Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a bioactive material that forms the main mineral part of teeth, hard tissues, and bone in humans. The goal of the present study is to prepare hydroxyapatite from bio-waste materials such as fish bone and bovine femur bone at different calcination temperatures, selecting the optimal calcination temperatures and then comparing these with commercial nano-HAp. The HAp was synthesized from the bio-waste materials by a calcination process in a thermal dry and fire furnace with different calcination temperatures, heating rates and cooling rates all carefully controlled. The best results were obtained at 950°C since, at this temperature, the Ca/P ratio reached 1.6589 for fish bone and 1.7058 for bovine femur bone, which is close to the commercial stoichiometric nano-HAp ratio of 1.67.
The aim of this work is to prepare HAp from various bio-waste materials, such as fish bone and bovine femur bone, and to use the exact characterization of the resultant powders to determine the optimum temperature for calcination, comparing the results of the calcinated bio-waste material with commercial nano-HAp
This study shows that natural HAp can be obtained from fish bones and bovine femur bones through calcination at temperatures of 950C. FTIR and XRD results revealed that calcination of fish bone and bovine femur bone powders at 900C and above could produce organic-free and crystalline natural HAp. SEM results revealed that the grain size increased with temperature, and that the best results were obtained at 950C because the Ca/P ratio at this temperature was 1.6589 for fish bones, and 1.7058 for bovine femur bones, which is close to the ratio for commercial stoichiometric nano-HAp (Ca/P:1.67). The values of a and c for fish bone and bovine bone were near to the values of standard values of HAp. Overall, the results showed that biowaste materials (fish bone and bovine femur bone) calcinated at 950C could create micro-HAp that was approximately similar to commercial nano- HAp.Prof. Dr. Eng Ali Sabea Hammood, PhD