J Nat Prod 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.
Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Núcleo de Investigações Químico-Farmacêuticas (NIQFAR), Universidade do Vale do Itajaí, UNIVALI, Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil.
Our previous study showed that kaempferitrin, the main flavonoid from Link leaves, induces diuresis and saluresis when orally given to rats. Since afzelin (AFZ) and kaempferol (KFL) are active compounds from the biometabolism of kaempferitrin, the diuretic and renal protective properties of these two compounds were evaluated. While the acute treatment with AFZ evoked a diuretic action associated with an increase in Cl excretion and a Ca-sparing effect, KFL did not present any activity. The pretreatment with a muscarinic receptor blocker or with an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase fully avoided AFZ-induced diuresis. AFZ also induced a prolonged (7-day treatment) diuretic effect in normotensive (NTR) and hypertensive rats (SHR), with an increase of urinary Na and Cl excretion, while it decreased the elimination of Ca. AFZ was able to decrease ROS and nitrite generation on kidney homogenates in comparison with the SHR group treated with the vehicle, as well as mitigated the changes in the renal corpuscle region (glomerulus and Bowman's capsule). Moreover, AFZ significantly reduced calcium oxalate crystal formation in urine, with inhibition rates of 41% for the NTR and 92% for the SHR group. Taken together, this study shows that AFZ exerts acute and prolonged diuretic effects plus protective renal properties.