Feb 23. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Earth Sciences, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Embryonic staging tables provide a standard of developmental stages that can be used by individual investigators and provide approximate time points for the study of developmental phenomena. Surprisingly, despite the presence of a plethora of studies on the chicken skull and its role as a model species in developmental research, a staging table of the development of the chicken skull remains lacking. A detailed photographic staging table of the osseous portion of the chicken skull is thus presented here based on cleared and stained HH stages spanning HH 35 (first appearance of skull ossification) to the final stage before hatching (HH 45). Read More

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February 2021

Morphometric analysis of the mandibular fossa in dentate and edentulous patients: A cone beam computed tomography study.

J Prosthet Dent 2021 May 17;125(5):758.e1-758.e7. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Professor, Department of Dentistry, Federal University of Juiz de Fora/Campus GV (UFJF/GV), Governador Valadares, MG, Brazil.

Statement Of Problem: Mandibular fossa roof thickness and lateral inclination could be associated with the presence of bone changes in the mandibular condyle in dentate and edentulous patients. However, literature regarding the relationship between the presence and absence of teeth and the morphologic features of the temporomandibular joint is lacking. This knowledge could provide a better understanding of changes affecting the correct functioning of the stomatognathic system. Read More

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Enophthalmos as a prognostic factor in blow-out fracture of the orbit. Retrospective study of over 700 cases.

Folia Med Cracov 2020 11;60(3):53-63

Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial, Oncological and Reconstructive Surgery, Jagiellonian University Medical College. University Hospital in Kraków, Poland.

The aim of the study was to determine the influence of posttraumatic enophthalmos in orbital blow-out fracture on the treatment results. The relationship between time from injury to treatment, type of surgical reconstruction, bone graft site, type of diplopia and treatment results were evaluated. The relationship between the location of the fracture and the degree of enophthalmos was also analyzed. Read More

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November 2020

Angio-anatomical study of the pterygovaginal artery based on cone-beam computed tomography.

Neuroradiology 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan.

Purpose: To investigate the anatomical characteristics and clinical implications of the pterygovaginal artery (PtVA), a recurrent branch from the distal internal maxillary artery (IMA), which courses through the pterygovaginal canal that connects the pterygopalatine fossa and nasopharynx.

Methods: Eighty-two patients with 90 sides of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) reconstructed from rotational angiography of the external or common carotid artery with a field of view covering the pterygopalatine fossa were retrospectively reviewed. The origin from the IMA, branching type, distribution, and anastomoses was evaluated. Read More

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February 2021

The feeding system of : an intermediate between suction feeding and biting.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Feb;118(7)

Department of Organismal Biology and Anatomy, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637;

Changes to feeding structures are a fundamental component of the vertebrate transition from water to land. Classically, this event has been characterized as a shift from an aquatic, suction-based mode of prey capture involving cranial kinesis to a biting-based feeding system utilizing a rigid skull capable of capturing prey on land. Here we show that a key intermediate, , was capable of cranial kinesis despite significant restructuring of the skull to facilitate biting and snapping. Read More

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February 2021

HeaDax: A simple pre-surgical procedure for localizing superficial brain lesions in resource-limited environments.

Ali Akhaddar

Surg Neurol Int 2020 22;11:461. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Neurosurgery, Avicenne Military Hospital of Marrakech and Mohammed V University in Rabat, Marrakech, Morocco.

Background: Intracranial convexity lesions are poorly defined by recognizable anatomical landmarks. Even in expert hands, exact localization of small subcortical lesion and its projection to the skull is sometimes unreliable and can cause potential surgical complications. In this report, a simple and handy technique for localizing superficial intracranial lesions on the scalp under computed tomography (CT)-scan guidance is described. Read More

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December 2020

Surgical treatment of enophthalmos in children and adolescents with pure orbital blowout fracture.

J Oral Sci 2021 Mar 28;63(2):129-132. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial, Oncological and Recontructive Surgery, Jagiellonian University Medical College, University Hospital in Cracow.

Purpose: This study evaluated outcomes of surgical treatment for enophthalmos after pediatric orbital blowout fracture. Associations of fracture type, fracture site, time from injury to treatment, and type of surgical procedure with treatment outcomes were assessed.

Methods: The medical records of 200 children and adolescents (38 girls and 162 boys) with orbital fractures treated in the authors' department from 1975 to 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. Read More

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Surgical Treatment and Visual Outcomes of Adult Orbital Roof Fractures.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2021 01;147(1):82e-93e

From the Division of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Maxillofacial Surgery, R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center; the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Johns Hopkins University; and the Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine.

Background: Fractures of the orbital roof require high-energy trauma and have been linked to high rates of neurologic and ocular complications. However, there is a paucity of literature exploring the association between injury, management, and visual prognosis.

Methods: The authors performed a 3-year retrospective review of orbital roof fracture admissions to a Level I trauma center. Read More

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January 2021

Radioanatomical study of the extended free nasal floor mucosal graft and its clinical applications.

Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol 2020 Dec 18;5(6):1011-1018. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine Universidad de Sevilla Sevilla Spain.

Objectives: To perform a radio-anatomical evaluation of the nasal cavity floor free mucosal graft (endonasal extended mucoplasty, EEM) to repair mucosal defects after an extended ethmoid-sphenoidotomy.

Methods: A human cadaveric study (radiological and anatomical dissection) and an in vivo study in surgical patients with CRSwNP were performed. The EEM areas were compared between 3D reconstruction from CT scans and anatomical/surgical dissections, both in cadaver specimens and in patients. Read More

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December 2020

[Orbital Compartment Syndrome Perhaps Secondary to Intra-Orbital Fluid Retention and Orbital/Palpebral Emphysema Following Frontotemporal Craniotomy for an Unruptured Cerebral Aneurysm:A Case Report].

No Shinkei Geka 2020 Dec;48(12):1129-1138

Department of Neurosurgery, National Hospital Organization Nagasaki Medical Center.

A 58-year-old woman underwent left frontotemporal craniotomy for clipping of an unruptured cerebral aneurysm. A small defect was accidentally created in the orbital roof intraoperatively. The patient developed left eyelid edema and ocular pain after recovery from anesthesia. Read More

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December 2020

Extreme evolutionary shifts in developmental timing establish the miniature Danionella as a novel model in the neurosciences.

Dev Dyn 2021 Apr 27;250(4):601-611. Epub 2020 Dec 27.

Sektionsleiter Ichthyologie, Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen, Dresden, Museum für Tierkunde, Dresden, Germany.

Background: Species of Danionella rank among the smallest of all vertebrates and their miniature size is correlated with an extreme case of progenesis, resulting in tiny, transparent sexually mature individuals. Progenesis has affected the entire skeleton of Danionella, in which 60 skeletal elements are absent, including some of the skull roofing bones. This lack of a skull roof combined with the presence of a fully formed hearing and sound producing apparatus has led to Danionella being used as an important model for neurophysiological studies. Read More

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A new ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaur from the Upper Jurassic (Early Tithonian) Kimmeridge Clay of Dorset, UK, with implications for Late Jurassic ichthyosaur diversity.

PLoS One 2020 9;15(12):e0241700. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

School of the Environment, Geography and Geosciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom.

A new ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaur, Thalassodraco etchesi gen. et sp. nov. Read More

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January 2021

First evidence of convergent lifestyle signal in reptile skull roof microanatomy.

BMC Biol 2020 11 30;18(1):185. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity Science, Berlin, Germany.

Background: The study of convergently acquired adaptations allows fundamental insight into life's evolutionary history. Within lepidosaur reptiles-i.e. Read More

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November 2020

Preventable fatal injury during rally race: a multidisciplinary approach.

Int J Legal Med 2021 May 25;135(3):893-901. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Radiology Section, DIBIMED, University of Palermo, Via del Vespro 129, 90127, Palermo, Italy.

Introduction: The motor vehicle crash (MVC) constitutes an important challenge for forensic pathology in order to identify the manner and cause of death. Our study focuses on a fatal accident during a rally race corresponding to MVC sub-category.

Materials And Method: Postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) was performed before the conventional autopsy. Read More

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Variability associated with mandibular buccal shelf area width and height in subjects with different growth pattern, sex, and growth status.

Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2021 Jan 18;159(1):59-70. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Division of Orthodontics, University of Connecticut Health, Farmington, Conn. Electronic address:

Introduction: The primary objective of the study was to quantitatively analyze the width and height of the mandibular buccal shelf area (MBS) at 3 different potential locations for mini-implant placement. In addition, we aimed to compare and contrast the bone parameters of the MBS to study the correlation between different growth status (growing or nongrowing), facial types (hypodivergent, normodivergent, and hyperdivergent), and sex differences (male or female).

Methods: In this retrospective cone-beam computed tomography study, 678 subjects were included. Read More

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January 2021

Orbital Roof Blowout Fracture With an Intact Orbital Rim: A Case Report.

Eplasty 2020 9;20:e13. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Neurosurgery, Inha University Hospital, Incheon, Korea.

Fractures of the orbital roof not associated with fractures of the orbital rim are unusual. We describe the case of a blowout fracture of the orbital roof with an intact orbital rim, which was found after craniotomy for removal of epidural hematoma. A 64-year-old man was referred to our emergency department from a local hospital. Read More

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November 2020

It takes two: Building the vertebrate skull from chondrocranium and dermatocranium.

Vertebr Zool 2020 Apr 28;70(4):587-600. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Anthropology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA.

In most modern bony vertebrates, a considerable portion of the chondrocranium remains cartilaginous only during a relatively small window of embryonic development, making it difficult to study this complex structure. Yet, the transient nature of some chondrocranial elements is precisely why it is so intriguing. Since the chondrocranium has never been lost in any vertebrate, its function is critical to craniofacial development, disease, and evolution. Read More

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Study of risk factors, clinical spectrum, and outcome for head injury in pediatric age group in Western India.

Afr J Paediatr Surg 2020 Jan-Jun;17(1-2):26-32

Department of General Surgery, Lokmanya Tilak Municipal General Hospital and Medical College, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Aim: To study various risk factors which leads to head injury, severity of head injury and to compare survival as predicted by the Revised Trauma Score (RTS) and Pediatric Trauma Score (PTS) in pediatric patients admitted in a tertiary care hospital.

Methods: 300 consecutive pediatric patients below 12 years of age with head injury admitted in our institute were analysed as per a set proforma. Data pertaining to patient's demographic details, mode of injury, computed tomography (CT) findings, type of management, severity of head injury, and outcome were recorded. Read More

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Tension Pneumocephalus in a Tracheostomized, Chronically Ventilated, Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy Patient Without Prior Head Trauma.

Cureus 2020 Sep 11;12(9):e10389. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Internal Medicine, Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Port Jefferson, USA.

Tension pneumocephalus is a rare condition that can be a life-threatening neurosurgical emergency. It usually results from head trauma, but there have been case reports of iatrogenic causes including on non-invasive mechanical ventilation. We report a case of pneumocephalus resulting from high mechanical ventilation pressures in a patient without prior head trauma. Read More

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September 2020

Mouth magnetoencephalography: A unique perspective on the human hippocampus.

Neuroimage 2021 01 12;225:117443. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Wellcome Centre for Human Neuroimaging, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, University College London, 12 Queen Square, London WC1N 3AR, UK.

Traditional magnetoencephalographic (MEG) brain imaging scanners consist of a rigid sensor array surrounding the head; this means that they are maximally sensitive to superficial brain structures. New technology based on optical pumping means that we can now consider more flexible and creative sensor placement. Here we explored the magnetic fields generated by a model of the human hippocampus not only across scalp but also at the roof of the mouth. Read More

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January 2021

Growing skull fractures of the orbital roof: a multicentric experience with 28 patients.

Childs Nerv Syst 2021 Apr 7;37(4):1209-1217. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Neurosurgery Department Faculty of Medicine , Tanta University , 31527, Tanta, Egypt.

Background: Growing skull fracture (GSF) is a rare condition that may complicate pediatric head trauma. Patients may present with delayed-onset neurological manifestations.

Aim: This study aims to highlight the different presentations, methods of evaluation, treatment modalities, and outcomes in patients with orbital roof GSF. Read More

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Estimation of the ethmoid roof depth and length of lateral lamella of the cribriform plate, upper attachment of the uncinate process and anterior ethmoid artery in multiplanar reconstructions of Computed Tomography.

Pol Przegl Chir 2020 Jun;92(5):1-5

Medical Center Diagnostyka, Bialystok, Poland.

The aim is to assess the relationship of Anterior Ethmoid Artery with the Upper Attachment of the Uncinate Process and their relation with the Lateral Lamella of the Cribriform Plate in multiplanar reconstructions (i.e. coronal, axial and sagittal) of Computed Tomography. Read More

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