J Cancer Sci Ther 2012 Apr;4(4):94-101
Departments of Urology and Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine and The Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.
TMPRSS2-Ets gene fusions were identified in prostate cancers where the promoter of transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) fused with coding sequence of the erythroblastosis virus E26 (Ets) gene family members. TMPRSS2 is an androgen responsive transmembrane serine protease. Ets family members are oncogenic transcription factors that contain a highly conserved Ets DNA binding domain and an N-terminal regulatory domain.Fusion of these gene results in androgen dependent transcription of Ets factor in prostate tumor cells. The ERG is the most common fusion partner with TMPRSS2 promoter in prostate cancer patients. The high prevalence of these gene fusions, in particular TMPRSS2-ERG, makes them attractive as potential diagnostic and prognostic indicators, as well as making them a potential target for tailored therapies.This review focuses on the clinical and biological significance of TMPRSS2-ERG fusions and their role in PC development and progression.