American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Adedotun Onoyinka Afolayan, Amusat Titilayo Hassan. Lead, Cadmium and Iron Concentrations in Zea Mays Grown Within the Vicinity of Ori-Ile Battery Waste Dumpsite, Olodo, Ibadan, Nigeria. American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. Vol. 5, No. 5, 2017, pp. 92-103. doi: 10.11648/j.bio.20170505.
Agricultural produce resulting from the cultivation of polluted soil can result in undue exposure and health
hazards for its consumers at different level along the food chain. Available literature has shown that maize absorbs and
accumulates toxic heavy metals from polluted soils. This study was designed to determine the concentration of lead (Pb),
cadmium (Cd) and iron (Fe) within the leaf, stem, grains and root of maize grown on Ori-Ile battery waste dumpsite, Olodo,
Ibadan Nigeria. Soil samples were collected every two months (March 2008 to July 2009) from the waste dumpsite and along
the direction of the garden at 5m interval from the edge of the waste dump site. To determine the levels of uptake and
accumulation of Pb, Cd, and Fe, maize was planted in a nearby house garden, situated within 25m distance away from the
waste dumpsite and the root, stem, leaf and grains were harvested at maturity. All soil samples collected and the harvested
maize parts were analysed for Pb, Cd, and Fe. Concentrations of Pb, Cd and Fe in soil were found to range from 3265.8±517.8
to 4351.3±1068.2; 163.96±23.2 to 258.38±123.1; 7712.90±473.8 to 8130.00±808.4 mg/kg respectively. These were
significantly higher than values obtained from the reference soil (157.0±39.8, 2.2±1.2, 976.3±353.9 mg/kg respectively) and
National Environmental Standard Regulation Agency (NESREA) limits (164mgPb/kg and 50mgCd/kg). Also, soil
contamination factor values obtained were greater than 6 and this indicated severe contamination. Concentrations of Pb, Cd
and Fe in maize-parts were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than those cultivated on the reference site soil. Roots had the highest
concentration of Pb (40.95±1.98 mg/L) and Cd (2.84±0.19 mg/L). In all maize-parts, bio-accumulation factor of the heavy
metals was less than 1. Overall, these results have shown that the levels of metals in soil were several folds above the limits set
by NESREA. Also, the range within the analysed plant parts was above the normal limit recommended for plants. High
accumulation of heavy metals found in the soils of Ori-Ile battery waste dumpsite, Olodo, Ibadan bio-accumulated in maizeroots.
Therefore, maize root is actively involved in phyto extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils.