26 results match your criteria "philosophical" currents

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The evolution in the surgical management of Peyronie's disease.

Urologia 2021 May 30;88(2):79-89. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Urology, ASST Fatebenefratelli-Sacco, Luigi Sacco University Hospital, Milan, Italy.

Peyronie's disease (PD) is due to a fibrotic alteration of the tunica albuginea of the penis. It is responsible of penile pain, angulation, and possible erectile dysfunction (ED). Despite almost three centuries have passed since the first description of the disease, etiology still remains uncertain. Read More

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Moral psychopathology and mental health: Modern and ancient.

Authors:
Youval Rotman

Hist Psychol 2021 02;24(1):22-33

The Chaim Rosenberg School of Jewish Studies and Archaeology.

Following three turning points in the historical development of psychology this study examines how the relation between mental health and the state of illness is linked to the concept of "passions." The first was the birth of modern psychiatry in 18th century France. The second was the development of the field of inquiry in antiquity about the psuchē and its mental activities, and the third was the turn of early Christian thought about mind and soul. Read More

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February 2021

The Clinical, Philosophical, Evolutionary and Mathematical Machinery of Consciousness: An Analytic Dissection of the Field Theories and a Consilience of Ideas.

Cureus 2020 Dec 18;12(12):e12139. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Neurology, Flowers Medical Group, Dothan, USA.

The Cartesian model of mind-body dualism concurs with religious traditions. However, science has supplanted this idea with an energy-matter theory of consciousness, where matter is equivalent to the body and energy replaces the mind or soul. This equivalency is analogous to the concept of the interchange of mass and energy as expressed by Einstein's famous equation [Formula: see text]. Read More

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December 2020

Hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) from Mauritanian Coral Mounds.

Zootaxa 2020 Nov 16;4878(3):zootaxa.4878.3.2. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Departamento de Ecoloxía e Bioloxía Animal, Facultade de Ciencias do Mar e Centro de Investigación Mariña (CIM-UVigo), Universidade de Vigo. Campus Lagoas-Marcosende. 36310 Vigo. Spain. Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Centro Oceanográfico de Vigo. Subida Radio Faro 50. 36390 Vigo. Spain..

Agassiz, L. (1862) Contributions to the natural history of the United States of America. Vol. Read More

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November 2020

"Don't Mind the Gap!" Reflections on Improvement Science as a Paradigm.

Health Care Anal 2018 Jun;26(2):124-139

CRASSH, University of Cambridge, 7 West Road, Cambridge, CB3 9DP, UK.

Responding to this issue's invitation to bring new disciplinary insights to the field of improvement science, this article takes as its starting point one of the field's guiding metaphors: the imperative to "mind the gap". Drawing on insights from anthropology, history, and philosophy, the article reflects on the origins and implications of this metaphoric imperative, and suggests some ways in which it might be in tension with the means and ends of improvement. If the industrial origins of improvement science in the twentieth century inform a metaphor of gaps, chasms, and spaces of misalignment as invariably imperfect and potentially dangerous, and therefore requiring bridging or closure, other currents that feed the discipline of improvement science suggest the potential value and uses of spaces of openness and ambiguity. Read More

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A Hospital-Based Committee of Moral Philosophy to Revive Ethics.

Clin Infect Dis 2017 Aug;65(suppl_1):S55-S57

Unité de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses Tropicales et Emergentes, Unité Mixte de Recherche 7278, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Aix-Marseille Université, INSERM U1095, Marseille, France.

The Méditerranée Infection Foundation's primary goal is supporting a research hospital for the treatment of infectious diseases in Marseille. The main objective of this innovative center is to understand the mechanisms of contagion and face them. The Foundation will include a committee on moral philosophy that will accompany and supervise biomedical research. Read More

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[Global health: a Latin American vision].

Rev Panam Salud Publica 2016 Feb;39(2):128-136

This article presents a Latin American vision of global health from a counterhegemonic perspective, applicable to various countries of the world in similar circumstances. It begins by reviewing several concepts and trends in global health and outlining the differences between conventional public health, international health, and global health, but without seeing them as antagonistic, instead situating them in a model that is based on global health and also includes the other two disciplines. It is understood that global factors influenced earlier theories, schemes, and models of classic international health. Read More

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February 2016

The cultural significance of synchronicity for Jung and Pauli.

Authors:
Roderick Main

J Anal Psychol 2014 Apr;59(2):174-180

University of Essex, UK.

This paper considers the cultural significance of C.G. Jung's concept of synchronicity, as this was envisaged both by Jung himself and by the physicist Wolfgang Pauli, Jung's most important discussant in developing the concept. Read More

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Fashioning the immunological self: the biological individuality of F. Macfarlane Burnet.

J Hist Biol 2014 ;47(1):147-75

Department of History & Centre for Values, Ethics and the Law in Medicine, University of Sydney, Quadrangle A14, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia,

During the 1940s and 1950s, the Australian microbiologist F. Macfarlane Burnet sought a biologically plausible explanation of antibody production. In this essay, we seek to recover the conceptual pathways that Burnet followed in his immunological theorizing. Read More

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The Hastings Center and the early years of bioethics.

Authors:
Daniel Callahan

Theor Med Bioeth 2012 Feb;33(1):11-20

The Hastings Center, Garrison, NY 10524, USA.

The Hastings Center was founded in 1969 to study ethical problems in medicine and biology. The Center arose from a confluence of three social currents: the increased public scrutiny of medicine and its practices, the concern about the moral problems being generated by technological developments, and the desire of one of its founders (Callahan) to make use of his philosophical training in a more applied way. The early years of the Center were devoted to raising money, developing an early agenda of issues, and identifying a cadre of people around the country interested in the issues. Read More

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February 2012

Love, drive and desire in the works of Freud, Lacan and Proust.

Authors:
Judy Gammelgaard

Int J Psychoanal 2011 Aug 17;92(4):963-83. Epub 2011 Feb 17.

Both Freud and Lacan have made love the object of scientific enquiry, which is in itself remarkable, since we usually turn this subject over to literary and philosophical treatment. This article discusses Freud and Lacan's contributions to the psychology of love through dialogue with Marcel Proust's seminal novel, Remembrance of Things Past, with special emphasis on the middle sections. The point of departure is love's manifestation in the analytical situation. Read More

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Alcmaeon of Croton.

Neurosurgery 2010 Feb;66(2):247-52; discussion 252

Department of Neurosurgery, Niguarda Cà Granda Hospital, Milan, Italy.

IN THE LATTER half of the sixth century BC, Croton was the site of the most famous medical school in Magna Graecia, where diseases of the human body were examined in a scientific and experimental manner instead of by using the contemporary supernatural, nearly magical concepts. Alcmaeon was one of the most active physicians interested in human physiology in the medical tradition of Croton. Although Alcmaeon was devoted to science and was a skillful experimentalist, little is known about his life and his exact birth date. Read More

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February 2010

[Beginning, formative power and intellect agent of Nicolò Leoniceno between the Arabic-Latin tradition and the rebirth of the Greek commentators].

Authors:
Hiro Hirai

Early Sci Med 2007 ;12(2):134-65

Centre d'histoire des sciences, Université de Gand, Belgique.

The treatise On Formative Power (Venice, 1506) of Ferrara's emblematic medical humanist, Nicolò Leoniceno (1428-1524), is the one of the first embryological monographs of the Renaissance. It shows, at the same time, the continuity of medieval Arabo-Latin tradition and the new elements brought by Renaissance medical humanism, namely through the use of the ancient Greek commentators of Aristotle like Simplicius. Thus this treatise stands at the crossroad of these two currents. Read More

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January 2008

Affirming the right to care, preserving the right to die: disorders of consciousness and neuroethics after Schiavo.

Authors:
Joseph J Fins

Palliat Support Care 2006 Jun;4(2):169-78

Division of Medical Ethics, New York Presbyterian-Weill Cornell Medical Center, 435 East 70th Street, Suite 4-J, New York, NY 10021, USA.

In this article, I attempt to untangle some of the cultural, philosophical, and ethical currents that informed the Schiavo case. My objective is to better apprehend what the Schiavo case means for end-of-life care in general and to assert that our discourse about the ethical issues attendant to brain injury will be impoverished if we limit our discussions about disorders of consciousness solely to the vegetative state. If we ignore emerging developments in neuroscience that are helping to elucidate the nature of these disorders and fail to broaden the conversation about brain injury, beyond the unmitigated futility of the permanent vegetative state, we will imperil others who might improve and be helped. Read More

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[A historical-epistemological perspective of the ontological problem of Positivism. Positivism and psychiatry].

Vertex 2005 Nov-Dec;16(64):473-7

Departmento Salud Mental, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argenitna.

The present article reviews epistemological problems related to the philosophical and scientific current known as Positivism. The revision begins with the study of the historical period during which the Logical Positivism emerges (early in the decade of 1920); and finishes with the analysis of its influence on psychiatry and its relation with other epistemological currents in the same period. The article reviews the historical and epistemological outlook at te beginning of the XX th century, when the problem of language became ontologically outstanding. Read More

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Geophysical granular and particle-laden flows: review of the field.

Authors:
Kolumban Hutter

Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 2005 Jul;363(1832):1497-505

Department of Mechanics, Institute for Mechanics-AG III, Darmstadt University of Technology, Germany.

An introduction is given to the title theme, in general, and the specific topics treated in detail in the articles of this theme issue of the Philosophical Transactions. They fit into the following broader subjects: (i) dense, dry and wet granular flows as avalanche and debris flow events, (ii) air-borne particle-laden turbulent flows in air over a granular base as exemplified in gravity currents, aeolian transport of sand, dust and snow and (iii) transport of a granular mass on a two-dimensional surface in ripple formations of estuaries and rivers and the motion of sea ice. Read More

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The Hastings Center and the early years of bioethics.

Authors:
Daniel Callahan

Kennedy Inst Ethics J 1999 Mar;9(1):53-71

The Hastings Center was founded in 1969 to study ethical problems in medicine and biology. The Center arose from a confluence of three social currents: the increased public scrutiny of medicine and its practices, the concern about the moral problems being generated by technological developments, and the desire of one its founders (Callahan) to make use of his philosophical training in a more applied way. The early years of the Center were devoted to raising money, developing an early agenda of issues, and identifying a cadre of people around the country interested in the issues. Read More

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[On atrophy. A doctoral dissertation by Elias Til-landz in 1670].

Authors:
M Kallinen

Hippokrates (Helsinki) 1998 (15):11-8

Elias Til-landz is known as the most industrious professor of medicine at the Academy of Turku (Abo) during the 17th century. This article describes his student years in Uppsala and Leiden, and surveys the contents of his hitherto unanalysed doctoral thesis De Athrophia as evidence of his intellectual connections. Til-landz (originally called Tillander) studied philosophy at the Academy of Turku and medicine in Uppsala. Read More

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January 1999

Psychoanalysis and culture: some contemporary challenges.

Authors:
C L Eizirik

Int J Psychoanal 1997 Aug;78 ( Pt 4):789-800

The evolution and current usage of the concept of culture is briefly discussed. Two divergent views on the initial relationship between psychoanalysis and culture are presented and the influence of the former on the latter illustrated, both in the previous decades and at present. Some general aspects of present-day western culture are then outlined, among them the great flood of information, the culture of narcissism, the temptations of conventionality, the ideology of visual media and the 'light culture', and five propositions that attempt to characterise 'post-modern sensibility'. Read More

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In the eye of the beholder: Helmholtzian perception and the origins of Freud's 1900 theory of transference.

Authors:
G J Makari

J Am Psychoanal Assoc 1994 ;42(2):549-80

Payne Whitney Clinic.

Freud's 1900 theory of transference was indebted to the convergence of philosophy and physiology found in nineteenth-century theories of visual perception. The author maps out the post-Kantian philosophical and German physiological currents that gave rise to Hermann von Helmholtz's influential work on perception, and proposes that Freud's 1900 theory of transference was a creative synthesis of novel notions like unconscious wishing and psychic defense with a Helmholtzian model of visual illusion. Read More

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[Methodological currents in research].

Authors:
E L Angerami

Rev Gaucha Enferm 1989 Jan;10(1):13-5

Believing that research is the academic activity which gives support to assistance and teaching in nursing and this activity represents a process of knowledge construction which follows determined patterns, the authors try to enhance reflection on the importance of methodology matters to nursing. The study proposes three patterns of contact between subject and object: the positivist approach, the comprehensive approach and the dialectical approach, most frequent philosophical streams in health studies. Read More

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January 1989

[Medicine and society. Schools of thought in the health field].

Authors:
J C García

Educ Med Salud 1983 ;17(4):363-97

The article considers the answers given by different schools of thought to the fundamental questions about the degree of autonomy of medicine and the kind of articulation between medicine and society as a whole and in its "parts." The answers vary with the thinking in the different social sciences and the philosophic schools associated with them. The author divides his presentation in two broad chapters: The first covers schools of thought in the health field, and attempts to delineate the philosophical foundations underlying the principal current schools of thought in this field, without attempting a history of the philosophical schools or analyzing each of them in detail. Read More

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On "action language" in psychoanalysis.

Psychoanal Q 1980 Oct;49(4):663-96

The main tenets of action language are summarized in an attempt to discern the direction in which psychoanalysis might go if action language becomes the "new metapsychology." The principal roots of action language are traced to the different linguistic/language and personality-and-culture models of anthropology and to the neobehaviorist currents of academic psychology. The authors' findings support the hypothesis that action language is a form os psychoanalytic behaviorism having idealism, logical positivism, and radical empiricism as its philosophical underpinnings. Read More

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October 1980

[Christian Wolff (1679-1754) and the medical concept of his time].

Authors:
W Kaiser

Z Gesamte Inn Med 1979 Jun;34(11):309-10, 311-7

The 300th anniversary of the birthday of Christian Wolff gave the occasion to set his multilateral work in relation to the medical currents of his time and to analyse it from the standpoint of modern medicine. Especially in his early period at Halle University Christian Wolff develops a new research programme with essential accents for the future physician. His philosophical literature with the postulates containing in this are conformable to the aim of the predecessors of the French revolution and on the sector of the art of therapeutic forms the basis decisive improvements in organised public health. Read More

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