This study aims to synthesize and characterize hydroxyapatite (HAp) bio-ceramic powder. Calcination treatment was applied to produce the hydroxyapatite powders from Camelus bone as an eco-friendly and inexpensive source. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were carried out to characterize the synthesized powder. XRD results showed that material obtained at calcination temperature (1000 °C) is a HAp according to (ICDD 00-024-0033) pattern in a 1.6557 Ca/P molar ratio and the chemical composition is Ca5(PO4)3(OH). The FTIR and Raman spectra confirm the formation of HAp by the presence of peaks corresponding to (PO4)3− and OH− groups, which are of great importance in HAp molecules. The experimental results of FESEM and AFM showed that the shape of the hydroxyapatite particles was irregular with the particle size ranging from 79 nm to 0.9 μm.
The research discusses the microstructure and surface morphology, grain shape and size as well as a distribution of grains, and phases of hydroxyapatite. The utilization of Camelus bone as biomaterial will add great value to such bio-waste materials. So far, no information about the calcination of Camelus bones has been reported.
1- From these results, hydroxyapatite-based of camel origin has a good performance which makes them practical in biomedical material products. 2. The calcination process at 1000 °C produced phase-pure crystalline HAp with irregular particles shape and the size ranged from 79 nm to 0.9 μm with trace amounts of C, O, Na, and Mg with Ca/P molar ratio = 1.6557. 3. FTIR and Raman analysis showed that the calcination process removes the organic compound from the bone matrix and confirmed, the formation of HAp by the presence of peaks corresponding to (PO4)3− and OH− groups which are of great importance in a range of HAp molecules.Prof. Dr. Eng Ali Sabea Hammood, PhD
Journal of the Australian Ceramic Society