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MRI based radiomics in nasopharyngeal cancer: Systematic review and perspectives using radiomic quality score (RQS) assessment.

Eur J Radiol 2021 Apr 30;140:109744. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Naples "Federico II", Naples, Italy; Laboratory of Augmented Reality for Health Monitoring (ARHeMLab), Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, University of Naples "Federico II", Naples, Italy.

Background: MRI based radiomics has the potential to better define tumor biology compared to qualitative MRI assessment and support decisions in patients affected by nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Aim of this review was to systematically evaluate the methodological quality of studies using MRI- radiomics for nasopharyngeal cancer patient evaluation.

Methods: A systematic search was performed in PUBMED, WEB OF SCIENCE and SCOPUS using "MRI, magnetic resonance imaging, radiomic, texture analysis, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, nasopharyngeal cancer" in all possible combinations. Read More

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A Review of the Botany, Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology of the Flos Inulae.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 May 4:114125. Epub 2021 May 4.

Key Laboratory of Chinese Materia Medica, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Ministry of Education, Harbin, 150040, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Plants of the genus Inula have long been used as an ethnomedicine in Asia, Europe, and North America for its high medicinal value and health benefits. Inula japonica Thunb. (I. Read More

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A novel non-destructive technique for qualitative and quantitative measurement of dental erosion in its entirety by porosity and bulk tissue-loss.

J Dent 2021 May 4:103688. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Life Science, Pharmacy and Chemistry, Kingston University London, United Kingdom.

Objective: To explore the potential of combining non-contact profilometry(NCP) and confocal laser scanning microscopy(CLSM) data to measure the entire erosive process non-destructively and to validate findings using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy(ICP-AES), scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and surface microhardness(SMH) using the same samples throughout.

Methods: Polished bovine enamel samples(n = 35) were divided into groups(7/group) with similar SMH values. Samples underwent individual erosive challenges(1% citric acid,pH3. Read More

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Commercially Available Apps to Support Healthy Family Meals: User Testing of App Utility, Acceptability, and Engagement.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2021 May 7;9(5):e22990. Epub 2021 May 7.

Caring Futures Institute, College of Nursing and Health Sciences, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia.

Background: Parents juggling caregiving and paid employment encounter a range of barriers in providing healthy food to their families. Mobile apps have the potential to help parents in planning, purchasing, and preparing healthy family food. The utility and acceptability of apps for supporting parents are unknown. Read More

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Notes on section (Amaryllidaceae) in South Korea and northeastern China: with a new species from Ulleungdo Island.

PhytoKeys 2021 16;176:1-19. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Biology and Chemistry, Changwon National University, Changwon 51140, South Korea.

Allium section Rhizirideum is reviewed for South Korea and neighboring northeastern China based on critical observation of wild populations and herbarium materials. Species delimitations are re-evaluated on the basis of morphological and somatic chromosome numbers, resulting in the recognition of five species. from Ulleungdo Island, South Korea, is described as a new species. Read More

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Description of three new species of Hübner, 1819 from Colombia and Brazil (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae, Hemileucinae).

Zookeys 2021 15;1031:183-204. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Institut de Systématique, Evolution, Biodiversité (ISYEB), Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, EPHE, Univ des Antilles, Paris, France Sorbonne Université Paris France.

The Saturniidae is one of the most emblematic families of moths, comprising nearly 3000 species distributed globally. In this study, DNA barcode analysis and comparative morphology were combined to describe three new species within the genus , which is the most diverse genus in the family. Decaëns, Rougerie & Bonilla, , Decaëns, Rougerie & Bonilla, , and Decaëns, Rougerie & Bénéluz, are described from the Colombian Orinoco watershed, the Colombian Eastern Cordillera, and the area of endemism of Belém in the Brazilian Amazonia, respectively. Read More

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Investigation of the Amathillopsidae (Amphipoda, Crustacea), including the description of a new species, reveals a clinging lifestyle in the deep sea worldwide.

Zookeys 2021 14;1031:19-39. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK National Oceanography Centre Southampton United Kingdom.

Amathillopsidae is a widely distributed, but rarely sampled family of deep-sea amphipods. During a recent expedition to the North Atlantic, specimens were filmed clinging to a polychaete tube in situ at abyssal depths by a Remote Operated Vehicle and then sampled for further study. The species was new to science and is described in detail herein. Read More

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Autoencoder networks extract latent variables and encode these variables in their connectomes.

Neural Netw 2021 Mar 24;141:330-343. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Applied Mathematics Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States of America; Computational Neuroscience Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States of America; Allen Institute for Brain Science, Seattle, WA, United States of America.

Advances in electron microscopy and data processing techniques are leading to increasingly large and complete microscale connectomes. At the same time, advances in artificial neural networks have produced model systems that perform comparably rich computations with perfectly specified connectivity. This raises an exciting scientific opportunity for the study of both biological and artificial neural networks: to infer the underlying circuit function from the structure of its connectivity. Read More

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Multi-attribute method based characterization of antibody drug conjugates (ADC) at the intact and subunit levels.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Apr 24;201:114094. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

SCIEX, Brea/Redwood City, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) represent an important class of new biopharmaceutical modalities. ADCs are highly complex and heterogeneous molecules, potentially containing numerous product-related structures, that can contribute to the quality, efficacy and safety of the product. To keep up with product life cycle related changes, wide-range and targeted characterization of product quality attributes (PQA) are of high demand. Read More

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Interaction of NHE1 and TRPA1 activity in DRG neurons isolated from adult rats and its role in inflammatory nociception.

Neuroscience 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Departamento de Farmacobiología, Cinvestav, South Campus. Mexico City, Mexico. Electronic address:

Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel is expressed in a subset of nociceptive neurons. This channel integrates several nociceptive signals. Particularly, it is modulated by intracellular pH (pH). Read More

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Reorganizing brain structure through olfactory training in post-traumatic smell impairment: An MRI study.

J Neuroradiol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran; Finetech in Medicine Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Purpose And Background: Post-traumatic olfactory dysfunction (PTOD), mostly caused by head injury, is thought to be associated with changes in the structure and function of the brain olfactory processing areas. Training and repeated exposure to odorants lead to enhanced olfactory capability. This study investigated the effects of a 16-weeks olfactory training (OT) on olfactory function and brain structure. Read More

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Use of deep learning to develop continuous-risk models for adverse event prediction from electronic health records.

Nat Protoc 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

DeepMind, London, UK.

Early prediction of patient outcomes is important for targeting preventive care. This protocol describes a practical workflow for developing deep-learning risk models that can predict various clinical and operational outcomes from structured electronic health record (EHR) data. The protocol comprises five main stages: formal problem definition, data pre-processing, architecture selection, calibration and uncertainty, and generalizability evaluation. Read More

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Antiferromagnetic skyrmion crystals in the Rashba Hund's insulator on triangular lattice.

Sci Rep 2021 May 5;11(1):9566. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Physical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) Mohali, Sector 81, S.A.S. Nagar, Manauli, P. O. 140306, India.

Motivated by the importance of antiferromagnetic skyrmions as building blocks of next-generation data storage and processing devices, we report theoretical and computational analysis of a model for a spin-orbit coupled correlated Hund's insulator magnet on a triangular lattice. We find that two distinct antiferromagnetic skyrmion crystal (AF-SkX) states can be stabilized at low temperatures in the presence of external magnetic field. The results are obtained via Monte Carlo simulations on an effective magnetic model derived from the microscopic electronic Hamiltonian consisting of Rashba spin-orbit coupling, as well as strong Hund's coupling of electrons to classical spins at half-filling. Read More

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Deep convolution stack for waveform in underwater acoustic target recognition.

Sci Rep 2021 May 5;11(1):9614. Epub 2021 May 5.

Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Multilingual Intelligent Processing, Guangdong University of Foreign Studies, Guangzhou, 510006, China.

In underwater acoustic target recognition, deep learning methods have been proved to be effective on recognizing original signal waveform. Previous methods often utilize large convolutional kernels to extract features at the beginning of neural networks. It leads to a lack of depth and structural imbalance of networks. Read More

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The first detection of Dicrocoelium chinensis sporocysts from the land snail Aegista vulgivaga in Gifu Prefecture, Japan.

J Vet Med Sci 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Faculty of Applied Biological Science, Gifu University.

Trematodes of the genus Dicrocoelium are one of the most common parasites in ruminant animals; however, their life cycles in Japan are unclear. To find the sporocysts of D. chinensis in the natural field, we sampled 269 land snails (14 species) at a location with high level infection of sika deer in Gifu Prefecture, Honshu Island, Japan in autumn between 2017 and 2019. Read More

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Integrative taxonomy uncovers a new Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midge species from Thailand.

Acta Trop 2021 May 2:105941. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mahasarakham University, Kantharawichai District, Maha Sarakham 44150, Thailand.

Fully understanding biodiversity often requires an integrated approach especially for small insects because species diagnostic morphological characters are limited. In this study, morphological characters and DNA barcodes were used to examine previously recognized genetically divergent lineages detected in the biting midge, Culicoides arakawae (Arakawa), from Thailand. Morphological examinations revealed that specimens belonging to one lineage are morphologically different from C. Read More

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Extracting Drug Names and Associated Attributes From Discharge Summaries: Text Mining Study.

JMIR Med Inform 2021 May 5;9(5):e24678. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Computer Science, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.

Background: Drug prescriptions are often recorded in free-text clinical narratives; making this information available in a structured form is important to support many health-related tasks. Although several natural language processing (NLP) methods have been proposed to extract such information, many challenges remain.

Objective: This study evaluates the feasibility of using NLP and deep learning approaches for extracting and linking drug names and associated attributes identified in clinical free-text notes and presents an extensive error analysis of different methods. Read More

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Weakly supervised temporal model for prediction of breast cancer distant recurrence.

Sci Rep 2021 May 4;11(1):9461. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Biomedical Informatics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.

Efficient prediction of cancer recurrence in advance may help to recruit high risk breast cancer patients for clinical trial on-time and can guide a proper treatment plan. Several machine learning approaches have been developed for recurrence prediction in previous studies, but most of them use only structured electronic health records and only a small training dataset, with limited success in clinical application. While free-text clinic notes may offer the greatest nuance and detail about a patient's clinical status, they are largely excluded in previous predictive models due to the increase in processing complexity and need for a complex modeling framework. Read More

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Timeliness and completeness of laboratory-based surveillance of COVID-19 cases in England.

Public Health 2021 Apr 1;194:163-166. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Epidemiology Cell, Public Health England National Infection Service, London, UK.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate completeness and timeliness of the rapidly developed surveillance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in England using patient-level data.

Study Design: This is an observational study wherein public health surveillance systems are evaluated.

Methods: Data were collected in the Public Health England's Second-Generation Surveillance System through routine laboratory reporting processes, as well as via enhanced testing in collaboration with commercial partners. Read More

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Speeding up the clinical routine: Compressed sensing for 2D imaging of lumbar spine disc herniation.

Eur J Radiol 2021 Apr 29;140:109738. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Philips Healthcare Germany, Hamburg, Germany.

Purpose: Increasing economic pressure and patient demands for comfort require an ever-increasing acceleration of scan times without compromising diagnostic certainty. This study tested the new acceleration technique Compressed SENSE (CS-SENSE) as well as different reconstruction methods for the lumbar spine.

Methods: In this prospective study, 10 volunteers and 14 patients with lumbar disc herniation were scanned using a sagittal 2D T2 turbo spin echo (TSE) sequence applying different acceleration factors of SENSE and CS-SENSE. Read More

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UV-VIS spectra as potential process analytical technology (PAT) for measuring the density of compressed materials: evaluation of the CIELAB color space.

Int J Pharm 2021 May 1:120668. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, University of Bonn, Gerhard-Domagk-Straße 3, 53121 Bonn, Germany. Electronic address:

Measurement methods for determining the density of compressed materials, being a critical quality attribute, provide an important parameter for successful processing. In this study, a novel approach was developed for determining the density of compacts using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. The assumption within this context was that a change in density affects the corresponding color information of the compact. Read More

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Valence-dependent neural correlates of augmented feedback processing in extensive motor sequence learning - Part II: Predictive value of event-related potentials for behavioral adaptation and learning.

Neuroscience 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Psychology and Movement Science, Department of Sports and Health, Paderborn University, Germany.

To examine the neural processing of valence-dependent augmented feedback, 38 students learned a sequential arm movement task with 192 trials in each of five practice sessions. The degree of motor automatization was tested under dual-task-conditions. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded in the first and last practice session. Read More

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Neurophysiology of Human Perceptual Decision-Making.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering and UCD Centre for Biomedical Engineering, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland; email:

The discovery of neural signals that reflect the dynamics of perceptual decision formation has had a considerable impact. Not only do such signals enable detailed investigations of the neural implementation of the decision-making process but they also can expose key elements of the brain's decision algorithms. For a long time, such signals were only accessible through direct animal brain recordings, and progress in human neuroscience was hampered by the limitations of noninvasive recording techniques. Read More

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Ethical implications of AI in robotic surgical training: A Delphi consensus statement.

Eur Urol Focus 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Wellcome/ESPRC Centre for Interventional and Surgical Sciences (WEISS), University College London.

Context: As the role of AI in healthcare continues to expand there is increasing awareness of the potential pitfalls of AI and the need for guidance to avoid them.

Objectives: To provide ethical guidance on developing narrow AI applications for surgical training curricula. We define standardised approaches to developing AI driven applications in surgical training that address current recognised ethical implications of utilising AI on surgical data. Read More

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Mechanisms for handling nested dependencies in neural-network language models and humans.

Cognition 2021 Apr 30:104699. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Cognitive Neuroimaging Unit, CEA, INSERM, Université Paris-Saclay, NeuroSpin center, 91191 Gif/Yvette, France; Collège de France, Université Paris-Sciences-Lettres (PSL), 11 Place Marcelin Berthelot, 75005 Paris, France.

Recursive processing in sentence comprehension is considered a hallmark of human linguistic abilities. However, its underlying neural mechanisms remain largely unknown. We studied whether a modern artificial neural network trained with "deep learning" methods mimics a central aspect of human sentence processing, namely the storing of grammatical number and gender information in working memory and its use in long-distance agreement (e. Read More

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Construction of flood loss function for cities lacking disaster data based on three-dimensional (object-function-array) data processing.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 5;773:145649. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

School of Water Conservancy Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450001, PR China.

Reliable loss estimation is crucial for flood risk management. As the current standard form of flood loss assessment, it is difficult to fit the Flood Inundated Depth-Loss Rate Function (FILF) due to the lack of historical data in most inland arid and semi-arid plain cities. To address the current trend of increasing flood risk, it has become increasingly important to develop a scientific and reasonable loss assessment function or model for these cities. Read More

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Review of gut nanotoxicology in mammals: Exposure, transformation, distribution and toxicity.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 3;773:145078. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, PR China. Electronic address:

Nanomaterials are increasingly used in food processing, daily necessities and other fields due to their excellent properties, and increase the environmental contamination. Human beings will inevitably come into contact with these nanomaterials through multiple exposure routes especially oral exposure. The intestine is an important organ for nutrient absorption and physiologic barrier, which may be the main target of nanoparticles (NPs) exposure. Read More

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Increasing feed intake in domestic goats (Capra hircus): Measured effects on chewing intensity are probably driven by escape of few, large particles from the forestomach.

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2021 May 1;257:110972. Epub 2021 May 1.

Clinic für Zoo Animals, Exotic Pets and Wildlife, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich,Winterthurerstr. 260, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

On the one hand, oral processing - mastication - is considered a relatively inflexible component of mammalian feed acquisition that constrains instantaneous intake rates. On the other hand, experimental data shows that the level of feed intake affects faecal particle size and hence net chewing efficiency in ruminants, with larger particles occurring in the faeces at higher intakes. Here, we report the effect of an increased feed intake during maintenance (L1), late (200% of L1) and peak lactation (300% of L1) of a consistent diet (hay:concentrates 50:50) in eight domestic goats on various measures of digestive physiology including faecal mean particle size (MPS). Read More

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Dialyzer Performance During Hemodialysis Without Systemic Anticoagulation Using a Heparin-Grafted Dialyzer Combined With a Citrate-Enriched Dialysate: Results of the Randomized Crossover Noninferiority EVOCIT Study.

Am J Kidney Dis 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (UZ Brussel), Division of Nephrology and Hypertension.

Rationale And Objective: The EVOCIT study was designed to evaluate dialyzer performance during hemodialysis with and without systemic anticoagulation.

Study Design: Randomized, crossover, non-inferiority trial. Noninferiority was defined as a difference of ≤10% for the primary outcome. Read More

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A PCR-Based Technique to Track the Geographic Origin of With 23-SNP Barcode Analysis.

Front Public Health 2021 16;9:649170. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Experimental and Translational Non-coding RNA Research, School of Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China.

Increased population movement has increased the risk of reintroducing parasites to elimination areas and also dispersing drug-resistant parasites to new regions. Therefore, reliable and repeatable methods to trace back to the source of imported infections are essential. The recently developed 23-single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) barcode from organellar genomes of mitochondrion () and apicoplast () provides a valuable tool to locate the geographic origin of . Read More

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