Subtle Poisonous Effects of Extracts of Raphia Palm or Wine Palm on the Reproductive Capacity of Mud-catfish


As beneficial as Raphia palm or Wine palm is, some ignorant fishermen have devised using it in harvesting fish from streams and rivers in large quantities. These fishermen actions, which seems harmless, has consequences on the overall well being of the different fish strains inhabiting such water bodies, unknown to these fisher-folks. This article therefore shows the outcome of the study carried out to check the effect of the methanolic extract of Raphia palm on the reproductive ability of mud-catfishes.


This article is important as it shows the non-physical consequences of the fishermen actions, which seems harmless, on the overall well being of the different fish strains inhabiting our water bodies. Likewise, this article also shows through the outcome of this study that such fishermen actions could have effect on the reproductive ability of mud-catfishes.

Author Comments

Dr Afolayan A, PhD
Dr Afolayan A, PhD
National Center for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology (NACGRAB)
Ecology and Environmental Biology
Ibadan, oyo | Nigeria
This study was inspired by one of my mentors, Prof. Aina Adeogun, who supervised my B.Sc. degree project and encouraged me to study the Raphia Palm. The inspiration of using mud-catfishes was birthed during my industrial training at Oyo State Ministry of Agriculture and while being trained along with my friend Festus Adigun Ekunola. These two great minds spurs me to think and design this research, which have turned out to be life-saver to the fish-fauna populations of Most Nigerian wetlands. Thus, I hope this article makes people become more cautious of what they might think is harmless and relate responsibly with the environment and its' resources. Dr Afolayan A, PhD

Sublethal Effects of Methanolic Extract of Raphia hookeri on the Reproductive Capacity of Clarias gariepinus

Hindawi Publishing Corporation. Advances in Zoology

Adedotun O. Afolayan, Temitope I. Borokini, and Gloria O. Afolayan. Sublethal Effects of Methanolic Extract of Raphia hookeri on the Reproductive Capacity of Clarias gariepinus. Hindawi Publishing Corporation Advances in Zoology Volume 2014, Article ID 615908, 10 pages

Raphia hookeri fruits are used for fishing in Nigeria due to their ichthyotoxic properties. This study investigated the toxic effects of R. hookeri on the reproductive capacity of Clarias gariepinus. The results from both short-term (96-hour test) and long-term (3-month sublethal test) bioassays revealed a linear relationship between R. hookeri extract dose and negative effects on the catfish. The percentage survival of both sexes of the catfish decreased with increasing extract concentration at short-term exposure, with LC50 values of 600 mg/L and 800 mg/L for male and female, respectively. At long-term exposure, the reproductive capacity of 10–12- month-old male and female brood-stocks diminished at relatively higher concentrations of R. hookeri fruit extract, with the gravid females producing fewer and mostly unviable eggs. The fruit extract also affected the eggs’ hatchability and fry survival when the exposed gravid females were treated with pituitary hormone and sperms from unexposed males, while the exposed males were unable to sexually stimulate female brooders. Sperms and pituitary hormone from exposed males were infertile, leading to low percentage of hatched eggs and mortality of the few hatched fries within 24 hours. These results confirmed the ethnobotanical use of this fruit extract for fishing in Nigeria.
November 2014
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