538,829 results match your criteria [recent review


Therapeutic aspects of bile acid signalling in the gut-liver axis.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Bile acids are important endocrine modulators of intestinal and hepatic signalling cascades orchestrating critical pathophysiological processes in various liver diseases. Increasing knowledge on bile acid signalling has stimulated the development of synthetic ligands of nuclear bile acid receptors and other bile acid analogues.

Aim: This review summarises important aspects of bile acid-mediated crosstalk between the gut and the liver ("gut-liver axis") as well as recent findings from experimental and clinical studies. Read More

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September 2021

Accelerating drug access from advanced to early breast cancer: the special case of oral selective estrogen receptor degraders.

Curr Opin Oncol 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Division of Medical Oncology & Hematology, Department of Medicine, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada University of New South Wales, Kensington, New South Wales, Australia.

Purpose Of Review: For hormone receptor positive breast cancer, the development of endocrine resistance commonly occurs, presenting as either disease progression in the metastatic setting or recurrence during or following adjuvant endocrine therapy. Various mechanisms of resistance have been described. In order to reduce or overcome endocrine resistance, there has been substantial interest in developing potent and orally bioavailable selective estrogen receptor degraders (SERDs) for metastatic disease and select patients with early-stage estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. Read More

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September 2021

How to determine limiting velocities of dislocations in anisotropic crystals.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. BOX 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 87545, UNITED STATES.

In the continuum limit, the theory of dislocations in crystals predicts a divergence in the elastic energy of the host material at a crystal geometry dependent limiting (or critical) velocity v_c. Explicit expressions for v_c are scattered throughout the literature and are available in analytic form only for special cases with a high degree of symmetry. The fact that in some cases (like pure edge dislocations in fcc) v_c happens to coincide with the lowest shear wave speed of a sound wave traveling parallel to the dislocation's gliding direction has led to further confusion in the more recent literature. Read More

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September 2021

Nanomaterial-based aptasensors as an efficient substitute for cardiovascular disease diagnosis: Future of smart biosensors.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Sep 7;193:113617. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

National Agri-Food Biotechnology Institute (NABI), S.A.S. Nagar, Punjab, 140306, India. Electronic address:

As a major cause of deaths in developed countries, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been a big burden for human health systems. Its early and rapid detection is crucial to efficiently apply appropriate on time therapy and to ultimately reduce the associated mortality rate. Aptamers, known as single-stranded DNA/RNA or oligonucleotides containing receptors and/or catalytic properties, have been widely employed in biodetection platforms due to their beneficial properties. Read More

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September 2021

Impression (mis)management: When what you say is not what they hear.

Authors:
Ovul Sezer

Curr Opin Psychol 2021 Aug 26;44:31-37. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Columbia Business School, Columbia University, USA. Electronic address:

Impression management is a fundamental aspect of social life. From self-promotion to feedback giving, from advice seeking to networking, people frequently find themselves in situations where they need to make a positive impression on others. Despite the long-term benefits of making a favorable impression, impression management attempts can backfire in unintended ways. Read More

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Phloem anatomy and function as shaped by the cell wall.

J Plant Physiol 2021 Sep 16;266:153526. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Division of Plant Science and Technology, Interdisciplinary Plant Group, The Missouri Maize Center, University of Missouri,Columbia, MO, 65211, USA; Division of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, 65211, USA. Electronic address:

The partitioning of assimilated carbon is a complex process that involves the loading, long-distance transport, and subsequent unloading of carbohydrates from source to sink tissues. The network of plumbing that facilitates this coordinated process is the phloem tissue. Our understanding of the physiology of phloem transport has grown tremendously since the modern theory of mass flow was first put forward, aided by the concomitant progress of technology and experimental methodologies. Read More

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September 2021

Social media and its impact on healthcare.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Nationwide Children's Hospital and The Ohio State University College of Medicine; Division of Allergy and Immunology. Electronic address:

Objective: Social media has fundamentally changed how the world shares and receives information. This review offers perspective for the practicing clinician regarding how patients are being influenced by their online interactions as well as considerations for proactively discussing medical decision making with patients.

Data Sources: Literature search of PubMed database and online published market research data surrounding social media use. Read More

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September 2021

Dysregulated N6-methyladenosine (mA) processing in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Ann Hepatol 2021 Sep 20:100538. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

The Department of Medical Genetics, Naval Medical University, Shanghai, 200433, China.. Electronic address:

N6-methyladenosine (mA) is the most thoroughly studied type of internal RNA modification, as this epigenetic modification is the most abundant in eukaryotic RNAs to date. This modification occurs in various types of RNAs and plays significant roles in dominant RNA-related processes, such as translation, splicing, export and degradation. These processes are catalyzed by three types of prominent enzymes: writers, erasers and readers. Read More

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September 2021

Road map to the treatment of neglected tropical diseases: Nanocarriers interventions.

J Control Release 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy & Technology Management, SVKM's NMIMS (Deemed to be University), Mumbai 400056, India. Electronic address:

Neglected tropical disease (NTD) is a set of 20 deadliest endemic diseases which shows its presence in most of the developing countries worldwide. Nearly 1 billion of the population are affected by it and suffered from poverty yearly. These diseases offer their own unique challenges and limitations towards effective prevention and treatment methods. Read More

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September 2021

Antibiotic Resistance in Dermatology: The Scope of the Problem and Strategies to Address It.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Center for Clinical Studies, Houston, TX, USA; McGovern Medical School at UTHealth, Department of Dermatology, Houston, TX, USA.

Antibiotic resistance is a growing health concern that has attracted increasing attention from clinicians and scientists in recent years. While resistance is an inevitable consequence of bacterial evolution and natural selection, misuse and overuse of antibiotics plays a significant role in its acceleration. Antibiotics are the mainstay of therapy for common dermatoses, including acne and rosacea, as well as skin and soft tissue infections. Read More

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September 2021

Metabolic engineering of microbes for monoterpenoid production.

Biotechnol Adv 2021 Sep 20:107837. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

State Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Key Laboratory of Industrial Fermentation Microbiology of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Industrial Microbiology, College of Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, No. 29 the 13th Street TEDA, Tianjin 300457, PR China. Electronic address:

Monoterpenoids are an important class of natural products that are derived from the condensation of two five‑carbon isoprene subunits. They are widely used for flavouring, fragrances, colourants, cosmetics, fuels, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals in various industries. They can also serve as precursors for the production of many industrially important products. Read More

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September 2021

Recent advances in the highly sensitive determination of zearalenone residues in water and environmental resources with electrochemical biosensors.

Environ Res 2021 Sep 20:112082. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center of Efficient Processing and Utilization of Forest Resources, International Innovation Center for Forest Chemicals and Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, 210037, China. Electronic address:

Zearalenone (ZEN), a significant class of mycotoxin which is considered as a xenoestrogen, permits, similar to natural estrogens, it's binding to the receptors of estrogen resulting in various reproductive diseases especially, hormonal misbalance. ZEN has toxic effects on human and animal health as a result of its teratogenicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, nephrotoxicity, genotoxicity, and immunotoxicity. To ensure water and environmental resources safety, precise, rapid, sensitive, and reliable analytical and conventional methods can be progressed for the determination of toxins such as ZEN. Read More

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September 2021

An overview of the fatty acid biosynthesis in the protozoan parasite Leishmania and its relevance as a drug target against leishmaniasis.

Mol Biochem Parasitol 2021 Sep 20:111416. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi, 110021, India. Electronic address:

Leishmaniasis is one of the fast-growing parasitic diseases worldwide. The treatment of this fatal disease presents a daunting challenge because of its adverse effects, necessity for long-term treatment regime, unavailability of functional drugs, emergence of drug resistance and the related expenditure. This calls for an urgent need for novel drugs and the evaluation of new targets. Read More

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September 2021

The Gut Microbiome and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

Annu Rev Med 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; email:

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) arise from a convergence of genetic risk, environmental factors, and gut microbiota, where each is necessary but not sufficient to cause disease. Emerging evidence supports a bidirectional relationship between disease progression and changes in microbiota membership and function. Thus, the study of the gut microbiome and host-microbe interactions should provide critical insights into disease pathogenesis as well as leads for developing microbiome-based diagnostics and interventions for IBD. Read More

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September 2021

Working from within: how secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor regulates the expression of pro-inflammatory genes.

Biochem Cell Biol 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

University of Manitoba, 8664, Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Science, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada;

Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) is a small but powerful member of the serine protease inhibitor family, which includes proteins such as elafin and alpha1 anti-trypsin. These proteins all have similar structure and antiprotease abilities, but SLPI has been found to have an additional role as an anti-inflammatory factor. It can inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, prevent neutrophil infiltration in murine models of lung and liver injury, and regulate the activity of the transcription factor NF-κB. Read More

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September 2021

Stem cell-based and mesenchymal stem cell derivatives for coronavirus treatment.

Biotechnol Appl Biochem 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of biology, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as one of the diseases pneumonia was first reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019. COVID-19 is considered the third most common coronavirus among individuals after acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) in the 20 century. Many studies have shown that cell therapy and regenerative medicine approaches have an impressive effect on different dangerous diseases in a way that using a cell-based experiment could be effective for improving humans with severe acute respiratory infections caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus. Read More

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September 2021

Regenerative potential of Stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles in spinal cord injury (SCI).

Curr Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Centre for Stem Cell Research, a unit of inStem Bengaluru, CMC Rehab Campus Bagayam, Christian Medical College Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632002, India.

Spinal cord injury is a devastating condition that is critically challenging and progressive, needing immediate medical attention due to its complex pathophysiology and affecting the social status and economic burden. Stem cell therapy has been the emerging therapeutic trend to treat various diseases for decades. Mesenchymal stem cells pose more advantages over other stem cells in immune-modulation, immune evasiveness, self-renewal, multipotency, etc. Read More

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September 2021

A Review of Recent Advances in Nanomaterial-based Stem Cell Therapy and the Corresponding Risks.

Curr Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 Jul 18. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of Breast Surgery, Southwest Hospital, Army Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China.

Stem cell therapy is widely regarded as a promising strategy in regenerative medicine, yet the therapeutic effects of stem cells in vivo are limited by many factors when applied without additional factors, such as poor cell engraftment, uncontrolled differentiation, and unclear cell fates and niches. The emergence of nanotechnology has provided several solutions for these problems. Nanomaterial-based cell labeling and tracking have been extensively investigated in recent decades, and many innovative and multifunctional nanomaterials have been used to reveal the fate of stem cells, allowing more efficient, sensitive, and accurate imaging/tracking strategies for stem cells to be achieved. Read More

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Comparison of Clinical Outcomes and Complications Between Percutaneous Endoscopic and Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Degenerative Lumbar Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Pain Physician 2021 Sep;24(6):441-452

Department of Orthopedics, Clinical Medical College of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China.

Background: Percutaneous endoscopic transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (PE-TLIF) has been increasingly used to treat degenerative lumbar disease in recent years. However, there are still controversies about whether PE-TLIF is superior to minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF).

Objectives: To compare clinical outcomes and complications of PE-TLIF and MIS-TLIF in treating degenerative lumbar disease. Read More

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September 2021

Biologia Futura: the importance of 3D organoids-a new approach for research on neurological and rare diseases.

Biol Futur 2021 Sep 10;72(3):281-290. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, 06100, Turkey.

3D cell cultures and organoid approach are increasingly being used for basic research and drug discovery of several diseases. Recent advances in these technologies, enabling research on tissue-like structures created in vitro is very important for the value of the data produced. Application of 3D cultures will not only contribute to advancing basic research, but also help to reduce animal usage in biomedical science. Read More

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September 2021

Trends in science: successes and responsible research conduct.

Authors:
Indira Nath

Biol Futur 2021 Jun 31;72(2):161-167. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Former Senior Professor, Department of Biotechnology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, 707 Sarvapriya Apartments, Sarvapriya, Vihar, New Delhi, 110029, India.

Science, particularly in life sciences and biotechnologies, is continuing to make remarkable progress in the past decade. This has been possible due to the governments and people recognizing that scientific discoveries bring development and prosperity to the nation. The new trend in research is to collaborate across disciplines with large teams of participants across the globe. Read More

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Biologia Futura: integrating freshwater ecosystem health in water resources management.

Biol Futur 2020 Dec 5;71(4):337-358. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS), Platz der Vereinten Nationen 1, 53113, Bonn, Germany.

Sustainable water use implies the simultaneous protection of water quality and quantity. Beyond their function to support human needs such as drinking water provision, transportation and recreation freshwater bodies are also habitats. Conceiving them as water users on their own with respective biological, physico-chemical and morphological requirements could help maintaining their healthy state. Read More

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December 2020

A Review of Interventional Trials in Youth-Onset Type 2 Diabetes: Challenges and Opportunities.

Diabetes Ther 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Introduction: In recent decades, the dramatic rise of obesity among youth in the US has been accompanied by a rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in this population. This alarming trend underscores the importance of conducting trials to evaluate new therapies in children with T2D.

Methods: A targeted review of peer-reviewed literature and trials registered on www. Read More

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September 2021

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) immunotherapy: basic principles, current advances, and future prospects in neuro-oncology.

Immunol Res 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, 81377, Munich, Germany.

With recent advances, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) immunotherapy has become a promising modality for patients with refractory cancer diseases. The successful results of CAR T cell therapy in relapsed and refractory B-cell malignancies shifted the paradigm of cancer immunotherapy by awakening the scientific, clinical, and commercial interest in translating this technology for the treatment of solid cancers. This review elaborates on fundamental principles of CAR T cell therapy (development of CAR construct, challenges of CAR T cell therapy) and its application on solid tumors as well as CAR T cell therapy potential in the field of neuro-oncology. Read More

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September 2021

The Status of Adjuvant and Neoadjuvant Melanoma Therapy, New Developments and Upcoming Challenges.

Target Oncol 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Dermatology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany.

The global incidence of malignant melanoma, the leading cause of skin cancer death, has steadily increased in recent years. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for early-stage melanoma. However, 40-60% of patients with high-risk melanoma or with nodal involvement eventually experience loco-regional relapse or tumor progression. Read More

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September 2021

Emergence of 2-Pyrone and Its Derivatives, from Synthesis to Biological Perspective: An Overview and Current Status.

Top Curr Chem (Cham) 2021 Sep 23;379(6):38. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Chemistry, University of Sahiwal, Sahiwal, 57000, Pakistan.

Pyrone moieties are present in natural products and can be synthesized by a diverse range of synthetic methods, resulting in the formation of various derivatives through chemical modifications. Many pyrone-based derivatives are commercially available and are biocompatible. They are building blocks of various intermediates in organic synthesis. Read More

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September 2021

Risk of venous thromboembolism associated with Janus kinase inhibitors for rheumatoid arthritis: case presentation and literature review.

Clin Rheumatol 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Divsion of Cardiology, Japanese Red Cross Kumamoto Hospital, Kumamoto, Japan.

Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors have been developed as disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Despite the positive therapeutic impacts of JAK inhibitors, concerns have been raised regarding the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). A recent post hoc safety analysis of placebo-controlled trials of JAK inhibitors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) reported an imbalance in the incidence of VTE for a 4-mg daily dose of baricitinib versus placebo. Read More

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September 2021

A Systematic Review on Occurrence and Ecotoxicity of Organic UV Filters in Aquatic Organisms.

Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Regulatory Toxicology Group, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, India.

The growing production of cosmetic products such as organic UV filters (OUVFs) in recent years has raised concern regarding their safety to human and environmental health. The inability of wastewater treatment plants in removing these chemical entities and their high octanol-water partition coefficient values tend to result in the persistence of OUVFs in several environmental matrices, leading these to be categorized as "emerging environmental contaminants" because of their unknown risk. Besides aquatic ecosystem contamination, the application of sludge disposal equally threatens terrestrial biota. Read More

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September 2021

Does visuospatial motion perception correlate with coexisting movement disorders in Parkinson's disease?

J Neurol 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Postural instability and balance impairment are common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Multiple factors, such as increased tone, bradykinesia, freezing of gait, posture, axial stiffness, and involuntary appendicular movements, can affect balance. The recent studies found that PD patients have abnormal perception of self-motion in vestibular domain. Read More

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September 2021

Updated pathology reporting standards for bladder cancer: biopsies, transurethral resections and radical cystectomies.

World J Urol 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine and Urology, University of Tennessee Health Science, Memphis, TN, USA.

Aim: Optimal management of bladder cancer requires an accurate, standardised and timely pathological diagnosis, and close communication between surgeons and pathologists. Here, we provide an update on pathology reporting standards of transurethral resections of the bladder and cystectomies.

Methods: We reviewed recent literature, focusing on developments between 2013 and 2021. Read More

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September 2021