Clinical Characteristics of Patients with COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia - A Single Center Experience

Overview

Abstract Background Saudi Arabia announced its first case of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) on March 2, 2020. We report relevant clinical features and outcome of 51 patients admitted with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 infection. Methods This is a retrospective review of consecutive patients admitted with diagnosis of COVID-19 confirmed by Real Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Clinical, laboratory, radiology and treatment outcome data were obtained by reviewing electronic medical record. Results Median (Q1, Q3) age was 49 (30, 66) years and twenty-eight (55%) patients were female. The most common symptoms were cough (69%), fatigue (67%), fever (63%), Anorexia (37%), headache (29%) and dyspnea (27%). Thirty (59%) patients had mild disease while 21 (41%) were categorized as severe. The most notable laboratory findings were lymphopenia, high neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and elevated levels of C-reactive protein, ferritin and D-dimer. Twenty-three (45%) patients had normal chest imaging, 6 (12%) had focal and 22 (43%) bilateral opacities. Forty-four (86%) patients received combination of azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine, 14 (27%) antiviral Lopinavir/Ritonavir (Kaletra) and Ribavirin, either alone or in combination and 24 (47%) broad spectrum antibiotics. Seven (14%) patients were transferred to the intensive care unit. Three patients required invasive mechanical ventilation of which two had successful extubation. Two patients died of which one had "do not resuscitate order" and was not intubated. Thirty-five (69%) patients recovered. Mean (± SD) duration of time to negative COVID-19 RT-PCR from symptom onset was 21 (± 7.3) days. Conclusion This is the first study of COVID-19 cohort in Saudi Arabia. Cough, fatigue, fever, anorexia, headache and dyspnea were the most common symptoms. Twenty-one (41%) patients had severe disease. Thirty-five (69%) patient recovered and there were 2 (4%) deaths.

Summary

First data on clinical features and risk factors for severe disease in COVID-19 patients in a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia

Author Comments

Sarfraz Saleemi, MD,MRCP,FCCP
Sarfraz Saleemi, MD,MRCP,FCCP
King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre
Dr
Pulmonary Hypertension
Riyadh, Riyadh | Saudi Arabia
First insight into demographic and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients in Saudi ArabiaSarfraz Saleemi, MD,MRCP,FCCP

Resources

ORCID
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6996-6490

Clinical Characteristics of Patients with COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia - A Single Center Experience

Research and Reviews of Infectious Diseases

Saleemi S, Alhajji M, Almaghrabi R, et al. (2020) Clinical Characteristics of Patients with COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia - A Single Center Experience. Res Rev Infect Dis 3(1):68-74

Clinical Characteristics of Patients with COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia - A Single Center ExperienceAbstractBackgroundSaudi Arabia announced its first case of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) on March 2, 2020. We report relevant clinical features and outcome of 51 patients admitted with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 infection.MethodsThis is a retrospective review of consecutive patients admitted with diagnosis of COVID-19 confirmed by Real Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Clinical, laboratory, radiology and treatment outcome data were obtained by reviewing electronic medical record.ResultsMedian (Q1, Q3) age was 49 (30, 66) years and twenty-eight (55%) patients were female. The most common symptoms were cough (69%), fatigue (67%), fever (63%), Anorexia (37%), headache (29%) and dyspnea (27%). Thirty (59%) patients had mild disease while 21 (41%) were categorized as severe. The most notable laboratory findings were lymphopenia, high neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and elevated levels of C-reactive protein, ferritin and D-dimer. Twenty-three (45%) patients had normal chest imaging, 6 (12%) had focal and 22 (43%) bilateral opacities. Forty-four (86%) patients received combination of azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine, 14 (27%) antiviral Lopinavir/Ritonavir (Kaletra) and Ribavirin, either alone or in combination and 24 (47%) broad spectrum antibiotics. Seven (14%) patients were transferred to the intensive care unit. Three patients required invasive mechanical ventilation of which two had successful extubation. Two patients died of which one had "do not resuscitate order" and was not intubated. Thirty-five (69%) patients recovered. Mean (± SD) duration of time to negative COVID-19 RT-PCR from symptom onset was 21 (± 7.3) days.ConclusionThis is the first study of COVID-19 cohort in Saudi Arabia. Cough, fatigue, fever, anorexia, headache and dyspnea were the most common symptoms. Twenty-one (41%) patients had severe disease. Thirty-five (69%) patient recovered and there were 2 (4%) deaths.KeywordsCOVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Infection, Polymerase chain reaction, Chest imaging
June 2020
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