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Genetic profiles of subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma and clinicopathological impact of HAVCR2 mutations.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Seoul National University Cancer Research Institute, Korea, Republic of.

Recent studies identified germline mutations in HAVCR2 (encoding TIM-3) as a genetic factor that predisposes to subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPTCL). However, the differences between HAVCR2-mutated (HAVCR2MUT) and HAVCR2-wild-type (HAVCR2WT) SPTCLs remain unclear. A nationwide cohort of 53 SPTCL patients diagnosed at eight Korean institutions was established. Read More

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September 2021

Functional laryngectomy for the dysfunctional larynx: indications and outcomes in setting of prior chemoradiotherapy.

Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To review the recent literature on indications for and functional outcomes following laryngectomy for severe laryngeal dysfunction.

Recent Findings: The use of functional laryngectomy as a definitive treatment for severe laryngeal dysfunction is increasing as more patients with head and neck cancer are treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy. Data are emerging on the efficacy of this technique as measured by aspiration, recurrent pneumonias, enteral tube feeding dependence, and surgical complication rates. Read More

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September 2021

Psychological and social risk factors associated with development of psychopathology, controlling for biological influence.

Curr Opin Psychiatry 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of neuroscience, Child and adolescent psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Drs Johan Isaksson and Vendela Zetterqvist contributed equally to this study.

Purpose Of The Review: To evaluate and summarize recent research investigating psychological, social and environmental risk factors for development of psychopathology in childhood, while controlling for biological (genetic) influences by using a matched sibling, twin or adoptee design.

Recent Findings: Nineteen studies were included, of which eleven were longitudinal and eight were cohort studies. Included studies used adequate designs and statistical methods, controlled for unmeasured confounders and, in many cases, for other measured risk factors. Read More

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September 2021

Management of acute kidney injury associated with Covid-19: what have we learned?

Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Critical Care, Royal Surrey Hospital, Surrey, UK Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA Department of Clinical & Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Surrey, Surrey, UK.

Purpose Of Review: Although initially kidney involvement in COVID-19 infection was felt to occur relatively infrequently, this has proved not to be the case. In critically ill patients with COVID-19, multiorgan failure including acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and is associated with an increased risk of mortality and morbidity. This review focuses briefly on the epidemiology and pathophysiology of COVID-19 associated AKI as well as options for management. Read More

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September 2021

The pleiotropic cardiovascular effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors.

Curr Opin Cardiol 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, US.

Purpose Of Review: Throughout the history of medicine, scientists and clinicians have observed unanticipated drug effects leading at times to an entirely new use for a drug class, and other times eliminating them from practice. The sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are one such class of drugs. These agents were initially studied as diabetic agents and their unanticipated and significant cardiovascular benefit has now created a new class of drugs for an entirely new population. Read More

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September 2021

Ischemic mitral regurgitation: when should one intervene?

Curr Opin Cardiol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Division of Cardiac Surgery, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, University Heart Center Freiburg, Bad Krozingen, Germany Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Department of Cardiac Surgery, Smidt Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Optimal timing of intervention for ischemic mitral regurgitation remains to be elucidated. This review summarizes the data on the management of ischemic mitral regurgitation, and their implications on current practice and future research.

Recent Findings: Mechanistically, ischemic mitral regurgitation can present as Type I, Type IIIb or mixed Type I and IIIb disease. Read More

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September 2021

Definitions of acute renal dysfunction: an evolving clinical and biomarker paradigm.

Curr Opin Crit Care 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Critical Care, King's College London, Guy's & St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital The National Taiwan University Study Group on Acute Renal Failure, Taipei, Taiwan Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Pavlov First Saint-Petersburg State Medical University, Saint Petersburg, Russia Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine and Excellence Center in Critical Care Nephrology, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital Research Unit in Critical Care Nephrology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Purpose Of Review: The current definition and classification of acute kidney injury (AKI) has limitations and shortcomings, which impact clinical management. The aim of this review is to highlight recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology and epidemiology of AKI, which impacts management and offers opportunities.

Recent Findings: Kidney damage varies according to the type of primary insult, secondary effects and mitigating responses and leads to distinct molecular, cellular and functional changes. Read More

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September 2021

Advanced cardiac life support: lessons from recent trials on how to move forward.

Curr Opin Crit Care 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA Anaesthetics Department, Southmead Hospital, North Bristol NHS Trust, Bristol, UK.

Purpose Of Review: This review discusses potential reasons why many recent large trials in advanced cardiac life support have failed to demonstrate a difference in outcomes and suggests some points for consideration in planning future trials.

Recent Findings: The ARREST trial, a small controlled trial studying the effect of intra-arrest extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO, or E-CPR) on survival and functional outcome in patients with refractory ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest, was stopped after 30 patients for benefit. This stands in contrast to several recent trials enrolling up to several thousand patients and finding no difference. Read More

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September 2021

Postresuscitation care and prognostication.

Curr Opin Crit Care 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Warwick Clinical Trials Unit, University of Warwick Royal United Hospital, Bath, UK Center for Resuscitation Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Most patients who are successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest are initially comatose and require mechanical ventilation and other organ support in an ICU. Knowledge about the optimal strategy for treating these patients is evolving rapidly. This review will summarize the evidence on key aspects of postarrest care and prognostication, with a focus on actionable parameters that may impact patient survival and neurologic outcomes. Read More

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September 2021

Perioperative renal protection.

Curr Opin Crit Care 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, University of Muenster, Muenster, Germany.

Purpose Of Review: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common but underestimated syndrome in the perioperative setting. AKI can be induced by different causes and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, no specific treatment options are available at the moment. Read More

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September 2021

Postpartum permanent contraception: updates on policy and access.

Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Division of Family Planning Services & Research, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To describe barriers to provision of postpartum permanent contraception at patient, hospital, and insurance levels.

Recent Findings: Permanent contraception remains the most commonly used form of contraception in the United States with the majority of procedures performed during birth-hospitalization. Many people live in regions with a high Catholic hospital market share where individual contraceptive plans may be refused based on religious doctrine. Read More

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September 2021

Host genetics of pediatric SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Division of Rheumatology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio Division of Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review is meant to describe the genetic associations with pediatric severe COVID-19 pneumonia and the postinfectious complication of the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Multiple genetic approaches have been carried out, primarily in adults with extrapolation to children, including genome-wide association studies (GWAS), whole exome and whole genome sequencing (WES/WGS), and target gene analyses.

Recent Findings: Data from adults with severe COVID-19 have identified genomic regions (human leukocyte antigen locus and 3p21. Read More

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September 2021

Dose optimisation of antibiotics used for meningitis.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of Queensland, Herston School of Medicine and Dentistry, Griffith University, Southport Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia Division of Anaesthesiology Critical Care Emergency and Pain Medicine, Nîmes University Hospital, University of Montpellier, Nîmes, France.

Purpose Of Review: Central nervous system (CNS) infections such as ventriculitis and meningitis are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In part, this may be due to increased difficulties in achieving a therapeutic antibiotic concentration at the site of infection due to both the pharmacokinetic (PK) changes observed during critical illness and the reduced antibiotic penetration through the blood brain barrier. This paper reviews the pharmacodynamics (PD) and CNS PKs of antibiotics used for Gram-negative bacterial CNS infections to provide clinicians with practical dosing advice. Read More

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September 2021

Detecting and preventing post-hematopoietic cell transplant relapse in AML.

Curr Opin Hematol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Vanderbilt University School of Nursing Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Relapsed disease is the primary cause of mortality for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). This review outlines the most recent advances in the detection and prevention of AML relapse following allogeneic HCT.

Recent Findings: Conventional methods for predicting post-HCT relapse rely on the molecular and cytogenetics features present at diagnosis. Read More

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September 2021

Emerging therapeutic and preventive approaches to transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy.

Curr Opin Hematol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and Department of Pediatrics, Emory University, Pediatric Hematopoietic Cellular Therapy Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Hematology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia Boston Children's/Dana Farber Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Pediatric Hematopoietic Cellular Therapies, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA) is a complication that can occur in both allogeneic and autologous haematopoietic cellular therapy (HCT) recipients and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although TA-TMA is a complex disease, there is emerging evidence that complement activation and endothelial dysfunction play a key role in the pathophysiology of the disease. The use of eculizumab has improved survival in patients with high risk and severe disease, but mortality rates in treated patients still exceed 30%, highlighting the need for novel approaches. Read More

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September 2021

Recent advances in topological elastic metamaterials.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Hunan University, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan, 410082, CHINA.

Topological elastic metamaterials have emerged as a new frontier in the quest of topological phases in condensed matter physics. Their exotic topological properties open a wealth of promising engineering-oriented applications that are difficult to realize with traditional elastic metamaterials, such as robust and defect insensitive waveguiding, signal sensing, and splitting. In this review, we retrospectively examine the underlying physical concept of topologically ordered states of elastic waves, starting from the one-dimensional (1D) example based on the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. Read More

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September 2021

Ultraviolet photodetector based on p-borophene/n-ZnO heterojunction.

Nanotechnology 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

College of Aerospace Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, No. 29 Yudao Street, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210016, CHINA.

Borophene has attracted enormous attention because of its rich and unique structural and electronic properties for promising pratical applications. Although borophene sheets have been realized on different substrates in recent experiments, there are very few reports on the device application of borophene. Recently, borophene can be grown on some functional substrates, which lays a good foundation for its potential applications. Read More

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September 2021

Aptamer functionalized DNA hydrogels: Design, applications and kinetics.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Sep 3;194:113597. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine and Biotherapy, School of Life Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, 5 South Zhongguancun Street, Beijing, 100081, China. Electronic address:

DNA hydrogels have received considerable attention in various promising applications due to their excellent biocompatibility, controlled biodegradability, adjustable mechanical properties, stability against proteases, self-healing ability, and stimuli responsiveness. To obtain the specific molecular recognition capability, aptamers and many other functional motifs are utilized. Aptamers are short single-stranded DNA or RNA selected through SELEX to bind with specific target with high affinity and specificity. Read More

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September 2021

Towards personalized nutritional treatment for malnutrition using machine learning-based screening tools.

Clin Nutr 2021 Aug 25;40(10):5249-5251. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

General Intensive Care Department and Institute for Nutrition Research, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Hospital. Affiliated to Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel.

Early identification of patients at risk of malnutrition or who are malnourished is crucial in order to start a timely and adequate nutritional therapy. Yet, despite the presence of many nutrition screening tools for use in the hospital setting, there is no consensus regarding the best tool as well as inadequate adherence to screening practices which impairs the achievement of effective nutritional therapy. In recent years, artificial intelligence and machine learning methods have been widely used, across multiple medical domains, to aid clinical decision making and to improve quality and efficiency of care. Read More

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Health literacy levels and correlates among refugees in Mount Lebanon.

Public Health 2021 Sep 14;199:25-31. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Gilbert and Rose-Marie Chagoury School of Medicine, Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon.

Objectives: The study aimed to assess the levels and correlates of health literacy among refugees.

Study Design: This is a cross-sectional study design.

Methods: Health literacy was assessed through face-to-face interviews in eight primary healthcare centers (PHCs) in Mount Lebanon. Read More

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September 2021

Research Note: Prevalence and molecular characteristics of Clostridium perfringens in "no antibiotics ever" broiler farms.

Poult Sci 2021 Jul 30;100(11):101414. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Poultry Science, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA. Electronic address:

Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) is the etiological agent of necrotic enteritis and gangrenous dermatitis; 2 diseases that cause significant economic and welfare concerns to the broiler industry. Previously, Clostridium-related diseases were managed with the use of antimicrobial growth promoters fed to broilers that improved gut health and performance. Read More

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Examining the potential link between child maltreatment and callous-unemotional traits in children and adolescents: A multilevel analysis.

Child Abuse Negl 2021 Sep 14;122:105327. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

College of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Florida State University, 112 S Copeland St, Tallahassee, FL 32304, USA; Prince Mishaal bin Majed bin Abdul Aziz Center for Social and Humanities Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Background: There is a great deal of research indicating that callous-unemotional traits in childhood are among the strongest predictors of adult psychopathy and psychopathic traits. As a result, there has been a recent surge of studies examining potential risk factors that may be related to the development of callous-unemotional traits.

Objective: The current study sought to extend prior research examining potential risk factors for the development of callous-unemotional traits by estimating the extent to which child maltreatment related to callous-unemotional traits in children and adolescents. Read More

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September 2021

Indomethacin-based PROTACs as pan-coronavirus antiviral agents.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Sep 4;226:113814. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Department of Chemistry, Biology, and Biotechnology, University of Perugia, Italy. Electronic address:

Indomethacin (INM), a well-known non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, has recently gained attention for its antiviral activity demonstrated in drug repurposing studies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although the mechanism of action of INM is not yet fully understood, recent studies have indicated that it acts at an early stage of the coronaviruses (CoVs) replication cycle. In addition, a proteomic study reported that the anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of INM could be also ascribed to its ability to inhibit human prostaglandin E synthase type 2 (PGES-2), a host protein which interacts with the SARS-CoV-2 NSP7 protein. Read More

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September 2021

Deciphering the chromatin organization and dynamics for muscle stem cell function.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2021 Sep 14;73:124-132. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Division of Life Science, Center for Stem Cell Research, HKUST-Nan Fung Life Sciences Joint Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Molecular Neuroscience, Molecular Neuroscience Center, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China; Hong Kong Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Hong Kong, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Brain Science, Disease and Drug Development, Shenzhen-Hong Kong Institute of Brain Science, HKUST Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen, China. Electronic address:

The chromatin landscape represents a critical regulatory layer for precise transcriptional control. Chromosome architecture restrains the physical access to the DNA elements and is one of the determinants that specifies cell identity. Adult stem cells possess the unique ability to differentiate into a specific lineage. Read More

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September 2021

Two novelty learning models developed based on deep cascade forest to address the environmental imbalanced issues: A case study of drinking water quality prediction.

Environ Pollut 2021 Sep 11;291:118153. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

School of Environment, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Exposure and Health, And Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510632, China.

Environmental quality data sets are typically imbalanced, because environmental pollution events are rarely observed in daily life. Prediction of imbalanced data sets is a major challenge in machine learning. Our recent work has shown deep cascade forest (DCF), as a base learning model, is promising to be recommended for environmental quality prediction. Read More

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September 2021

Urinary antibiotic level of school children in Shanghai, East China, 2017-2020.

Environ Pollut 2021 Sep 11;291:118167. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education/School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China. Electronic address:

In recent years, an extensive exposure to antibiotics from various sources has been demonstrated in China by the biomonitoring method, but the temporal trend remains little known. The study aim was to explore the temporal trend of exposure to antibiotics and associated health risk in children. A dynamic child cohort was established in Shanghai, East China between 2017 and 2020. Read More

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September 2021

Heavy episodic drinking and HIV disclosure by HIV treatment status among People with HIV in IeDEA Cameroon.

Int J Drug Policy 2021 Sep 14;98:103431. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, United States.

Background: Heavy alcohol use is common among people with HIV (PWH), leading to sub-optimal HIV care outcomes. Yet, heavy episodic drinking (HED) is not routinely addressed within most HIV clinics in sub-Saharan Africa. HIV disclosure may provide social support, potentially reducing HED to cope with HIV. Read More

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September 2021

Application of MXenes for water treatment and energy-efficient desalination: A review.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Aug 29;423(Pt B):127050. Epub 2021 Aug 29.

Nano Surface Texturing Lab, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (DU), Pune, India. Electronic address:

MXenes are a new type of two-dimensional (2D) material which are rapidly gaining traction for a range of environmental, chemical and medical applications. MXenes and MXene-composites exhibit high surface area, superlative chemical stability, thermal conductivity, hydrophilicity and are environmentally compatible. Consequently, MXenes have been successfully employed for hydrogen storage, semiconductor manufacture and lithium ion batteries. Read More

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Coupling solar-driven photothermal effect into photocatalysis for sustainable water treatment.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Sep 5;423(Pt B):127128. Epub 2021 Sep 5.

College of Science, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China. Electronic address:

Effectively harnessing renewable and inexhaustible solar radiation for energy conversion has attracted significant research interest in the past decade. Solar thermal conversion, as a ubiquitous phenomenon, can be implemented to evaporate water and concurrently boost photocatalytic performance for addressing freshwater scarcity and energy crisis. Most recently, solar water evaporation accompanied by photocatalytic degradation, sterilization, and hydrogen production has been proposed as a promising avenue to endow new vitality into the field of clean water and energy production. Read More

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September 2021

What kind of empirical evidence is needed for probabilistic mental representations? An example from visual perception.

Cognition 2021 Sep 14;217:104903. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Faculty of Psychology, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland; School of Psychology, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia.

Recent accounts of perception and cognition propose that the brain represents information probabilistically. While this assumption is common, empirical support for such probabilistic representations in perception has recently been criticized. Here, we evaluate these criticisms and present an account based on a recently developed psychophysical methodology, Feature Distribution Learning (FDL), which provides promising evidence for probabilistic representations by avoiding these criticisms. Read More

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September 2021