Hydroxyapatite is one of the most common bio-ceramic materials which is currently used in the biomedical field. The development of hydroxyapatite is due to their crystallographic and chemical similarity to the hard tissue of human body. The present study aims to prepare hydroxyapatite from a bio-waste material (carp fish bone) as an eco-friendly and inexpensive source by calcination treatment. The calcination process was applied at various calcining temperatures; the heating rate was kept constant at 10 °C min−1. FTIR results proved the formation of hydroxyapatite at 950 °C due to the founding peaks corresponding to phosphate (632 cm−1) and hydroxyl (3572 cm−1). XRD analysis confirmed the formation of HAp at 950 °C by the presence three main peaks: (211), (112), and (300), which correspond to the characteristic peaks of hydroxyapatite. Raman analyses which displayed the calcining process remove organic components from a bones matrix. AFM showed that the size of particles is ranged between nano and microns. EDS analysis found that the Ca/P reaches 1.6589 for fish bone after calcination at 950 °C, which is close to stoichiometric HAp (1.67).
The main objective of this study is to produce hydroxyapatite from the bio-waste Iraqi carp fish bone) Cyprinus carpio L. Fish) by easy, and economical low-cost method, as well as investigate the effects of the calcining temperature on the characterization of hydroxyapatite and determinate the optimal temperature to obtain pure HAp.
This study showed that fish bone can be used as a natural material for preparing the hydroxyapatite at different calcination temperature and can be considered. The calcination process is a smart way to produce pure hydroxyapatite by ranging the temperature. FTIR, XRD, and Raman spectra results exposed that the calcination of fish bone powder at 900 °C and above could eliminate organic and proteins substances and produce the crystalline natural HAp, and by the SEM results appeared that the grains size was increased, at 950 °C obtained the best results because of the calcium to phosphor ratio was 1.6589 is approximately near to the stoichiometric-hydroxyapatite ratio Ca/P: 1.67. Values of lattice parameters are as follows: c = 0.68578 nm and a = 0.93840 nm near to the standard values of c = 0.6884 nm and a = 0.9418 nm. AFM results showed that through increasing the calcination temperature, the crystalline size would increase.Prof. Dr. Eng Ali Sabea Hammood, PhD