Access to Optimal Calcination Temperature for Nanoparticle Synthesis from Hydroxyapatite Bovine Femur Bone Waste

Ali Sabea Hammood, Sora Salem Hassan, Mohammed Talib Alkhafagy

Overview

Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is one of the vital and bioactive materials that are commonly used in biomedical field and concentrated in clinical area. It is a bio-ceramic powder synthesized by using different bio-waste materials such as bovine femur bone. In this study, the bovine femur bone powder was prepared to obtain nano powder. The purpose of this study was to reach the optimal temperature to obtain nanoparticles HAp. The resulted powder was calcinated in a furnace at different temperatures (900, 950, 1000, 1050 and 1100 °C) for 2 h at the heating rate of 10 °C/min and cooled slowly in a furnace. Results showed, the formation of pure HAp by the presence of peaks corresponding to (PO4)3- at 632/cm and OH- at 3,572/cm in fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). For the calcined samples, there were three main peaks of 211, 112 and 300 planes at 2θ near 31.8, 32.2 and 32.9 respectively. The amorphous raw bones were transformed into crystalline phase and the lattice parameters for HAp c and a were calculated in X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman analysis showed that the calcination process removed the organic compound from the bovine femur bones matrix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) showed that the shape of the granules was irregular, containing quantities of oxygen, magnesium, sodium and carbon; the ratio of calcium to phosphate was calculated, Atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that the particles sizes ranged from nanometers to microns. EDX result found that the calcium to phosphate ratio reached 1.7058 after calcination at 950 °C which was close to stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (1.67). This result implied the formation of pure HAp phase at 950 °C.

Summary

The aim at this work is to approach the optimal temperature to obtain hydroxyapatite nanoparticles from the bovine femur bone.

Author Comments

Prof. Dr. Eng Ali Sabea Hammood, PhD
Prof. Dr. Eng Ali Sabea Hammood, PhD
University of Kufa- Faculty of Engineering
Head of Biomedical Materials Engineering Track
Tribocorrosion of biomaterials
Kufa, Najaf | Iraq
In this study, through the calcination process of different temperatures at 900, 950, 1000, 1050 and 1100 °C, natural HAp was obtained from the bovine femur bone. FTIR, XRD and Raman spectra results showed that calcination of bovine femur bone at 900 °C and above could produce organic free and crystalline natural HAp. SEM results revealed that the grain size increased and the best results were obtained at 950 °C, because the Ca/P ratio was 1.7058, near to the stoichiometric HAp ratio (Ca/P: 1.67). The values of c and a were near to the standard values of c = 0.6884 nm and a = 0.9418 nm. AFM result showed that the shape of particles tended to be regular after calcination. Prof. Dr. Eng Ali Sabea Hammood, PhD

Resources

Nano Biomedicine and Engineering
http://nanobe.org/Data/View/441?type=100

Head of Biomedical Materials Engineering Track

Authors:
Ali Sabea Hammood Sora Salem Hassan Mohammed Talib Alkhafagy

Nano Biomedicine and Engineering

DOI: 10.5101/nbe.v9i3.p228-235

Abstract

Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is one of the vital and bioactive materials that are commonly used in biomedical field and concentrated in clinical area. It is a bio-ceramic powder synthesized by using different bio-waste materials such as bovine femur bone. In this study, the bovine femur bone powder was prepared to obtain nano powder. The purpose of this study was to reach the optimal temperature to obtain nanoparticles HAp. The resulted powder was calcinated in a furnace at different temperatures (900, 950, 1000, 1050 and 1100 °C) for 2 h at the heating rate of 10 °C/min and cooled slowly in a furnace. Results showed, the formation of pure HAp by the presence of peaks corresponding to (PO4)3- at 632/cm and OH- at 3,572/cm in fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). For the calcined samples, there were three main peaks of 211, 112 and 300 planes at near 31.8, 32.2 and 32.9 respectively. The amorphous raw bones were transformed into crystalline phase and the lattice parameters for HAp c and a were calculated in X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman analysis showed that the calcination process removed the organic compound from the bovine femur bones matrix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) showed that the shape of the granules was irregular, containing quantities of oxygen, magnesium, sodium and carbon; the ratio of calcium to phosphate was calculated, Atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that the particles sizes ranged from nanometers to microns. EDX result found that the calcium to phosphate ratio reached 1.7058 after calcination at 950 °C which was close to stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (1.67). This result implied the formation of pure HAp phase at 950 °C.