Endogenous viral elements in animal genomes.

PLoS Genet 2010 Nov 18;6(11):e1001191. Epub 2010 Nov 18.

Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Integration into the nuclear genome of germ line cells can lead to vertical inheritance of retroviral genes as host alleles. For other viruses, germ line integration has only rarely been documented. Nonetheless, we identified endogenous viral elements (EVEs) derived from ten non-retroviral families by systematic in silico screening of animal genomes, including the first endogenous representatives of double-stranded RNA, reverse-transcribing DNA, and segmented RNA viruses, and the first endogenous DNA viruses in mammalian genomes. Phylogenetic and genomic analysis of EVEs across multiple host species revealed novel information about the origin and evolution of diverse virus groups. Furthermore, several of the elements identified here encode intact open reading frames or are expressed as mRNA. For one element in the primate lineage, we provide statistically robust evidence for exaptation. Our findings establish that genetic material derived from all known viral genome types and replication strategies can enter the animal germ line, greatly broadening the scope of paleovirological studies and indicating a more significant evolutionary role for gene flow from virus to animal genomes than has previously been recognized.

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2987831PMC
November 2010
32 Reads

Publication Analysis

Top Keywords

animal genomes
12
viral elements
8
endogenous viral
8
diverse virus
4
groups elements
4
virus groups
4
origin evolution
4
revealed novel
4
novel origin
4
elements identified
4
evolution diverse
4
encode intact
4
frames expressed
4
expressed mrna
4
reading frames
4
open reading
4
species revealed
4
intact open
4
identified encode
4
eves multiple
4

Similar Publications