Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. has been used in the traditional medicine of Brazil for centuries to treat a wide range of conditions, including infections, wounds and inflammation. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of C. langsdorffii bark oleoresin and a methanolic extract of the fruit for their anti-Helicobacter pylori (HP) activity and gastroprotective effects. We analyzed the in vitro anti-HP activity against three HP strains: CCUG 39500 (cagAþ) and two clinical isolates, G21 and 10 K (cagA þ and cagA-, respectively). The effect of C. langsdorffii products on IL-6 release in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was also evaluated. Finally, the toxicity of the samples was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Both the samples showed an interesting anti-HP activity, acting on different virulence strains, with the oleoresin reaching a minimum bactericidal concentration of 98 lg/ml against cagA-strain. Moreover, an interesting reduction in IL-6 release was observed, which could be helpful for reducing HP-induced inflammation, thus, preventing complications such as ulcer and irritation of the gastric mucosa. Toxicity was not observed up to 2000 mg/ml. Even if more studies must be conducted , this work supports the use of C. langsdorffii in the management of HP-related gastric disorders.