Accumulation of heavy metals from battery waste in Top layer of soils, stream water and corn at omilende area, Olodo, Ibadan, Nigeria


When the soil, water and grown corn or maize at Omilende area of Olodo was checked for poisonous heavy metals, it was found out that the selected heavy metals being checked are present in large toxic amount in the different samples.


This research findings has shown that the constant indiscriminate disposal of industrial wastes like battery components have detrimental impact on living organisms while bio-accumulating in the non-living but essential components of our environment. The overall effect of the super-abundance of heavy metal is eco-tocixity and ill-health. Thus, it is important to create awareness through research studies of this type.

Author Comments

Dr Afolayan A, PhD
Dr Afolayan A, PhD
National Center for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology (NACGRAB)
Ecology and Environmental Biology
Ibadan, oyo | Nigeria
Writing this article was a great pleasure as it serves as a great eye opener on the consequences of the mismanagement of different environmental component and the resultant accumulative effect on the food chain.Dr Afolayan A, PhD


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Accumulation of Heavy Metals from Battery Waste in Topsoil, Surface Water, and Garden Grown Maize at Omilende Area, Olodo, Nigeria.

Afolayan A. O.

Global Challenges (Hoboken, NJ)

Afolayan AO. Accumulation of Heavy Metals from Battery Waste in Topsoil, Surface Water, and Garden Grown Maize at Omilende Area, Olodo, Nigeria. Global Challenges (Hoboken, NJ). 2018 Mar;2(3):1700090. DOI: 10.1002/gch2.201700090.

Full paper 1700090 (1 of 12) © 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim Accumulation of Heavy Metals from Battery Waste in Topsoil, Surface Water, and Garden Grown Maize at Omilende Area, Olodo, Nigeria Adedotun Onoyinka Afolayan Dr. A. O. Afolayan, Tissue Culture/Biotechnology Unit National Centre for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology P.M.B. 5382, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Oyo State +234-02, Nigeria E-mail: DOI: 10.1002/gch2.201700090 Numerous industrial activities, including automobile battery production, have often resulted in the accumulation of noxious metals in the environment,[3–7] and the discharge of heavy metals as a by-product of these activities has been accompanied by largescale soil pollution.[7,8] Heavy metals tend to persist in the environment indefinitely[9] and get accumulated over time in soils, water sediments, and plants. Hence, they could have a negative influence on physiological activities of plants, determining the reductions in plant growth, dry matter accumulation, and yield.[10] Excessive accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural soils often leads to elevated heavy metal uptake by crops, and thus affects food quality and safety.[11] Food chain contamination is one of the important pathways for the entry of toxic pollutants into the human body,[12] and the consumption of heavy-metal-contaminated food can seriously deplete some essential nutrients in the body which are further responsible for decreasing immunological defenses, intrauterine growth retardation, impaired psychosocial faculties, disabilities associated with malnutrition, and high prevalence of upper gastrointestinal cancer rates.[13,14] Heavy metal accumulation in plants depends upon plant species, and the efficiency of different plants in absorbing metals is evaluated by either plant uptake or soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) of the metals.[15] Some of the heavy metals such as Pb and Cd are toxic to plants and animals, even in trace concentrations,[16] and exposure to some of them is normally chronic due to food chain transfer.[17] Pb and Cd have been found to inhibit plant growth, disturb ion uptake and transport, as well as inhibit enzyme activation and photosynthesis.[18,19] Fe is essential for many plant functions[20] but is toxic when it accumulates to high levels. Excess Fe can result in dark green foliage, stunted growth of tops and roots, dark brown to purple leaves in some plants.[20] Emissions of heavy metals to the environment occur via a wide range of processes and pathways, including air, surface water, and soil, and subsequently, ground water and crops.[21] Surface water can be polluted by contaminants that are washed into it from a nearby polluted site.[21] Remediation of soil contamination by conventional engineering techniques is often a very expensive procedure. This is Land pollution is a threat to sustainable agricultural development and food security in developing countries. Consumption of farm products from contaminated areas can generate health hazards to the diverse consumers along the food chain through the different pollutants in the products. This study is designed to determine the accumulation of Pb, Cd, and Fe in topsoil, surface water, and maize leaf, stem, grains, and root, cultivated in a garden nearby Ori-Ile battery waste dumpsite, Omilende Area, Olodo, Nigeria. Soil samples, garden maize parts, and surface water samples are collected from the study area using standard procedures. Corresponding reference samples are collected from Moor Plantation, Ibadan. All collected samples are analysed for Pb, Cd, and Fe concentrations. Mean Pb, Cd, and Fe concentrations in topsoil are found to be significantly higher than 157.0 ± 39.8, 2.2 ± 1.2, and 976.3 ± 353.9 mg kg−1, respectively, which are obtained from reference soil and National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency limits (Pb: 164 mg kg−1 and Cd: 50 mg kg−1). The soil contamination factor values obtained are greater than 6, indicating severe pollution. Downstream has the highest Pb, Cd, and Fe concentrations. In maize parts, the root has the highest concentration of Pb (40.95 ± 1.98 mg L−1) and Cd (2.84 ± 0.19 mg L−1), which are significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) than those from the reference site. A high concentration of heavy metals found in topsoil further bio-accumulates in maize parts. Consequently, this garden maize is unfit for consumption. Heavy Metal Pollution © 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The ORCID identification number(s) for the author(s) of this article can be found under
February 2018
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