We examined the conversational skills of 2 adult males with severe motor and speech deficits resulting from cerebral palsy. A multiple baseline design across subjects was used to determine the effectiveness of an intervention strategy designed to teach them to use an augmentative communication system (Touch Talker) independently. The dependent measure was the number of conversation initiations relative to conversation reactions during spontaneous communication across baseline and treatment. The treatment included specific training on using the augmentative system to participate in communication. Once the intervention began, the production of conversation initiations accelerated at a rapid rate. The treatment program was effective in training the subjects to use the augmentative system to increase conversation participation. These results demonstrate that training on the operation of the device alone is not sufficient to ensure improvement in conversation performance, and that it is important to incorporate direct conversational treatment when providing instruction on the use of augmentative communication systems for severely speech-impaired individuals.