Role of saliva in contributing as a biomarker and its tremendous role as a sensitive diagnostic tool for oral, systemic, and infectious diseases. Its diagnostic roles are expecting to contribute to future pandemic control as well. The diagnostic prospective of saliva is reflected by the presence of multiple biomarkers which appears at a concentration much lesser than blood and still parallel in reflecting the body’s health and wellbeing. An outbreak of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease) is emerging and rapidly spreading worldwide. Saliva stands at the entry of the respiratory system and was also found COVID-19 nucleic acid positive. Saliva is gaining importance day by day and is functionally equivalent to the serum maintaining a physiological state of the body, including hormonal, emotional, nutritional, and metabolic variations.
Studies have shown that saliva is a potential diagnostic tool for the identification and analysis of several biomarkers in infants, children, adults, and uncooperative patients. With the advent of improved efficiency and accuracy of proteomic, genomic, transcriptome analysis salivary diagnostics turn into a clinical and commercial reality. Advanced molecular technique PCR led to the use of saliva as a source of microbial DNA for the detection of bacteria and viruses. Saliva is increasingly used in DNA analysis as it serves as a useful source of biomarker profiling of oral or systemic diseases, and forensic identification. DNA tests are also a method of detection of HIV infection by recognizing the viral sequences in total salivary DNA amplifying by PCR. Several pathogens and microbiota are also detected by this analysis. The potential advantages of salivary analysis for the diagnosis of systemic disease suggest that further studies are warranted. Recently, new methods have been developed for the collection of saliva-based on the modification of the old expectoration techniques. Noninvasive nature, less hazardous and secure to health care workers, salivary specimen collection for diagnosis of various diseases, and including pandemic coronavirus disease has more advantages and acceptable for patients.
The multifunctional roles of Saliva incur importance in today’s life with its requisite advantages over other body fluids because salivary diagnostics offers an easy, inexpensive, painless, and stress-free approach to disease detection. Whether saliva occurs in the large or small volume, recognition should be given to the many contributions it makes to the preservation and maintenance of better health from various infectious diseases/disorders. Early saliva diagnosis remains limited but promising, because of the improved efficiency of genomic and proteomic technologies which can prevent transmission of infections exhibit pandemic control.madhusudhan kempaiah siddaiah
Int. J. Drug Res. Dental Sci.