Dement Geriatr Cogn Dis Extra 2013 Jan 2;3(1):212-22. Epub 2013 Jul 2.
Department of Neurology, Chubu Rosai Hospital, Nagoya, Japan.
Background/aims: In recent years, the relationship between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cognitive impairment has been attracting attention. Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is also associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. However, it is still unknown whether CKD markers are associated with cognitive impairment independently of SVD in elderly diabetic patients.
Methods: Seventy-nine type 2 diabetic patients (mean age, 76.0 years) were enrolled in the present study. CKD was defined as the presence of albuminuria and/or a low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). SVD was evaluated by the presence and severity of silent brain infarcts (SBIs) and white matter lesions (WMLs) on brain magnetic resonance imaging. Neuropsychological tests were assessed using four validated cognitive instruments.
Results: In multiple linear regression analyses, albuminuria was associated with worse modified Stroop Color Word scores (β = 0.284, p = 0.017) and low eGFR was associated with reduced Digit Symbol Substitution scores (β = -0.224, p = 0.026) after adjustment for age, sex, education years, diabetes duration, hypertension, multiple SBIs, and advanced WMLs. In contrast, there were no significant associations between CKD markers and Mini-Mental State Examination or Word Recall scores.
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that albuminuria and low eGFR are associated with frontal lobe dysfunction independently of SVD in elderly type 2 diabetic patients.