J Prosthet Dent 2020 Mar 17. Epub 2020 Mar 17.
Full Professor, Multidisciplinary Department of Medical-Surgical and Dental Specialties, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Naples, Italy.
Statement Of Problem: How the properties of the implant-abutment unit may affect the peri-implant soft-tissue seal, whose stability is considered key to safeguarding the implant from bacterial contamination and preserve peri-implant health conditions, is unclear.
Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis of animal studies was to investigate whether material and surface properties of transmucosal implant components can influence the peri-implant soft-tissue adhesion at a histological level.
Material And Methods: An electronic and hand search was conducted until August 2019. Histological animal studies comparing soft-tissue response to abutment or transmucosal collar with different materials and/or surface characteristics were selected by 2 independent reviewers. Risk of bias in individual studies was evaluated. Histomorphometric data on the dimension of the peri-implant attachment were recorded, and a quantitative synthesis by a meta-analysis was performed. Risk of bias in individual studies was evaluated in accordance with the Systematic Review Centre for Laboratory Animal Experimentation Risk of Bias tool.
Results: Eighteen relevant studies out of 1187 were identified, none with a low risk of bias for all domains. Data from only 4 studies could be meta-analyzed. Comparable results in terms of peri-implant attachment dimensions between test and control groups were found, except for a significantly higher apical junctional epithelium to coronal bone to implant (ajE-CBI) distance for chemically modified acid-etched compared with titanium machined surfaces. Non-meta-analyzable and/or qualitative results highlighted some improved properties also for microgrooved and oxidized surfaces.
Conclusions: Limited data from animal studies suggest that some characteristics of the transmucosal implant components may affect peri-implant soft-tissue adhesion and stabilization but do not allow definitive conclusions. Future research should improve study design to increase the availability of comparable and suitable data on this topic.